The History of Computer Gaming Osama Mazahir




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The History of Computer Gaming

Osama Mazahir

Imran Ali

Asad Jawahar

Samar Abbas



1. Introduction 3

2. Arcades and Early Games 3

2.1. The First Electronic Games 3

2.2. Games on Computers and Mainframes 4

2.3. Arcade Games 5

3. Video Game Consoles 6

3.1. Commercialization of Video Game Consoles 6

3.2. The First Computer Game Console: Odyssey 6

3.3. Pong – The first commercially successful console game 7

3.4. Video Game Market Crash of 1977 7

3.5. Cartridge Based Consoles 7

3.6. Space Invaders 7

3.7. Video Game Market Crash of 1983 8

3.8. Nintendo 8

3.9. The Super Mario Brothers 8

3.10. Sega and Nintendo war of the 80s & 90s 9

3.11. The End of Atari 9

3.12. Sony Playstation and the End of Sega 10

3.13. Technology Trends of the 90s 10

3.14. Video Game Consoles of the new Millennium 10

3.15. Current Trends and the Future 11

4. PC Games 12

4.1. Early History of PC Games 12

4.2. New Trends Affecting PC Gaming Industry 12

4.3. Genres 14

4.4. Future of PC Gaming 17

5. Impact of the GPU and 3D APIs on computer games and their development 18

5.1. The GPU 18

5.2. Graphics Fundamentals 19

5.3. GPU Advances and History 20

5.4. 3D Graphics APIs 23

6. References 25




1.Introduction


This paper will aim to study the evolution of computer gaming starting from 1947 which was believed to be the first year when a game was designed for playing on a CRT. We will look at the technical aspects of computer gaming, the business models surrounding the marketing and distribution of games, audience communities, and development communities. We will also explore how technological advances in displays and processing power have shaped the development of games. We will concentrate on the history of gaming which will include the following categories: PC, consoles, single player, multiplayer games. We will also discuss the key games and game development houses that have revolutionized the gaming industry.

2.Arcades and Early Games

2.1.The First Electronic Games

The first electronic game to employ a Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT) was developed in 1947. The system used eight vacuum tubes to create a missile firing simulation. Knobs were used to adjust the curve and speed of the missile. At the time, however, pixel graphics could not be drawn electronically so the targets were drawn on a simple overlay which was placed on top of the screen.


In 1951, a computer designed specifically to play a game was produced by a UK based company, Ferranti. This machine was named Nimrod and was designed to run a game called NIM. The machine was based on the Ferranti Mark 1 computer and was designed over a period of 4 months. It was publicly in a science fair in London and was later put on display in Germany for a short period.
The original machine stood 9 feet by 12 feet by 5 feet. The display took most of this space while the electronics took up less than 2% of the total volume. It ran on six kilowatts, of which four were for the display lamps alone. Nimrod was designed to use directly-coupled voltage levels rather than clocked pulses, which enabled it to run as slow as the demonstrator wished. When run at full speed, it was driven by 10kc/s steps, which is equivalent to 10 kHz.
Nimrod was intended to be an eye catching exhibit and Ferranti did not follow up with other games. Nevertheless they invented the first computer game system.
Then in 1952, A.S. Douglas at the University of Cambridge developed a graphical tic-tac-toe game titled “OXO” to demonstrate his PhD thesis on human-computer interaction. The game was programmed on the EDSAC computer which used vacuum tubes and a 35x16 pixel CRT for visual display. The person played against the computer using a rotary dial. Thus, the game also illustrated game logic and intelligence which could be construed as an extremely primitive example of the Artificial Intelligence that exists in today’s games. OXO did not gain widespread popularity because the EDSAC computer was specific to Cambridge.
The first video game used by the public was called “Tennis for Two” and developed in 1958 by William Higinbotham. It operated on an oscilloscope and was used to entertain and alleviate the boredom of visitors at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The game was only brought out twice, on “Visitor’s Day” at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, where William Higinbotham worked. The game showed a simplified side view of a tennis court on an oscilloscope. The ball was affected by gravity and the player would play the ball over the net using two box-shaped controllers. Both controllers were equipped with a knob for trajectory control and a button to hit the ball.
These first few video games were developed by researchers and scientists and were intended to be used by other researchers and scientists. The intention of these games was not as much to entertain but more as proof-of-technology and demonstration of computer-human interactions. The games types were simple and based on simple control operations.

2.2.Games on Computers and Mainframes

In 1961, students from MIT, including Steve Russell, created a game title “Spacewar!” for the DEC PDP-1. This was one of the earliest games for a digital computer. The game put two human players against each other. Each player controlled a ship and fired missiles while at the same time avoiding the black hole in the center. It turned out Spacewar was a good diagnostic of the PDP-1 computer and Type 30 Precision CRT Display. As a result, DEC used it for factory testing and shipped PDP-1 computers with Spacewar loaded into the core memory. The field representative would use Spacewar as a final test of the PDP-1 upon deployment.


Then in 1966, Ralph Baer created a simple video game operated on a standard television set. The game was title “Chase” and was the first game to run on a standard TV set. His team also modifies a toy gun to distinguish different spots and colors on the TV screen. This is the first creation of the “light gun” and was used in games such as table tennis and target shooting.
Shortly thereafter, in the early 1970s, games on mainframes took off. Most of the games were created by students as a leisure activity for the benefit of the computing community. During that time period the two main distribution networks were the PLATO and DECUS systems.
In 1971, the game titled “Star Trek” was created by Mike Mayfield for the Sigma 7 minicomputer at MIT. It was a text-only game that resulted in numerous variants and may have been one of the most ported computer games ever made. The game being tied to the Star Trek subculture made it a popular choice among the computer expert and science fiction community.
In 1972, Gregory Yob created a game titled “Hunt the Wumpus” for the PDP-10. This was a hide-and-seek game and considered to the first text adventure game.
In 1974, “Maze War” and “Spasim” were the first 3D first person shooters. “Maze War” offered first-person 3D perspective, avatars, level mapping, representation of player position on the 2d map. Furthermore, it was also the first multiplayer networked game. Since it was the first game to combine all these elements with source available it set prior art precedent. Thus, thousands of later games were able to be developed without intellectual property concerns or disputes.
In 1977, Kelton Flinn and John Taylor developed a game titled “Air” which was a text-based air combat game. In 1987, Kelton Finn and his company Kesmai created “Air Warrior” which was the first graphical online multi-player game. “Air Warrior” ran on Apple Macintosh, Commodore Amiga, and Atari ST.
Also in 1977, the development of “Zork” began for the DEC PDP-10. The authors, however, recognized the potential to develop these games onto new computers systems and founded text adventure publisher Infocom in 1979. The company was later sold to Activision.
Initially these games were developed by individuals during idle time for free personal and community enjoyment but by the late 1970’s small game development houses got acquired by large companies who sold entire gaming solutions or computer systems. The game types evolved from simple and abstract 2D games to role playing, flying simulations, and adventure games. This is the first creation of genres and games that tried to immerse the player into a world of fantasy and intrigue or simulation.

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