Top of page: a Neotenic female Xenos vesparum




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Top of page: a) Neotenic female Xenos vesparum Rossi. Scale bar = 0.8mm

b) Male Xenos vesparum Rossi. Scale bar = 0.8mm.

c) SEM of male Xenos vesparum Rossi.

Fig. 1. Delphacid female with three female Elenchus varleyi cephalothoraxes (arrows) Kathirithamby x 44.

[Invertebrate Taxonomy 3, pg. 182, 1989]
Fig. 2. Frontal view of male Elenchus tenuicornis (Kirby) x510.

[Kathirithamby]


Fig. 3. Male Elenchus tenuicornis (Kirby) emerging from Javesella dubia (Kirschbaum) (Delphacidae) x103.

[Systematic Entomology 14, pg. 48, 1989]


Fig. 4. Male Stylops pacificus Bohart mating with female endoparasitic in a Andrena complexa Viereck (Hymneoptera) x12.

(photograph by Ross)

[International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 27, pg. 1, 1998]
Fig. 5. 5μm section of integument in the region of the apron in female Stichotrema dallatorreanum Hofeneder showing microvillate cells (arrow head) and peritrophic matrix (arrow) x32.

[Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128, pg. 278, 2000]

Fig 6. Neotenic female Stichotrema dallatorreanum Hofeneder. Diagrammatic representation of a longitudinal section revealing the 4th instar unshed cuticle which is sclerotised anteriorly as the cephalothorax (cp) and collar (co), posteriorly as a thin unscleroticed cuticle (ep). The neotenic female (neo) lies within this persistent cuticle. The region of the apron is on the ventral region (v) of the cephalothorax (cp), consisting of a cuticle analogous to the peritrophic matrix (pm). The ectoperitrophic space (ecp) lined with microvilli (mv). And the anterior abdominal segments hve invaginations (in) that lead into the female body cavity. The endoperitrophic space (enp) in the host hemocoel. The dotted line indicates the margin of the host cuticle with dorsal (d) and ventral (v) sides of the neotenic female.

[Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128, pg. 273, 2000]


Fig. 7. Neotenic female Stichotrema dallatorreanum Hofeneder with cephalothorax (arrow) and apron (arrow head) scale bar= 5mm.

[Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 144, pg. 188, 2001]


Fig. 8. SEM of 1st instar larva of Stichotrema dallatorreanum Hofeneder emerging from an invagination/genital tube into the brood canal.

[Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128, pg. 274, 2000]


Fig. 9. Cephalothorax of neotenic female of Stichotrema dallatorreanum Hofeneder with emerging 1st instar larvae (arrow head). Scale bar = 0.4mm.

[Kathirithamby]


Fig. 10. Unstylopised male Sogetella furcifera Horváth with normal external genitalia (arrow) x 43.

[International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 27, pg. 41, 1998].


Fig.11. Stylopised male Sogetella furcifera Horváth with absence of external genitalia (arrow) indicating the presence of endoparasitic Elenchus japonicus Esaki & Hashimoto x 33.

(Photographs taken in Professor Maeta’s lab in Matsue)

[International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 27, pg. 41, 1998].
Fig. 12. SEM of a) mature egg from unstylopised Segestidea novaeguineae (Brancsik) b) egg from stylopised Segestidea novaeguineae with bulbous protrusion (arrow). Bar line = 1 mm.

[International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology27, pg. 42, 1998].


Fig. 13. Female Stichotrema waterhousi Kathirithamby (arrow) parasitic in Paracaedicia sp. (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Scale bar= 12mm

[Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 144, pg. 193, 2001].


Fig. 14. SEM of stylopised minor worker of Pheidole sp. (arrow – broken cap of male cephalotheca).

[Journal of Entomology of South Africa 54, pg. 103, 1991]


Fig. 15. Sogatella furcifera Horváth stylopised by pupa of Elenchus japonicus Esaki & Hashimoto (arrow). Arrow head indicates the absence of external genitalia. x47. (Photograph taken in Professor Maeta’s lab in Matsue)

[Kathirithamby]


Fig. 16. Posterior view of abdomen of Prutista mresta (Westwood) stylopised by two empty male puparia (arrow) and a neotenic female (arrow head) of Halictophagus palmae Kathirithamby & Ponnamma. Scale bar= 0.4mm.

[Journal of South Asian Natural History 5, pg. 2000]


Fig. 17. SEM of abdomen of Solenopsis invicta Bruen with male cephalotheca. Top arrow – puparium with unemerged male within, bottom arrow- empty male puparia with broken cap.

[Kathirithamby]


Fig. 18. Female cephalothoraxes (arrows) in abdomen of Segestidea novaeguineae (Brancsik).

[MSc. Thesis, University of Oxford – T. Solulu 1996]


Fig. 19. Dissected Segestidea novaeguineae (Brancsik) showing two endoparasitc female Stichotrema dallatorreanum Hofeneder (arrows). Female with 1st instar larvae (black), with developing embryos (white).

[MSc. Thesis, University of Oxford – T. Solulu 1996]


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