The first byurakan survey. A catalogue of galaxies with uv-continuum b. E. Markarian, V. A. Lipovetsky, J. A. Stepanian, L. K. Erastova, A. I




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THE FIRST BYURAKAN SURVEY. A CATALOGUE OF GALAXIES WITH UV-CONTINUUM B. E. Markarian, V. A. Lipovetsky, J. A. Stepanian, L. K. Erastova, A. I. Shapovalova 378433, Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory ArmSSR, Byurakan 357147, Special Astrophysical Observatory Stavropol Territory, Nizhnij Arkhyz ABSTRACT A Catalogue of galaxies with UV-continuum (Markarian galaxies detected during the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) is pre- sented. The purpose of the Survey was to search for peculiar faint extragalactic objects with UV-excess radiation and to study them. The procedure of observations and processings, the Survey areas, the object selection and classification criteria and also several selection effects are described. The Catalogue contains the following initial data on all the objects: the precise coordinates, visual magnitudes, angular sizes, redshifts and classification types. The observational results of slit spectra, UBV-photometry, IR- photometry (IRAS data), morphology and some other data are also included into the Catalogue. While compiling the Catalogue the authors introduced some necessary corrections in the data of the ear- lier published lists on galaxies with UV-continuum. In addition we included the objects with numbers 1501-1515. In most cases they are well-known Seyfert galaxies omitted by the authors in the lists, but detected on the plates. 41 objects from our lists are not included into the Catalogue, since they are either stars of our Galaxy or star projections on the galaxies. The Catalogue presents the largest homogeneous sample of AGN of different types on the northern sky for bright objects (<16.0). Up to the middle of 1987 the redshifts were measured for 1459 out of 1469 objects of the Catalogue. 1. THE HISTORY OF THE FIRST BYURAKAN SURVEY Studying the results of the surface photometry carried out from 1958 to 1962 and comparing them with the spectra of the central parts of the same galaxies, Markarian (1963) concluded that the colours of the central parts of a great number of galaxies do not correspond to their morphological types, i. e. the central parts were bluer than those of normal galaxies of the same Hubble type. The compiled sample of 41 objects included 8 galaxies, marked by Sey- fert in 1943, whose nuclei showed bright and wide (some thousand km/s) emission lines. Therefore, a hypothesis has been made (Mar- karian, 1963) on possible non-thermal character of radiation from the nuclei of some studied galaxies. In order to confirm this hypothesis at the end of 1964 Mar- karian began the search for the galaxies showing an excess of UV radiation in their central parts. All the observations were carried out with the 40" Schmidt telescope of Byurakan observatory. On Markarian initiative two additional 1.5 and 3 prisms were prepared and the telescope optics was changed for the new one, corrected for the blue- violet spectrum region. It was the first successful experiment of using a small-angle objective prism in search for extragalactic objects. It should be noted, that an objective prism was success- fully used in astronomy since the beginning of the XX century for spectral classification of stars. High resolution prisms having angles in the range of 8-12 and a reciprocal linear dispersion of 100-250 A/mm at H were commonly used. The spectra were widened up to 0.3-0.5 mm, the telescope losses being 8-10 , as compared with the direct photography. Therefore, for studying of the faint galaxies this procedure was worthless. Markarian used a prism of low dispersion (1800 A/mm at H ) and obtained unwidened spectra on which the galaxy nuclei were easily detectable on the background of the surrounding matter, espe- cially if an UV-continuum excess was present in it. A high spectral resolution was not required for spectral classification and the limit- ing magnitude on the searching plate reached 17-17.5 . In 1965-1966 70 new galaxies with strong UV-continuum (Mar- karian, 1967, 1968) were detected. The detected objects got further the names "Markarian galaxies". During the following years two more lists of galaxies with strong UV-continuum (Markarian, 1969a, b) were compiled and their general number became 302. In 1969 Markarian and Lipovetsky have iniciated a full spec- tral survey of the northern sky in the high galactic latitudes (The First Byurakan Survey - FBS). The purpose of the Survey was to select the galaxies with UV- continuum and to look for active galactic nuclei (AGN), i. e. preliminary spectral classification of all of them. During the Survey the quasar candidates among stellar objects and the blue stars of high galactic latitudes were marked also. The observational program of the FBS was completed in 1978. The studying of plates, the search and selection of objects were continued up to 1980. More than 2500 photographic plates were obtained and about 40 millions spectral images were visually examined. The survey consists of 1133 fields of 4 x4 in size and covered the sky area of 17000 square degrees. FBS, the first survey in the world, carried out with the purpose of search for active galaxies, was for many years the single source for new Sy galaxies and other types of AGN. Among Markarian galaxies there are quasi-stellar objects, Sy galaxies, BL Lacs, sources of radio, IR and X-ray emissions. The main results of the Survey are published in the series of 15 papers including 1500 objects (Markarian 1967, 1969a, b; Mar- karian, Lipovetsky, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1976a, b; Markarian et al., 1977a, b; 1979a, b, c; 1981). Besides obtaining the survey plates and object selections it was very important to get their slit spectra as well. The first spectral observations, carried out in USA (Weed- man, Khachikian, 1968, 1969), have led to the detection of 8 new Sy galaxies and have shown a high efficiency of the used search pro- cedure. Since 1969, parallel to the Survey, the authors began regular spectral observations in order to find out the physical nature of the detected galaxies. Before 1977 the slit spectra of Markarian galaxies were obtained in the USSR mainly with the three telescopes: 1.25-m of the South Station of Sternberg Astronomical institute; 2.6-m of the Crimean astrophysical observatory, and 0.7-m, of the Astrophysical institute, Alma-Ata. Since 1977 the main part of spectral observations was made with the 6-m telescope of SAO USSR AS. The spectra of more than 600 galaxies were obtained. In all, the authors have obtained the spectra of about 1200 objects of FBS. Some of them were reob- served, because the observations made with small telescopes sometimes had not the necessary quality for redshift determination. Thus, up to nowadays there are spectral data for almost all galaxies. The successful use of an objective prism for studying faint objects iniciated a new direction in extragalactic astronomy - sys- tematic search for new objects using a low-dispersion spectroscopy. This method was intensively used in the whole world surveys such as: Cerro-Tololo Survey (Smith, 1975; Smith et al., 1976; MacAlpine, Lewis, 1978), Michigan Survey (MacAlpine et al., 1977a, b, c,); Case Survey (Pesch, Sanduleak, 1983; Sanduleak, Pesch, 1984; 1987), the Survey of emission galaxies (Wasilewski, 1983). Most widely this method was used with large telescopes when a grism for search for quasars was designed (Hoag, 1976). During the last 20 years several hundred papers appeared in which they reported the data on study of Markarian galaxies. For futher investigations of these objects a combined catalogue with main observational data is necessary. It is also necessary to correct various errors that appeared during the performing of such large program. Such a catalogue was recently compiled by Mazzarella and Balzano (1986). It includes a part of observational data, and a wide bibliography on Markarian galaxies. In this con- nection the authors do not present all the references in order to avoid duplicating. Our Catalogue contains the main information presented in the lists (but corrected and supplemented) of original data on spectra available for 99 % of objects. A detailed description of FBS and some statistical results of the investigation, made on the basis of the Catalogue, concerning the Survey completeness, luminosity function, spatial distribution, search for different types of AGN and etc. were reported by Lipovetsky (1986, 1987), Lipovetsky et al. (1987). It should be noticed also that at present a second part of the Survey data is being prepared. It will include blue stellar objects which were selected earlier by us. Their number totals some thousands. The continuation of the FBS is the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) carried out in the Byurakan observatory (Markarian et al., 1983a). The data of 6 fields are published already (Markarian, Stepanian, 1983, 1984a, b; Markarian et al., 1985b, 1986; Stepanian et al., 1987). All the fields are 4 x4 in size and locate in =+59 , +55 , +51 . The work on compiling the Catalogue of SBS objects has been already begun. Below we describe the procedure of observations and processings, the Survey areas, the object selection and classification cri- teria, the selection effects and the Catalogue of Markarian galaxies. The Catalogue of FBS objects is the result of the long time work. The work was still in progress when in 1985 B. E. Markarian died. The authors concluded the compilation of the Catalogue which they dedicated to the memory of their teacher. 2. OBSERVATIONS AND PROCESSING All the observational data (low-dispersion plates) were obtained with the 40-52" Schmidt telescope of the Byurakan observatory in the period from 1965 till 1978. This instrument is the most fast one among other large Schmidt telescopes. Its main parameters are: - the aperture of the main mirror is 1300 mm; - the focal length - 2123 mm; - the aperture of the corrector - 1000 mm; - the scale - 97"/mm; - non-vignetted angular field - 4 x 4 ; - the maximum size of the photographic plates - 160x160 mm; - three objective prisms: 1.5 , 3 , 4 with an aperture of 1000 mm. Due to a Piazzi-Smith lens the telescope has a flat field. The optics is made of uviol glass and the optical system is corrected for the blue spectrum range. The objective prisms can rotate in the position angle, that allows to obtain spectra of any orienta- tion. As a rule, for the Survey a 1.5 prism with a dispersion of 1800 A/mm at H was used. All plates were obtained on panchromatic emulsions of "F" type. Different modifications of emulsions (Kodak IIAF, Eastman Kodak AF, 103aF, IIF) were used since the Survey continued for rather long time. The authors tried to use the plates with most similar spectral sensitivity, because even small variations could cause some selection effects. Table 1 presents all the types of the emulsions used and their characteristics. In order to preserve the homogeneity of data, different plates were calibrated on the same objects. The plates were visually examined (entire scanning) using 7 lens. All the suspected peculiar spectra were marked; these spectra were compared with Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) charts. Such a procedure allows to take into consideration the spectrum overlaps, plate deffects, and also to compare spectral and direct images. Comparing three images (spectral and direct on the blue and red Palomar charts) we succeeded in selecting the most compact, almost starlike galaxies, which were impossible to find using only one direct image. The description of objects in this case is as fol- lows: "the object does not differ from a star, but the spectral image is slightly inferior to stars in intensity". It was possible owing to the high contrast of Palomar charts and the presence of a high gradient on the spectral images. Such are the features of many distant Sy galaxies (z>0.06) and near QSO. The whole Survey was performed in several stages by three observers. The main verification of plates, as a rule, was made by one observer; the classification of objects was done by all together. While compiling the next lists we used only the data verified using the available plates; therefore, the published data were incomplete according to all the main parameters of the objects: location, brightness, spectral types and etc. This fact was always emphasized by the authors in publications, because such incomplete- ness could cause serious errors in statistical data analysis. The coordinates of the selected objects were measured on POSS charts using the reference bright stars and galaxies from Zwicky et al. (1961- 1967) with the known coordinates. The accuracy of the coordinate determination was 1' in declination, and 0.1 in right ascension. The angular sizes of objects were determined on red POSS charts, using 10 lens. The general description of objects was made from both spectral and direct images. 3. THE SURVEY AREAS AND ITS STRUCTURE The Survey was carried out in two sky areas, northern and southern galactic hemispheres. The lower Survey boundary was = -11 (b >0 ) and =-15 (b >0 ). It covers the sky zones of 4 in width, located in declination; each zone consists of fields equal to the plate size of 4 x 4 (full plate size is 4 20'). The field over- lap is 10'- 30'. The prism was oriented so that the spectra were locating along the declination axis in order to diminish the tele- scope guiding influence on the spectral resolution. The Survey areas and the number of fields in each zone are given in Table 2. Above the given areas the whole sky was observed in high galactic latitudes (b >30 ). In the area free from Galactic absorption the Survey covers up to b =25-30 , in some cases up to about b 10 . Due to technical reasons the pole area is observed in the zone +88 30' with a large overlap and the area higher than = +75 , in this connection, is shifted by 1 to the south. About 2500 plates were obtained during the Survey. Table 1. Photographic emulsions and their characteristics. ======================================================================== Period Emuls. Expos. Short characteristics of used plates year type (min) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1965-1967 Kodak 35-40 thick glass-backed, fine-grained, the limit IIAF is 17.5 on best plates, developer - D-19 1969-1971 - " - 60-80 old plates (1965-67), increased grain, low sensitivity, the limit up to 1971 is 16.5 1972-X.1972 Eastman 12-15 fine-grained, thin glass (0.8 mm), the red Kodak spectrum part is slightly shortened, low IIaF UV-sensitivity, the limit is 16.5-17 XI.1972-1973 103aF 9-10 rough-grained, thin glass-backed, the limit - 16.5 II.1973-1974 IIaF 18-23 fine-graind, thin glass, low UV-sensitivity, shortened red part, telescope diaphragm is 0.85 meter 1974-IX.1974 IIF 40-45 fine-grained, high contrast, 1.2 mm glass without antihalo layer, spectral sensitivity is close to Kodak IIAF (England), the limit is 17 1974-1975 IIaF 18-23 - " - " -, with antihalo layer 1976-II.1977 IIaF, 40-50 - " - " -, 0.85 m diaphragm used for polar IIF 40-50 sky regions 103aF 10-13 1977-VI.1977 IIaF 18-20 hypersensitized by air heated, the IIF 25-30 limit is 17.-17.5, developer - MWP-2 1977-VI.1979 IIF 10-13 fine-grained, hypersensitized in N ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4. PARAMETERS OF THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF GALAXIES WITH UV-CONTINUUM The selection procedure, suggested by Markarian (1967), is the most outstanding one by its efficiency and simplicity. As a main search feature Markarian suggested to use the intensity of UV emission of a galaxy. In this way selected are the objects with an excess, for their morphological type, UV-emission in the central parts or nuclei. So, more exactly, one ought to name them "galaxies with an excess UV-continuum". Visual search for objects is rather simple and is performed on the basis of spectral and direct images. It is necessary to have at least one spectral plate and two POSS charts. Both spectral and mor- phological features are used in this procedure. The classification features were suggested by Markarian (1967, 1969 a, b). The classification parameters are as follows: - the degree of emission condensation to the galaxy centre; - the intensity of UV-emission in the region shorter than 4000 A; - some auxiliary features. Table 2. Right ascensions of the Survey areas. =============================================================== Zone Areas Numbers Areas Numbers DEC. R.A. of fields R.A. of fields --------------------------------------------------------------- + 88 30' 0 00 24 00 5 + 86 3 10 19 20 7 + 82 5 48 18 32 9 + 78 3 55 18 23 14 + 75 3 32 18 12 16 + 71 3 52 18 07 19 + 67 5 20 18 00 19 + 63 5 35 18 28 23 + 59 5 15 18 45 27 + 55 6 00 19 48 31 + 51 5 59 19 11 33 + 47 5 59 19 11 36 23 49 3 09 9 + 43 6 10 19 10 39 21 50 3 50 18 + 39 6 30 18 30 36 21 50 3 50 18 + 35 6 53 18 27 36 21 56 3 38 18 + 31 6 55 18 23 38 21 45 3 38 17 + 27 7 00 18 28 41 22 43 2 59 15 + 23 7 04 18 16 42 22 32 3 36 19 + 19 7 20 18 00 40 22 00 3 20 20 + 15 7 36 16 40 34 21 12 3 36 24 + 11 7 52 16 40 33 20 24 3 52 29 + 7 7 52 16 08 33 21 23 5 22 32 + 3 8 08 16 07 32 20 23 5 22 36 - 1 8 08 16 07 32 20 23 5 22 36 - 5 8 23 15 52 30 20 23 5 07 35 - 9 8 23 16 22 32 20 23 5 07 35 - 13 20 23 5 07 35 ------------------------------------------------------------- The first parameter is determined by the object profile widths on low-dispersion plates and is designated by characters: "s" (stel- lar), "d" (diffuse) and their intermediate ones "sd" or "ds". The objects with star-like nuclei or almost star-like objects are reffered to "s" type. On plates of a good quality the halfwidth of the brightness profiles for such objects is of the order of 2". The objects whose brightness profiles have halfwidths of 6"-8" and more, depending on the galaxy size, are reffered to "d" type. While selecting this type the most difficult problem is to exclude irregular galaxies Irr I. For them the main feature is almost "flat" profile without narrowing to UV spectral part, since emission goes from the large disk, but not from the nucleus. In this classification intermediate types "s/sd", "ds/d" and etc. are used as well. The estimations of two experienced observers differ not more than 1 subclass. Evidently, there is a strong influence of bad images on this parameter, thus, the observer is obliged to compare the dimness of a galactic nucleus with that of a star. The second classification parameter, the intensity of UV- emission from the nucleus or the central part of a galaxy, is charac- terized by correlation of red and blue spectrum part lengths on pan- chromatic emulsion (which are separated by the fall-off in the green). For A0-A2 star with Kodak IIAF emulsion (England) these parts have equal extension. According to their UV intensity all the objects are divided into 3 classes: 1, 2, 3. Class I - the blue spectrum part; it is one and a half times longer than the red one. Class 3 - the lengths of these two parts are equal, class 2 - intermediate. The procedure is rather correct for similar spectral sensitivities of plates. The coorelation of the blue and red spectral part lengths slightly depends on the object brightness, it is determined by the spectrum slope. When using other types of emulsions, as Kodak IIaO, IIIaJ, which have no green fall-off, the search is greatly complicated. In this case it is necessary to use another parameter, that is the spectrum length which strongly depends on the object bright- ness. In general one ought to consider the energy distribution in the whole wavelength range being under study. The spectrum can be represented as a totality of 20-40 independent points (at 1800 A/mm dispersion at H ). Besides two main classification parameters a number of auxi- liary features are used: - existence of emission: "e, e:" - sure or suspected emission. It is called an auxiliary one because it cannot be a selection criterium. On our spectra the following emission lines or line groups are distinguished: H + [NII] 6548/84, H + [OIII] 4959+5007, H , [OII] 3726/29. - difference of the energy distribution from the thermal one. An asterisk marks a candidate into Sy type galaxy; two asterisks - a candidate into QSO. - additional features, which are usually presented in the object description, for instance, morphological features, inherence to multiple systems, interaction features, etc. This classification scheme is now accepted as a basic one in most of survey works. It allows easily to introduce new parameters for description of emission lines and include new subclasses of objects. So, for example, in the Second Byurakan Survey the authors have introduced a new type of emission line galaxies without UV- continuum: se, de. The considered classification scheme used in searching for pecu- liar objects allows to select a great number of different types of them: - galaxies with UV-continuum; - emission galaxies of all kinds (HII galaxies also including); - emission parts of bright galaxies (association; HII regions); - star-like nuclei of bright galaxies; - blue stars with B-V > 0 and U-B < -0.5 (white dwarfs of DA-DF types); - QSO candidates; - star-like galaxies with emission lines; - some variables with flat spectra, especially of U Gem type; - anomalous red stars (late M, R, S,), carbon stars; - planetary nebulae. Due to a large amount of data available and difficulties in selec- tion of objects of all types in a reasonable short time delay, the Survey authors limited themthelves by the following types of objects: 1. Galaxies with UV-continuum with m 13.0. It should be noticed, that in the original lists of objects the well-known ob- jects have been omitted; 2. Bright galaxies with UV-continuum or star-like nuclei with UV- continuum and m<13 , if there was a lack of spectral information at the moment of publication. 3. QSO candidates and quasi-stellar galaxies. 5. SELECTION EFFECTS One of the main tasks of spectral surveys is the creation of a representative sample of objects with definite properties. There- fore, it is very important first to reveal, study, and, if possible, to take into consideration a great number of selection effects. Among them there can be regular factors (for example, a dependence of limit- ing magnitude on the declination of an object due to differences in zenith distances and noticeable illumination of the night sky in the south of the Byurakan observatory), and casual (the plate center has appeared out of focus due to its deflection). The factors may be objec- tive (the sizes of emulsion grain increase due to its ageing) and subjective (the observer prefers stellar objects to extended ones). There are effects which can be easily taken into account (casual spectrum projecting on each other) and which are difficult to allow for (an influence of variable UV- transparence of atmosphere onto classification of UV-continuum). We describe the main selection factors and as far as pos- sible estimate the degree of their influence. We divided them into two groups: --------------------------------------------------------- * Note: A second part of the Survey will include blue stellar objects also. - factors, which influence the number of detected objects; - factors, which change their parameters. To the first group we may refer the following selection effects. 5.1. An effect of the plate limit This is one of the most unpleasant selection factors in survey works. There are some reasons which cause essential inhomogeneities of plate quality (emulsion type, atmosphere transparency, image quality). In this work we had no opportunity to determine the limit- ing magnitude for each plate. Such estimate was made only occasionally, for instance, when using another type of emulsion. This effect manifests it in the "spotted" galaxy distribution on the celestial sphere. When the surface distribution is studied a dispersion of galaxy numbers in the areas of about 4 x4 in size increases notice- ably. The effect is observed also in areas of 4 x8 , since the neighbour, according to the right ascension, fields have been very often observed at the same night. A great number of our plates have the limiting magnitude within the range 16.0 -17.0, and only in excep- tional cases up to 15.0 or 17.5. Allowing for other selection effects the objects brighter than 1-1.5 the limit are detected with confidence. This effect cannot be practically taken into consideration. When studying the surface and spatial distribution of Markarian galax- ies one ought to compile carefully the samples allowing for the reported one. The objects fainter than 16.5 are, as a rule, worth- less for statistical investigation. A "working" sample may include objects up to 15.5 -15.7 (the limit of Zwicky catalogue) a "strict" one must contain galaxies brighter than 15.0. 5.2. Zenith distance effect This is also an effect of the plate limit, but is its "regular" component. It is caused by three factors: by strong illumi- nation of the night sky in the south-east of the Byurakan observatory, by the towns of Erevan and Ashtarak, by deterioration of the image at noticeable zenith distances, by decrease of UV-transparency (cutting of the blue spectrum end). The two last reasons influence the object distribution according to their types as well. For statistical inves- tigations it is necessary to limit the sample in declination approximately up to =0 for the areas in the south and =75 - in the north. The last limitation is caused by the position of the Galactic plane and noticeable spectra widened on the plate due to field rotation (errors of the telescope polar axis installation). 5.3. "Stellar nucleus" effect This rather specific effect is caused by the fact that star-like nuclei of bright galaxies were included into the Survey. It is evi- dent that a galaxy of 13 , with a nucleus of 16-17 , is already at the detection limit. The number of such objects depends upon the magnitude of the whole galaxy. This effect exists within the whole range of apparent magnitudes. So, in order to establish a homo- geneous sample up to the given limiting magnitude the objects with large differences in galaxy and nucleus brightness should be omit- ted. As a rule such objects had the following description in the lists: "starlike nucleus of a bright galaxy, the data refer to the nucleus". However, the number of such objects in the Catalogue is relatively small (a few percents). 5.4. Star projection effect This effect, contrary to the previous ones, increases the number of selected objects. It consists in the following: a star with a rather early spectrum is projected onto the region of the center of a galaxy creating an impression of a powerful star-like object; or images of 2-3 close stars make an impression of a compact galaxy. This effect is rather strong at low latitudes and is fully taken into account in the spectral observations. All such objects are not included into the Catalogue. Markarian 914 is out also; it is an emission star related to LkH 233 nebula. It is evident that projec- tion of a star onto the galaxy may cause an object loss while search- ing. Though the probability of this fact is small, nevertheless, we note that due to this reason a good Sy 1 galaxy - Arakelyan 564 was lost. Its nucleus spectrum is masked with the bright star, located northward. 5.5. Image quality influence on condensation degree The effect reveals itself in two ways: uncertainty in classifica- tion of "s/sd" objects if the images are of poor quality ("ds/d" estimate becomes more probable), and also the loss of fainter star-like objects due to their contrast decrease by spectral enlargement. In both cases the number of "s/sd" objects among all objects has decreased. 5.6. Zenith distance influence on UV-continuum estimate A decrease of UV-transparency of the atmosphere with the increase of zenith distance influences the UV-intensity estimate and leads to its systematic underestimation at great zenith distances. The influence of this and the previous effect is shown in Fig. 3. It presents the number of different classification types depending upon the declination. 5.7. "Observer" effect All plates were examined by three observers: B. E. Markarian, V. A. Lipovetsky, and J. A. Stepanian. Although their estimates are in agreement, a "selection" effect remains. Our observations have shown that the "observer" effect in FBS is rather small and in most cases it can be neglected. A good agreement of our data is confirmed by the distribution of the number of objects, classified by each of the observers, presented in Table 3 and also by the approxi- mate constancy of the AGN number revealed in each of lists (9-11%). Only having in mind the afore-mentioned selection effects one can use the data of Markarian objects for various statistical investiga- tions. Table 3. Subclass distribution from the data of various observers. ================================================================== !Percentage of objects with classification No. of Observer ! s+sd 1 2 e e: objects ------------------------------------------------------------------ Markarian ! 46.7 28.4 36.3 21.6 40.2 306 Lipovetsky ! 48.6 10.8 46.5 34.0 31.5 599 Stepanian ! 44.8 10.5 33.0 27.8 28.0 306 3 observers ! 43.2 9.2 30.0 30.0 38.5 307 together ! ================================================================== 6. THE CATALOGUE DESCRIPTION Markarian galaxy Catalogue contains initial data of all the objects: precise coordinates, angular sizes, and spectral types. Observational results of slit spectra, UBV- and IR-photometry IRAS results, morphological types and some other data are also included into the Catalogue. While compiling the Catalogue we reexam- ined the object lists, excluded false repetitions, rough errors etc., and included additional objects. These ones were well-known ear- lier and, therefore, not marked in the lists, but detected indepen- dently by us on the plates and agreed with all selection criteria. Below we describe in detail the parameters of FBS object Catalogue presented in Table 7. 1 - name of galaxies 2, 3 - coordinates (1950.0) Since all Markarian galaxies were observed with radiotele- scopes, their precise coordinates were measured by some authors. We present them in the Catalogue: Lists Objects Sources I - V 1 - 507 Peterson, 1973 VI - VII 508 - 700 Kojoian et al., 1978 VIII 701 - 797 Foltz et al., 1980 IX - XI 798 - 1095 Kojoian et al., 1981a XII - XIV 1096 - 1399 Kojoian et al., 1981b XV 1400 - 1500 Kojoian et al., 1984 4 - redshifts The redshifts corrected for the Galaxy rotation are given, the rotation constant is Q=300 km/s, (there are other values in the literature, but all of them are reduced to one system). 5 - apparent magnitudes Apparent magnitudes are taken from the CGCG (Zwicky et al., 1961 - 1968). For convenience, in controlling the data we did not introduce corrections to apparent magnitudes for reduction into other systems. When there were no values in CGCG, the original esti- mates of the authors were presented. In the column 5 these values are marked with asterisks. 6 - absolute magnitudes In order to calculate the absolute magnitudes M (the value H=75km/s/Mpc is taken everywhere) a correction for absorption in the Galaxy m =0.24 csc (b) is introduced. M = 5 (z ) + 43.0 - m - m 7 - angular size The sizes in angular seconds are measured on red POSS charts and taken from the lists of UV-galaxies. 8 - spectral classification The spectral type is given according to the lists of galaxies with UV-continuum, in some cases it is corrected when we had the new plates of better quality. 9 - redshift sources Since for many galaxies there are several determinations of red- shift, we present the single reference for our value. As a rule, we give the most exact value. Note, that in our publication series of spectral observation with the 6-m telescope (Markarian et al., 1980a, b; 1983a; 1984a), the corrections for the Galaxy rotation were calcu- lated in a wrong way. But the Catalogue gives the right values. 10 - name of galaxies The asterisk indicates the double objects having the same number in the original lists; there is a more detailed information about the second component in the Comments to Table 7. 11 - morphology Morphological description, taken from the literature, (Hubble or Vaucouleurs classification) is presented, as a rule, for near and bright galaxies according to Huchra (1977), de Vaucouleurs et al. (1976), Nilson (1973), Mazarella and Balzano (1987). In some cases the description "dbl" is used for close binaries. 12 - spectrum type Sy1-Sy2 - Sy galaxy of the corresponding type; Sy3 - LINER; QSO - quasar; BL - lacertides; SB - star-burst galaxies; HII - extragalactic HII region; e - emission spectrum galaxy; a - absorption spectrum galaxy. The two last notations have been used when there was no necessary information about their spectra. 13 - diaphragm size The diaphragm size is given in arcseconds. When there are several diaphragms we present the largest one. 14-16 - UBV-photometry If there are several data we give the most exact value. The variability is noticed in remarques. 17 - UBV-photometry sources The photometry reference is given for objects, presented in the Catalogue. 18 - variability The symbol "v" indicates the optical variability. 19-22 - IRAS-flux at 12, 25, 60 and 100 mk 7. CONCLUSION The Catalogue contains 1515 records corresponding to 1512 objects, as 3 of them were included by mistake twice. The 15 galaxies, not included in the lists according to reasons mentioned above, are added into the Catalogue. The added objects are presented in Table 5. While compiling the Catalogue, 40 objects were deleted; 11 out of them are projections: galaxy+star, 29 objects are stars (mainly white dwarfs and subdwarfs). The list of deleted objects is given in Table 6. So, the available sample of Markarian galaxies contains 1469 objects. The distribution of these objects according to their classification types and spectral types is the following: Table 8 presents other names of Markarian galaxies included into various catalogues and lists. For convenience of search for Markarian galaxies according to other names the Table 9 presents the finding list of common names, some references for the seldom-met names being omitted. Below we give the list of object names. The list of ob- jects according to Markarian numbers are given in Table 10. Table 4a. Distribution of FBS objects according to the classification type. =================================================================== s sd ds d 1 2 3 e e: no emission ------------------------------------------------------------------- 298 365 351 456 193 596 681 442 493 534 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Table 4b. Distribution of FBS objects according to the spectral type. =================================================================== Sy1 Sy1.5 Sy1.8 Sy1.9 Sy2 Sy3 Sy? QSO BL SB HII e a ------------------------------------------------------------------- 100 12 6 7 50 17 6 13 3 95 26 903 185 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Table 5. Added Survey galaxies. =========================================================== Object R.A. DEC. m Type Other names ----------------------------------------------------------- 1501 0 8 0. 10 42 15.7 s1e: III Zw 2 1502 0 51 0. 12 25 14.3 s1e I Zw 1 1503 1 19 24. - 1 18 14.4 s2e II Zw 1 1504 2 52 26.4 - 0 23 12 13.7 s3e: N1144 1505 3 16 30. 41 20 12.4 s1e N1275 1506 4 30 30. 5 15 14.3 s1e 3C 120 1507 11 37 48. 28 40 14.5 d3e Haro 27 1508 13 56 25.2 37 41 48 13.7 s2e N5394 1509 14 15 43.2 25 22 0 13.1 s1e N5548 1510 14 15 43.7 26 38 34 14.2 sd3e: I4397 1511 15 28 48. 7 38 14.3 s1e: N5940 1512 15 32 13.2 15 21 36 13.3 d3e N5953 + N5954 1513 21 30 0. 9 56 14.6 s1e II Zw 136 1514 23 0 44.4 8 36 18 13.1 s1e N7469 1515 23 40 48. 28 13 15.7 s2 IV Zw 163 ------------------------------------------------------------ 7.1. Key to the list of common names AB,B - Braccesi UV-excess objects: Braccesi et al., 1968, 1970. Ark - Arakelian galaxies: Arakelian, 1975. Arp - Arp galaxies: Arp, 1966. B2 - the Second Bologna catalogue of radio sources. BB - Asiago Survey of blue objects at high galactic latitudes: Barbieri, Benvenuti, 1974. 3C,5C - Cambridge radio catalogues. CG - the Case low-dispersion northern sky survey: Pesch, Sanduleak, 1983, 1986; Sanduleak, Pesch, 1984, 1987. CP - Catalogue of isolated pairs of galaxies: Karachentsev, 1972. IG - Catalogue of isolated galaxies: Karachentseva, 1973. Haro - Haro blue galaxies: Haro, 1956. Holm - Holmberg galaxies: Holmberg, 1937. HZ - Humason-Zwicky objects: Humason, Zwicky, 1947. I - (IC): Index Catalogue. KUG - Kiso Survey for UV-excess galaxies: Takase, Miyauchi-Isobe, 1984, 1985a, b, 1986a, b, 1987a, b. LB - Luyten blue objects: Luyten, 1955-1969. N - (NGC): a New General Catalogue. OC-OZ - Ohio radio sources. PB - the Palomar-Berger survey for UV-excess objects: Berger, 1977, 1980, 1984. PG - Palomar-Green UV-excess stellar objects: Green et al., 1986. T - isolated triplets of galaxies: Karachentseva et al., 1979. Ton - Tonantzintla blue stellar objects: Iriarte, Chavira, 1957. Chavira, 1958, 1959; Haro, Luyten, 1962. U - (UGC) Uppsala Galaxy Catalogue: Nilson, 1973. UM - Curtis-Schmidt Michigan University Survey: MacAlpine et al., 1977a, b, c; MacAlpine, Lewis, 1978; MacAlpine, Williams, 1981. VV - Atlas of interacting galaxies: Vorontsov-Velyaminov, 1959. Was - Wasilewski galaxies: Wasilewski, 1983. Zw - Zwicky compact objects: Zwicky, 1971. Table 6. Deleted Survey objects. ============================================================== Object R.A. DEC. m Type ref. Spectrum -------------------------------------------------------------- 959 0 40 33.9 39 32 49 15.1 s2e: 48 galaxy + star 351 0 55 13.5 28 7 14 16. s3e: 48 galaxy + star 574 1 42 2.3 11 27 30 16.5 sd1e: 45 star 362 1 45 7.7 23 24 47 14.5 s1e: 28 star 578 1 49 3.7 7 3 22 16. s2 45 star 371 2 45 13.8 - 1 7 47 16. s1 28 star 377 7 10 53.2 74 6 0 16. s1e: 28 star 80 7 39 36.0 64 54 1 17. d3e: 45 galaxy + star 381 7 49 34.3 58 22 50 17.5 s1 28 star 1213 8 11 35.3 - 0 13 5 15.3 s2e 47 galaxy + star 388 8 25 37.5 25 30 0 16. s1e 28 star, Ton 323, AT Cnc 1217 8 27 55.8 - 4 14 18 17. s1e: 47 galaxy + star 392 8 56 10.6 33 8 47 15. s1 28 star = G 047-018, WD 393 9 5 47.4 60 31 37 17. s1 28 star 107 9 16 59.6 71 45 22 14.7 d3e: = Mrk 20 396 9 21 11.7 35 29 43 15.5 s1e: 28 star 112 9 24 35.6 48 17 50 16.5 d3 48 galaxy + star 113 9 25 22.1 62 54 7 14.5 s2 43 star 1265 10 46 58.0 23 6 12 17. d1e: 52 galaxy + star 1278 11 1 56.7 39 4 19 17. s1e: 45 star 1290 11 17 22.9 - 5 34 35 15.5 sd3 99 galaxy + star 425 11 31 7.8 64 26 57 16. s1 45 star 643 11 53 45.0 17 41 39 16. sd3 52 stars, star + star 436 12 11 39.9 37 1 36 16. s2e 45 star 437 12 13 15.9 41 8 47 16. s1e: 45 star 1318 12 16 36.5 4 7 58 14.5 ds1e = Mrk 49 227 12 45 57.8 51 15 20 16. s3e: 52 star 228 12 46 26.2 42 9 29 16.5 s2 45 star 448 12 59 8.8 30 19 40 17. s1e: 45 star 252 13 18 14.4 55 39 40 17. s2 45 star 791 13 30 12.3 10 45 49 17. s3 52 galaxy + star 457 13 30 48.9 39 16 50 16. sd3 52 star 458 13 32 14.5 40 21 36 16. s2e 45 star 460 13 42 3.3 40 15 10 16. s1e: 45 star 488 13 59 25.1 52 6 51 15.4 sd2e: 52 galaxy + star 677 14 17 30.1 36 22 23 17. sd2e: 28 star 1491 14 37 6.4 3 43 59 16.5 d2e: 52 galaxy + star 690 15 44 31.4 18 52 38 16.5 sd1e: 28 star 495 16 2 3.7 26 12 44 15.5 s2e: 45 star 502 16 53 21.4 64 9 45 15.5 s3 52 galaxy + star 890 16 55 7.4 63 19 11 15.1 ds2 = Mrk 503 505 17 19 47.5 39 45 0 15.5 sd2 48 galaxy + star 511 21 7 42.1 - 1 48 45 15. s2 45 star 914 22 32 28.3 40 24 32 13.5 sd3e: 48 star = L H 233 525 23 1 39.3 1 28 32 17. * s3 52 star 320 23 17 36.0 26 49 57 16.5* s1 28 star 327 23 34 35.1 23 02 34 15.7 s2e 52 galaxy + star ============================================================== 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors want to thank V. G. Lipovetskaya and O. M. Neizvest- naya for their help in compiling the Catalogue, checking and prepar- ing the data for computer, Yu. I. Izotov and I. Ju. Izotova for the help in compiling the data of IRAS fluxes, J. M. Mazzarella and V. Balzano for providing an opportunity to look through their catalo- gue, W. Keel, J. Huchra and D. E. Osterbrock for giving the data on spectral results of some Markarian galaxies. The authors also thank V. S. Oskanian for discussion and reduction English version of text. REFERENCES Afanasiev V. L., Denisyuk E. K., Lipovetsky V. A.: 1979, Pis'ma Astron. Zh., 5, 271. Afanasiev V. L., Lipovetsky V. A., Markarian B. E., Stepanian J. A.: 1980, Astrofizika, 16, 193. Arakelian M. A.: 1975, Soobshch. Byurak. Astrofiz. Obs., 47, 1. Arakelian M. A., Dibaj E. A., Esipov V. F.: 1970a, Astrofizika, 6, 39. Arakelian M. A., Dibaj E. A., Esipov V. F., Markarian B. E.: 1970b, Astrofizika, 6, 357. Arakelian M. 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