The legend to the forests’ map Mountain forests Dark coniferous forests Fir-tree forests




Дата канвертавання17.04.2016
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The legend to the forests’ map

Mountain forests
Dark coniferous forests
Fir-tree forests
1.   Fir-tree (Abies sibirica) forests with tall herbaceous (Delphinium elatum, Heracleum dissectum, Anemonoides altaica, Bupleurum longifolium) cover, rarely with moss cover, locally in combination with woody meadows.

2. Small leaved – fir-tree (Abies sibirica) forests with tall herbaceous cover (Delphinium elatum, Heracleum dissectum, Anemonoides altaica, Bupleurum longifolium) and small-leaved (Betula pendula, Populus tremula) forests.
Forests of Tien-Shanian spruce
3. Open prostrate juniper – spruce forests (Picea schrenkiana, Juniperus pseudosabina).

4. Spruce (Picea schrenkiana) forests with shrubs, herbaceous and moss cover (Thuidium abietinum, Hylocomium proliferum) in combination with tall grass meadows; locally with fir-tree (Abies semenovii) in West Tien Shan and Dzungarsky Alatau.

5. Leaved – spruce (Picea schrenkiana) forests with Malus sieversii, species of g. Acer in West Tien Shan and with Acer semenovii, Populus tremula in North Tien Shan in combination with tall grass meadows and steppes.

Light coniferous forests
Forests of Siberian larch
6. Pine – larch open woodlands (Larix sibirica, Pinus sibirica) with herbaceous cover.

7. Larch (Larix sibirica) forests with moss and dwarf birch (yernik) – moss cover (Polytrichum, Pleurozium, Hylocomium, Betula rotundifolia) with sparse fir-tree, pine and spruce.

8. Park-like communities of larch with herbaceous cover (Aconitum leucostomum, Thalictrum simplex, Paeonia anomala).

9. Birch- and aspen – larch (Larix sibirica) forests with herbaceous cover and shrubs.

10. Communities of larch (Larix sibirica) with herbaceous cover in combination with meadow steppes (Festuca valesiaca, Phleum phleoides, Stipa pennata, Filipendula hexapetala, Galium verum, Fragaria viridis) and shrubs (Rosa spinosissima).
Pine forests
11. Pine and pine – birch forests with litter, lichens and herbaceous cover (Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula, Cladonia alpestris, C. sylvatica, Cetraria islandica, Orthilia secunda, Festuca valesiaca).

12. Open woodlands of pine (Pinus sylvestris), also pine communities with herbaceous, moss and lichen cover (Cladonia alpestris, C. sylvatica, Cetraria islandica).



13. Pine communities wth shrub – herb (Spiraea media, Rosa acicularis, Caragana arborescens, Calamagrostis epigeios, Dactilis glomerata, Lathyrus humilis, Trifolium lupinaster, Sedum telephium) and herbaceous cover.

14. Communities of sparse pine with steppe elements (Festuca valesiaca, Thymus serpyllum, Medicago falcata, Artemisia sericea).

Open woodlands and forests of juniper

15. Shrub – juniper open woodlands (Juniperus turkestanica, J. semiglobosa, Lonicera microphylla, Rosa kokanica, Rosa nanothamnus, R. ecae, Ribes meyeri) with mountain xerophytes (Acantholimon velutinum, Onobrychis echidna, species of g. Cousinia).

16. Shrub – juniper (Juniperus semiglobosa, Lonicera tianschanica, Spiraea hypericifolia) open woodlands with meadow – steppe cover (Poa angustifolia, Festuca valesiaca, Dactylis glomerata, Phleum phleoides, Hypericum perforatum).

17. Shrub – juniper (Juniperus pseudosabina, J. semiglobosa, Rosa platya­can­tha, Spiraea lasiocarpa, Atragene sibirica) open woodlands.

18. Petrophytic open woodlands of juniper (Juniperus, turcomanica, Acer turcomanicum, Cotoneaster nummularius, species of g.g. Cerasus, Berberis, Ephedra) with grass – mountain xerophyte (species of g.g. Cousinia, Acantholimon, Melica, Achnatherum, Stipa caucasica, , Gypsophila aretioides) cover, often in combination with mountain xerophyte – grass communities.

19. Shrub – juniper (Juniperus turkestanica, J. semiglobosa, Rosa maracandica Rosa ecae, Ephedra gerardiana) open woodlands with mountain xerophytes (Acantholimon velutinum, Onobrychis echidna, Acantholimon erythreum).

20. Marple – juniper and juniper (Juniperus seravschanica, J. semiglobosa, Acer tur­kestanicum) open woodlands with shrubs (Rosa kokanica, Lonicera nummulariifolia, Cotoneaster seravschanicus, C. popovii, Ferula kuhistanica).

21. Forests and open woodlands of juniper (Juniperus seravschanica, Lonicera microphylla, Spiraea hypericifolia, Rosa kokanica, Cotoneaster soongoricus, Cerasus tianschanica, Ferula tenuisecta, F. рrangifolia), locally with Acer semenovii in combination with petrophytic shrubs and open woodland – shrub (Juniperus seravschanica, Spiraea hypericifolia, Crataegus turkestanica) communities.

22. Open woodlands (Juniperus turcomanica, Acer turcomanicum) and shrub (Cerasus microcarpa, Lonicera bracteolaris, Crataegus pseudo-azarolus) communities.

23. Open woodlands of shrub – juniper (Juniperus seravschanica, Rosa kokanica, Amygdalus bu­cha­rica, Cerasus erythrocarpa, species of g.g. Cotoneaster, Lonicera) and marple – juniper (Juniperus seravschanica, Acer turkestanicum) with shrubs (Rosa kokanica, Lonicera nummulariifolia).

24. Shrub – juniper open woodlands with Acer pubescens, Amygdalus bucharica, Astragalus bactrianus, Acantholimon seravschanicum, Artemisia glanduligera, locally with tall herbs (Ferula kuhistanica, Eremurus olgae).

25. Open woodlands with shrubs (Juniperus seravschanica, Acer semenovii, Celtis caucasica, Rosa maracandica, Amygdalus petunnikowii), locally with Megacarpaea gigantea, Cousinia chrysantha.

Broad-leaved forests and open woodlands

Walnut forests

26. Apple-tree – walnut (Juglans regia, Malus sieversii, Prunus divaricata, Lonicera nummulariifolia, species of g.g. Crataegus, Exochorda) and walnut – maple (Acer turkestanica, A. semenovii, Juglans regia) forests.

27. Walnut (Juglans regia, Malus sieversii, Prunus divaricata, species of g. Crataegus, Exochorda tianschanica, Crataegus turkestanica) forests.

Maple forests

28. Shrub – maple (Acer turkestanicum, Abelia corymbosa) forests.

29. Haw – maple (Acer turcomanicum, Crataegus pseudoambigua, C. tur­comanica) forests with Celtis caucasica, Punica granatum in combination with wheat grass communities and with broad-leaved forests in valleys.

30. Haw – maple (Acer pubescens, Crataegus pontica) forests with Amygdalus bucharica, Artemisia glanduligera and tall herbs.

31. Juniper – maple (Acer turkestanicum, A. regelii, Juniperus seravschanica) forests with shrubs (Lonicera nummulariifolia, Caragana turkestanica, Rosa kokanica) and ash – juniper – maple (Acer turkestanicum, Juniperus seravschanica, Fraxinus raibocarpa) forests.

Apple-tree forests

32. Haw – apple-tree (Malus sieversii, Crataegus pontica, C.turkestanica) and shrub – wild-fruit (Malus sieversii, Rosa platyacantha, R. beggeriana, Spiraea lasiocarpa, Cotoneaster melanocarpus, Berberis heteropoda) forests.

Open woodlands of haw

33. Open woodlands of haw (Crataegus pontica) with savannoid tall grass cover (Agropyron trichophorum, Hordeum bulbosum).

Open woodlands of pistachio

34. Open woodlands of pistachio: maple – pistachio (Pistacia vera, Acer regelii), almond – pistachio (Pistacia vera, Amyg­dalus bucharica, Cercis griffithii, Calophaca grandiflora) communities.

35. Shrub – pistachio (Pistacia vera, Rosa kokanica, Amygdalus spinosissima, Crataegus pontica, C. turkestanica, Pyrus regelii) open woodlands.

36. Open woodlands of pistachio (Amygdalus petunnikowii, Spiraea hypericifolia, Cerarus tianschanica, Inula macrophylla, Pseudohandelia umbellifera, Artemisia mucronulata).

37. Open woodlands of pistachio (Pistacia vera) with Ferula badrakema, Cousinia raddeana, Crambe kotschiana, Elaeosticta allioides, locally in combination with petrophytic pistachio communities.

38. Almond – pistachio (Pistacia vera, Amygdalus bucharica) open woodlands with Phlo­mis bucharica, Inula macrophylla, Ferula gigantea, F. deccurens.

Small-leaved forests

Birch forests

39. Crook-steam birch forests (Betula tortuosa) with herbaceous cover.
40. Aspen forests, locally birch forests with tall herbaceous cover in combination with woody meadows.
41. Birch and aspen – birch forests with herbaceous cover and steppe elements (Betula pendula, B.pubescens, Populus tremula, Brachypodium pinnatum, Rubus saxatilis, Poa angustifolia, Artemisia pontica, A.laciniata).

Steppes in combination with forests and small insular groves (kolki) (forest – steppe of Kokchetau Upland)
42. Arable lands on the place of meadow steppes in combination with birch, birch – aspen and pine small forests (copses) (up to 10 – 15%).

43. Arable lands on the place of rich-forb – feather grass steppes in combination with birch, birch – aspen small forests (copses) (10 %).
Plain forests
Pine forests
44. Pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests and open woodlands, often in combination with sandy feather grass (Stipa pennata, Gypsophila paniculata) steppes and brushwoods of shrubs.

45. Pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests and open woodlands in combination with psammophytic forb – sandy feather grass (Stipa pennata, Helichryzum arenarium, Potenilla arenaria, Scorzonera ensifolia) and fescue – sandy feather grass (Stipa pennata, Festuca beckeri) steppes.

46. Pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests in combination with goldilocks – feather grass (Stipa pennata, S. capillata, Galatella villosa) and sagebrush – sandy feather grass (Stipa pennata, Artemisia marschalliana) steppes and brushwoods of juniper (Juniperus sabina).

Birch forests

47. Birch and aspen-birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens, Populus tremula) forests.

48. Birch, aspen-birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens, Populus tremula) forests and fragments of pine forests in combination with psammophytic-forb – feather grass (Stipa zalesskii, Festuca valesiaca, Phleum phleoides, Artemisia marschalliana, Centaurea marschalliana) and psammophytic-forb – sandy feather grass (Stipa pennata, Gypsophila paniculata, Silene borysthenica) steppes.

49. Birch – aspen small insular groves (kolki), locally forests, rich-forb – feather grass (Stipa zalesskii, Festuca valesiaca, Phleum phleoides, Calamagrostis epigeios, Filipendula vulgaris, Lathyrus tuberosus, Onobrychis sibirica) steppes and fragments of willow brushwoods and meadows in depressions.
Steppes in combination with birch forests and small insular groves (forest-steppe)
50. Meadow grass – forb and forb – grass steppes (Festuca valesiaca, Stipa pennata, S.zaleskii, Calamagrostis epigeios, Phleum phleoides, Helictotrichon schellianum, Filipendula vulgarls, Artemisia sericea) in combination with aspen – birch forests and small insular groves (up to 15%).
Steppes in combination with small insular birch groves (forest-steppe with kolki)
51. Rich-forb – feather grass (Stipa zalesskii, Festuca valesiaca, Phleum phleoides, Calamagrostis epigeios, Filipendula vulgaris, Lathyrus tuberosus, Onobrychis sibirica) steppes in combination with small insular aspen – birch groves (kolki) (up to 10%) on solod soils in depressions.

52. Rich-forb – feather grass (Stipa zalesskii, Festuca valesiaca, Phleum phleoides, Calamagrostis epigeios, Filipendula vulgaris) steppes with Artemisia marschalliana, complexes of steppe communities in combination with lots of small insular groves (kolki) and small forests (up to 10%).

53. Rich-forb – hog’s fennel – feather grass (Stipa zalesskii, Festuca valesiaca, Phleum phleoides, Calamagrostis epigeios, Peucedanum morissonii) steppes in combination with aspen – birch forests and small insular groves (up to 10%), often transformed.
54. Forb – feather grass and hog’s fennel – feather grass (Stipa zalesskii Peucedanum morissonii) steppes, locally steppes’ complexes in combination with aspen – birch small insular groves (kolki) in depressions (up to 5%).

55. Arable lands on the place of forb – feather grass (Stipa zalesskii, Festuca valesiaca, Seseli ledebourii, Salvia stepposa, Phlomis tuberosa) steppes in combination with sparse small insular aspen – birch groves (up to 5 %).

Desert forests (communities of saxaul)

White saxaul communities

56. White saxaul communities (Haloxylon persicum).

Mixed saxaul communities

57. Mixed saxaul communities (Haloxylon aphyllum, H. persicum) on hilly and hilly-ridge sands.

Black saxaul communities

58. Black saxaul (Haloxylon aphy­llum) communities.

Floodlands’ forests (tugai) and theirs fragments in rivers’ valleys and deltas.

In mountains

Floodland coniferous and small-leaved forests

59. Coniferous (Abies sibirica, Picea obovata, Pinus sylvestris) and small-leaved (Populus tremula, Betula pendula) forests and meadows.
Floodland small-leaved forests

60. Willow (Salix dasyclados, S. phylicifolia) brushwoods with shrubs (Hippophae rhamnoides, Crataegus sanguinea, Padus avium) in combination with open woodlands of poplar (Populus laurifolia) and birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens) and with typical and swampy meadows (Upper riches of Irtysh).

61. Aspen – birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens, Populus tremula) forests with layer of shrubs (Saliх сaprea, S. rosmarinifolia, Viburnum opulus, Rosa glabriformis, Lonicera tatarica) in combination with meadows (Upper riches of Emba, Ilek and Ori).
In plains of desert zone

Oleaster tugai

62. Shrub – oleaster tugai (Elaeagnus oxycarpa, Salix michelsonii, Hippophae rhamnoides) in combination with poplar – ash forests (Fraxinus sogdiana, Populus nigra) and brushwoods of shrubs (Berberis iliensis, Rosa silverhjelmii, Tamarix ramosissima) (valley of Charyn).

63. Willow – oleaster tugai with ash (Elaeagnus oxycarpa, Salix wilchelmsiana, S. songarica, Fraxinus sogdiana) in combination with meadows (Glycyrrchyza glabra, Leymus multicaulis, Calamagrostis epigeios) and open woodlands of poplar (Populus diversifolia, P. pruinosa, Berberis iliensis, Tamarix ramosissima, Reamuria songorica) (Ili).

64. Shrub – oleaster (Elaeagnus oxycarpa, Halimodendron halodendron, Tamarix ramosissima, Rosa beggeriana, Lonicera iliensis, Clematis orientalis) tugai in combination with licorice (Glycyrrchyza uralensis) – Achnatcherum splendens meadows and eurotia (Krascheninikovia ceratoides, Poa bulbosa) communities (Ili).

65. Deserted willow – oleaster tugai (Elaeagnus oxycarpa, Salix alba, S. wilchelmsiana, Наlimodendron halodendron) in combination with meadows, communities of silvery salt tree (Halimodendron halodendron) and open woodlands of poplar (Populus diversifolia) (Ili).

66. Shrub – oleaster tugai (Elaeagnus oxycarpa, Salix caspica, S. triandra, Tamarix laxa) in combination with meadows (valley of Emba).

67. Willow – oleaster tugai with poplar (Elaeagnus oxycarpa, Salix alba, Populus nigra) in combination with meadows and reed mace – reed grass (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia) fens (Uil).

Agricultural lands and lots of poplar forests

68. Agricultural lands and lots of oleaster – poplar tugai (Populus ariana, P. рruinosa Elaeagnus turcomanica, E. angustifolia) in combination with xerophytic-forb and grass (Erianthus ravennae, Imperata cylindrica, Aeluropus littoralis) meadows, brushwoods of shrubs (Halimodendron halodendron, Tamarix ramosissima) (Amu Darya, Syr Darya).

69. Agricultural lands in combination with willow – oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Salix songarica) and deserted halophytic-shrub tugai (Tamarix leptostachys, Halostachys belangeriana, Nitraria schoberi), grass – camel’s thorn (Alhagi sparsifolia, Аeluropus littoralis, Cynodon dactylon) meadows (Syr Darya).

Agricultural lands and lots of deserted tugai

70. Agricultural lands and lots of deserted shrub – oleaster – poplar tugai (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Populus ariana, P. pruinosa, Tamarix ramosissima, T.hispida, Halostachys belangeriana, Salsola dendroides) in combination with forb and Aeluropus littoralis meadows (Salsola foliosa, Climacoptera aralensis) (Amu Darya).

71. Deserted willow – oleaster – poplar tugai (Populus diversifolia, Elaeagnus oxycarpa, Salix alba) and shrub tugai (Haloxylon aphyllum, Nitraria sibirica, Halostachys belangeriana, Tamarix hispida) in combination with halophytic meadows (Aeluropus littoralis, Puccinellia distans, Sphaerophysa salsula, Alhagi pseudalchagi, Limonium gmelinii) (Syr Darya, Chu and others).

Willow tugai

72. Oleaster – tamarisk – willow tugai (Salix songarica, Tamarix ramosissima, T. elongata, Elaeagnus oxycarpa, Clematis orientalis) in combination with grass and forb meadows, reed grass fens (delta of Charyn)

73. Sea-buckthorn – oleaster – willow tugai (Salix wilchelmsiana, Elaeagnus oxycarpa, Hyppophae rhamnoides) in combination with forb – grass meadows and annual saltwort – halophytic-shrub (Tamarix hispida, Nitraria sibirica, Suaeda linifolia, S. acuminata) communities (Karatal – Lepsy).

74. Willow (Salix alba) and shrub – poplar – oleaster (Elaeagnus oxycarpa, Populus nigra, Tamarix gracilis, T. laxa) tugai in combination with meadows, sedge fens and desert communities (Аtriplex cana, Halimione verrucifer) (valley of Ural).

Poplar tugai

75. Willow – poplar tugai (Populus laurifolia, P. nigra, Salix dasyclados, S. viminalis) with oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in combination with meadows and brushwoods of shrubs (Padus avium, Rosa majalis, Lonicera altaica) (Black Irtysh).

In plains of steppe zone

Floodland elm, oak and poplar forests

76. Elm (Ulmus laevis), oak (Quercus robur), willow (Saliх alba), black poplar (Populus nigra), white poplar (Populus alba) forests and theirs combination with fragments of birch – aspen groves (Populus tremula, Betula pendula) and isolated groups of alder (Alnus glutinosa); also in combination with meadows and herbaceous fens (Ural, near the border of Kazakhstan).
Floodland poplar, willow and aspen – birch forests

77. Poplar (Populus nigra), willlow (Saliх alba) and aspen – birch (Betula pendula, Populus tremula) forests in combination with herbaceous fens, typical meadows and meadows with steppe elements (Ishim).
Floodland willow brushwoods with fragments of poplar, elm and oak forests

78. Willow brushwoods (Saliх triandra, S. viminalis, S. purpurea), black poplar (Populus nigra), white poplar (Populus alba) forests with elm (Ulmus laevis) and fragments of oak forests in combination with typical and swampy meadows, and also with meadows with steppe elements (Ural).
Floodland willow brushwoods with fragments of poplar forests
79. Willow (Saliх triandra, S. tenujulis, S. caspica) communities with oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia) and poplar groves (Poрulus nigra) in combination with typical and halophytic-grass meadows, communities of Achnatcherum splendens and sagebrush – grass communities in complex with perennial saltwort communities (Irtysh).

80. Brushwoods of shrubs (Salix viminalis, S. dasyclados, S. pentandra, Padus avium, Lonicera tatarica, Rhamnus cathartica, Rosa glabrifolia, R. majalis), poplar (Poрulus alba, P. nigra) groves in combination with typical and swampy meadows, meadows with steppe elements and fens (Irtysh).

81. Willow brushwoods (Saliх triandra, S. caprea, S. cinerea, Rosa cinamommea) with black poplar (Populus nigra) and open woodlands of white poplar (Populus alba) in combination with meadows (Utva, Bolshaya Khovda).

82. Willow brushwoods (Saliх triandra, S. acutifolia, S. dasyclados, S. caspica), poplar (Populus alba) and willow (Saliх alba) forests, in combination with typical and halophytic meadows, tamarix brushwoods (Tamariх gracilis, T. laхa) and herbaceous fens (Ural).
Floodland willow brushwoods and fragments of forests (poplar and aspen – birch)

83. Willow brushwoods (Salix pentandra, S.viminalis, S. rosmarinifolia), poplar groves (Poрulus nigra), locally bich – aspen small insular groves (kolki) (Betula pendula, Populus tremula) in combination with meadows and herbaceous fens (Ubagan).

84. Shrub – willow brushwoods (Saliх pentandra, S.viminalis, S. cаprea, Lonicera tatarica, Rosa pavlovii, R.laхa, Rhamnus cathartica), poplar groves (Poрulus nigra), locally birch – aspen small insular groves (kolki) (Betula pendula, Populus tremuula) in combination with typical and halophytic meadows, meadows with steppe elements and herbaceous fens (Irtysh).
Floodland willow brushwoods, aspen – birch forests and their fragments

85. Willow brushwoods (Saliх pentandra, S. triandra, S. acutifolia, S. rosmarinifolia, S. alba), aspen – birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens, Populus tremula) forests in combination with typical meadows and meadows with steppe elements (Kaldygaity, Taldy).

86. Willow, poplar – willow brushwoods (Saliх triandra, S. viminalis, S. alba, Populus nigra) and birch – aspen small insular groves (kolki) (Populus tremula, Betula pendula) in combination with meadows (Ilek).


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