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International Day for preservation of Ozone Layer News

FACTBOX - Ozone Layer on Way to Slow Recovery


Planet Ark

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INTERNATIONAL: September 18, 2006
Here are some key facts about the ozone layer ahead of the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer on Saturday:

WHAT IS OZONE?

- Ozone, a pale-blue gas with a pungent odour, is a form of oxygen which was first discovered in laboratory experiments in the mid-1800s. It is created in the atmosphere when ultraviolet light breaks up oxygen molecules.
- The ozone layer is vital to life on earth because it filters dangerous solar radiation. Holes in the layer have been blamed for increased risk of skin cancer and cataracts in humans, and harm to crops and marine life.
THE OZONE LAYER
- Some 90 percent of the ozone is found in a layer of the atmosphere called the stratosphere, a region that begins about 10-16 km (6-10 miles) above the earth's surface and extends to an altitude of 50 km (31 miles). The ozone layer sits about 15-30 km (9-19 miles) above the earth.
- While ozone is useful in the stratosphere it becomes a pollutant greenhouse gas at altitudes below 10 km (6 miles) in the region known as the troposphere.
- Ozone is present in the atmosphere in very small quantities: out of every 10 million air molecules, about 2 million are normal oxygen but only 3 are ozone. The concentrations of ozone are lower at the equator than at the poles.
OZONE DEPLETION
- Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) containing chlorine and bromine have been blamed for thinning the layer because they attack the ozone molecules, causing them to break apart. Many CFCs, once commonly used in refrigeration, air conditioning and industrial cleaning, were banned by the 1985 Vienna Convention and its Montreal Protocol clinched in 1987.
ANTARCTIC OZONE HOLE
- Large reductions in the ozone layer take place each winter over the polar regions, especially the Antarctic, as low temperatures allow the formation of stratospheric clouds that assist chemical reactions breaking down ozone.
- The presence of a "hole" in the ozone layer over the Antarctic was recognised in 1985. Scientists say the hole spanned a record 29 million sq km (11 million sq miles) in September 2003, exposing the southern tip of South America.
THE PROGNOSIS
- The World Meteorological Organisation and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) said in August 2006 that the protective layer would be back to pre-1980 levels by 2049 over huge areas of Europe, North America, Asia, southern Australasia, Latin America and Africa. This was five years later than forecast in the last major scientific report in 2002.
- Over Antarctica, where so-called "ozone holes" have grown over the past 30 years, recovery was likely to be delayed until 2065, 15 years later than earlier hoped.

Sources: Reuters; UNEP (www.unep.org); NASA (www.nasa.gov)



http://www.planetark.org/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/38127/story.htm

Secretary-General calls for renewed efforts to restore ozone layer


UN News Centre

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16 September 2006 – Efforts to protect the ozone layer are showing signs of progress, but much remains to be done to restore this life-saving part of the earth's atmosphere that filters out the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays, Secretary-General Kofi Annan said in a message marking the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer.
The latest scientific assessments conducted under the auspices of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) found clear evidence of a reduction in ozone-depleting substances in the lower atmosphere, as well as indications that their destructive impact in the stratosphere was also on the wane, according to the message. But they also push back the estimated date for total ozone layer recovery by 15 years, to 2065.
Mr. Annan cautioned that failure to comply with the Montreal Protocol, the 1987 international treaty set up to protect the ozone layer, could delay or even bring this progress to a halt.
“The work is still unfinished, and it is only through persistent dedication over the course of this century that our generation and future generations will realize the benefits of full ozone layer recovery,” he said.
Meanwhile, the WMO has launched its first bulletin detailing depletion of the ozone layer over the Arctic.
While the hole in the ozone layer remains fairly static when it appears over the Antarctic, areas of depletion in the Arctic are much more likely to shift around, subjecting populations across far northern latitudes to less protection from the ultraviolet rays that cause skin cancer, cataracts and other ills, the report said.
The WMO also found that the degree of ozone loss depended to a large extent on meteorological conditions, with this past year's mild winter resulting in less ozone loss than the previous winter, which saw one of the largest Arctic ozone losses ever recorded.
This comes as three UN agencies today jointly launched a teaching programme aimed at showing children how to protect the ozone layer and safely enjoy the sun.
The OzonAction Education Pack is the product of a collaboration between UNEP, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Health Organization (WHO)
It involves teaching such basic concepts like looking at your shadow to determine how direct the sun is and covering up with hats, sunglasses and sunscreen.

“The OzonAction Education Pack will help schoolchildren to become aware of the simple protection steps that reduce solar UV health risks,” said Dr. Anders Nordström, Acting Director-General of WHO. “Severe health effects such as melanoma and other skin cancers are largely preventable through reduced sun exposure.”


http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=19866&Cr=ozone&Cr1=

Protect ozone, save life


News Today, India, R GOMATHY SANKARAVEL, Chennai, Sept 16:

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The International Ozone Layer Protection Day is celebrated today. The theme this year is 'Protect the Ozone Layer, Save Life on Earth'. How and when this message would become a reality?
S Antony Swamy, State co-ordinator, Tamilnadu Environment Council (TNEC), the programme unit of the Centre for Environment and Development Alternatives (CEDA) Trust, said, 'Now the rural areas also have to be taken into account since the lifestyle of the people in villages has been changed down the years'.
Since 1995, awareness programmes were being conducted every year for the villagers in Dindigul district with the help of the farmers, women SHGs and school students on how to protect the ozone layer.
He also said planting of saplings had taken up and the target this year was 10,000 saplings.
Expressing the need to check deforestation, maintain water bodies by removing illegal encroachments and periodical desilting and protecting the groundwater table, he said the government should take necessary steps.
Sultan Ahmed Ismail, soil biologist and ecologist, The New College, said youth's participation in carrying out any task could bring about the desired results, so they should come forward to communicate by e-mailing or SMSing others to stop burning unnecessary things which cause depletion of the ozone layer.
According to reports, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) have forged a unique partnership - OzonAction Education Pack - to provide primary school teachers with practical, hands-on and entertaining curricula material to educate students on the ozone layer and the causes and consequences of its depletion.

http://newstodaynet.com/16sep/ss4.htm

Ozone layer depletion threat to ecosystem


Indian Catholic, India - Sep 16, 2006

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Over the past three decades, anthropogenic emissions of chemical compounds into the atmosphere have caused pollution in environment with serious impact on human health.
Chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are produced deliberately and end up in the atmosphere by accident from different sources.Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are unavoidable by-products of burning fossil fuels. Air pollution, acid rain, contamination by toxic chemicals, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer and changes in the global atmosphere system are all major environmental threats to ecosystems and human beings.
Ozone (O3) gas is an unstable form of oxygen (O2) and is created by natural processes such as ultraviolet radiation in the upper atmosphere and by lightning. Ozone plays a key role in the atmosphere. The ozone layer absorbs a portion of the radiation from the sun, preventing it from reaching the planet's surface. It absorbs the portion of ultraviolet light called UVB. UVB has been linked to many harmful effects, including various types of skin cancer, cataracts, and harm to some crops, certain materials, and some forms of marine life.
Ozone molecules are constantly formed at any given time and destroyed in the stratosphere. The total amount remains relatively stable. While ozone concentrations vary naturally with sunspots, the seasons, and latitude, these processes are well understood and predictable. Each natural reduction in ozone levels has been followed by a recovery. Scientific evidence has shown that the ozone shield is being depleted well beyond changes due to natural processes.
The ozone layer acts like a giant sunshade. It protects plants and animals from much of the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. It shields plants and animal life from UVB, which, in high doses of incidence, can be particularly damaging to environment and natural life. The absorption of UVB by the ozone layer also creates a source of heat, which plays a key role in the temperature structure of the atmosphere.
Ozone layer depletion is a threat to humanity and all living organisms. Ozone layer depletion seems likely to increase the rate of greenhouse warming, by reducing the effectiveness of the carbon dioxide sink in the oceans. Phytoplankton (micro-organisms) in the oceans assimilates large amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Increased UV radiation reduces phytoplankton activity significantly. This means that large amounts of carbon dioxide remain in the atmosphere.
Increasing amounts of UV radiation have an impact on plankton and other tiny organisms at the base of the marine food web. These organisms provide the original food source for all other living organisms in the oceans. A high increase in UV radiation may disrupt many ecosystems on land. Rice production may be drastically reduced by the effects of UVB on the nitrogen assimilating activities of micro-organisms. With a diminishing ozone layer, it is likely that the supply of natural nitrogen to ecosystems, such as tropical rice paddies, will be significantly reduced.
Most plants (and trees) grow more slowly and become smaller and stunted when exposed to large amounts of UVB. Increased UVB also inhibits pollen germination.
The protection of the earth's ozone layer is one of the major challenges over the past 30 years, spanning the fields of environment, trade, international cooperation and sustainable development. The thinning of the ozone layer threatens human health through diseases such as skin cancer, eye cataracts and immune deficiency, affects flora and fauna, and also influences the planet's climate. Ozone depletion is brought about by a number of chemicals known as ozone depleting substances (ODS), the most notorious of which are the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
CFCs, created by humans, are a main cause of the hole in the ozone layer, which permits ultraviolet (UV) radiation to hit the earth surface. This radiation can also damage plant and marine life. Scientists believe that the development of ozone layer hundreds of million years ago allowed the evolution of complex life forms on earth.
Worldwide, CFCs are declining because of the control on their use under the Montreal Protocol, especially among the countries with the heaviest use from 1986 to 1998. Cape Grimm Global Atmosphere Watch Monitoring Station located in Australia measures worldwide CFCs on the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere, which extends to the ground about 6 miles above sea level.
International cooperation has been the key to protecting the stratospheric ozone layer. Nations agreed in principle to tackle a global problem before its effects became evident or its existence scientifically proven.
In 1977, the United States banned use of CFCs in non-essential aerosols. Canada, Norway and Sweden enacted similar control measures. The European Community (EC) froze production capacity and began to limit use of aerosols. These initiatives, though useful, provided only a temporary respite. After falling for several years, CFC consumption began increasing again in the 1980s, as non-aerosol uses, such as foam blowing, solvents and refrigeration, increased. Stricter control measures were needed and UNEP and several developed countries took the lead, calling for a global treaty on stratospheric ozone layer protection (Benedick 1998).
Due to continuous efforts by the international communities the global consumption of ODS has decreased markedly and the ozone layer is predicted to start recovering in the next one or two decades and to return to a pre-1980 level by the middle of the 21st century of all the future control measures of the Montreal Protocol are adhered to by all countries (UNEP 2000a).
India and China are the largest regional producers and users of CFCs. China's consumption of ODS increased more than 12 percent per year during 1986-94. India is the second largest producer and the fourth largest consumer of CFCs in the world (UNEP 1998). The Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol and GEF have been helping the region meet the goals of the Montreal Protocol. China has made a commitment to phase out the consumption of ODS by 2010. It has already banned the establishment of new CFC- and halon-related production facilities, and developed general and sector-specific plans with the help of the World Bank and the Multilateral Fund. The latter has approved a World Bank project which will help India phase out CFC production by 2010.
Bangladesh accessed the protocol on August 2, 1990. Until August 19, 2004 Montreal Protocol was ratified by 187 countries. Through ratification/ accession to the protocol, government is committed to protecting the ozone layer by phasing out the use of ozone-depleting substances within fixed period of time. As per Montreal Protocol maximum allowable limit of use of ODS for Bangladesh is 580.4 MT (Metric Tons) up to December 2004, 290.2 MT up to December 2007, 087.1 MT up to December 2009 and 000.0 MT for January 2010.
In 1994, the United Nations General Assembly voted to designate September 16 as "World Ozone Day", to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol on that date in 1987.
Bangladesh is going to observe the International Ozone Day on 16 September along with other countries of the world. Through observance of the International Ozone Day it would be possible to create awareness among people to protect the ozone layer and this will ensure sustainable and livable environmnet for all .

By Khandoker Azizul Islam

Source -- Daily Star

The writer is a senior assistant secretary of the Ministry of Environment and Forest and is a reelance contributor to The Daily Star.


http://www.theindiancatholic.com/newsread.asp?nid=3440

Green Clubs planned in 250 schools in TN


Newindpress (subscription) - Chennai, India, Saturday September 16 2006 00:00 IST

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VELLORE: Hailing Tamil Nadu for the successful implementation of the National Green Club (NGC) programme in schools since its inception in 2001, Udayasankar, Deputy Director (Environment Education), Ministry of Environment and Forest, New Delhi, said,” as many as 7,500 clubs will be started in 250 schools per district across TN in the current financial year,”
Udayasankar who was here in Vellore to assess the programme on Friday, said that in each school around 40 students would be enrolled in the NGC and they would be trained on the need to protect the environment though various training programmes, workshops, quiz, cultural programmes, eco-tour and through celebration of environment specific days like World Ozone day through teacher co-ordinators and dedicated NGOs.
The Ministry had allotted Rs 18 crore to carry out these activities across the country, he said and added that financial assistance for each school had also been increased from Rs 1,000 to Rs 2,500 per annum from this year.
Moreover, Rs 25,000 had also been allotted per district to meet the expenditure of implementing the programme. The district co-ordinating committee would monitor the entire work with the Collector as its chairman. The other members include district educational officers, he said.
The Ministry has also involved NGOs, as resource agents for this programme. In Tamil Nadu, the C P Ramaswamy foundation, an NGO, was acting as a resource agent, which provided teaching material to the NGC and also trained teacher co-ordinators, he added.
When asked about the issuing of certificates for membership in such clubs, he said,” the Ministry is discussing this issue, but as of now it is facing various constraints”.
To a question on starting NGC clubs in colleges, he said, “We have already discussed it and our policy has specifications to start such programmes in colleges, but financial constraints stop us from taking up the task immediately.”
Referring to separate studies conducted by four independent agencies like Tata Energy & Resource Agency, World Wide Fund, India and Centre of Media Studies to evaluate this programme, he said,” The reports submitted by the agencies, say that the programme was implemented effectively in the past four years and it needs region-based modifications to carry it forward in the future.
The purpose of his tour was to prepare a final draft of the programme, which he would be submitting to the Planning Commission and changes would be included in the 11th Five Year Plan, he added.

http://www.newindpress.com/NewsItems.asp?ID=IET20060915124120&Page=T&Title=Southern+News+-+Tamil+Nadu&Topic=0

PRESERVATION OF THE OZONE LAYER


Press Information Bureau (press release) - New Delhi, India, 15 September 2006, 13:56 IST

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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed on 16th September, 1987 to protect the Ozone Layer. Since 1995, 16th September is celebrated every year as the International Day for Preservation of the Ozone Layer and commemorates the date of signing of Montreal Protocol.
The Protocol was the culmination of decades of research, which established that chemicals released in the atmosphere could damage the ozone layer. A depleted Ozone Layer in the stratosphere allows the Ultra Violet rays of the sun reach to the earth exposing mankind, flora and fauna to its harmful effects.
Initially on the basis of very definite empirical findings, the Protocol enjoined upon all the signatory nations to completely phase out harmful chemicals such as Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), halons, Carbontetrachloride (CTC), Methylchloroform in a given time schedule. Later, other studies have brought more chemicals such as Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) and Methyl bromide under the purview of the Protocol for phasing out within a given deadline.
India, being a Party to the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol, has been sharing the global concern for protecting the Ozone Layer and phase out of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) like CFC, halons, CTC, methyl chloroform, methyl bromide and HCFC which are used in aerosol products, refrigeration and air-conditioning products, foam blowing applications, fire fighting equipment, metal-cleaning applications, soil fumigation appliances, etc.
Since 1993 with the continuous efforts made by officers responsible for implementation of activities relating to the Montreal Protocol, conversion projects for phasing out CFC, halon, CTC, consumption and production were prepared and got approved by the Executive Committee of the Multilateral Fund (MLF). So far, India has received about Rs. 1000 crores to phase-out 23000 MT production of CFC and CTC and about 22,000 MT consumption of CFC, CTC, Halon and methyl chloroform. India has achieved 50% reduction target of CFC production from 22558 MT to 11294 MT and consumption from 6681 MT to 1940 MT. Further, the most important and critical target of 85% reduction target of CTC production and consumption has also been achieved by adopting suitable alternative technology for non-feedstock applications of CTC as on 1.1.2005 through implementation of approved projects.
Government of India has also taken a number of policy measures, both fiscal and regulatory, to encourage early adoption of new technologies by existing and new enterprises. Full exemption from payment of Customs and Excise duties is granted on capital goods required to implement ODS phase out projects funded by the MLF and this benefit is extended for projects and new-establishments using non-ODS technologies. The Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 regulating ODS production, consumption and trade have also been put in place. These Rules are being enforced under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 with effect from 19th July, 2000. Three amendments have been made in 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2005 to the Rules thereafter.
This year the Ozone Day is being celebrated with the message “ Protect the Ozone Layer: Save Life on Earth” On the occasion of the International Day for the preservation of Ozone Layer, a time- bound and measurable target has been set by all United Nations member States. This form the heart of global agenda. Under this goal Primary School education, ensuring Environmental Sustainability and Developing Partnership has been fixed. The United nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Education and Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) have forged important partnership to provide primary school teachers with practical hands-on and entertaining curricula material to educate their students about the protective role of the Ozone Layer and the causes and consequences of its depletion. The Ozone Education Pack contains an entire teaching and learning programme, based on basic knowledge, practical skills and participation. The pack is part of its global communication with national obligations under Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. This service is being launched at New Delhi, (India) Nairobi (Kenya) and Santigo de chile (chile) simultaneously.

http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=20730

NEW OZONE EDUCATION PACK TARGETS PRIMARY SCHOOL


Press Information Bureau (press release) - New Delhi, India, 15 September 2006

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The Minister of State for Environment & Forest, Shri Namo Narain Meena said the Montreal Protocol is the most successful international environment agreement so far and achieved more than 90% of the reduction of production and consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances at global level. However, the job of protecting the Ozone layer is not yet finished. The world community is on the right track to achieve the aim of the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol. Launching the OzoneAction Education Pack on the eve of International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, he welcomed the initiative of UNESCO to bring this educational pack during the Decade of the Sustainable Education declared by the United Nations.
The State Minister added since 1993 with the continuous efforts, conversion projects for phasing out CFC, Halon, CTC, consumption and production were prepared and got approved by the Executive Committee of the Multilateral Fund (MLF). So far, India has received about Rs.1000 crores to phase-out 23,000 MT production of CFC and CTC and about 22,000 MT consumption of CFC, CTC, Halon and Methyl Chloroform. India has achieved 50% reduction target of CFC production, 85% reduction target of CTC production, and consumption has also been achieved by adopting suitable alternative technology for non-feedstock applications of CTC. Along with India, it has been launched in Nairobi (Kenya) and Santiago (Chilie).
The kit has been developed by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and World Health Organisation (WHO) in collaboration with technical institutions organizers of education programmes, educational institutions and experts. This would provide adequate knowledge to school children through their teachers who will assist the present stakeholders and will be held responsible for future protection of the global environment.
Dr. B. R. Neupane, Regional Programme Specialist, UNESCO, Mr. Alexander Von Hildbrand, WHO and Mr. Rajendra M. Shende, Head, OzoneAction Branch, UNEP spoke on the occasion.

http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=20755

International Ozone Day - Ozone layer depletion threat to ecosystem


The Daily Star - Dhaka, Bangladesh, Khandoker Azizul Islam

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Over the past three decades, anthropogenic emissions of chemical compounds into the atmosphere have caused pollution in environment with serious impact on human health. Chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are produced deliberately and end up in the atmosphere by accident from different sources. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are unavoidable by-products of burning fossil fuels. Air pollution, acid rain, contamination by toxic chemicals, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer and changes in the global atmosphere system are all major environmental threats to ecosystems and human beings.
Ozone (O3) gas is an unstable form of oxygen (O2) and is created by natural processes such as ultraviolet radiation in the upper atmosphere and by lightning. Ozone plays a key role in the atmosphere. The ozone layer absorbs a portion of the radiation from the sun, preventing it from reaching the planet's surface. It absorbs the portion of ultraviolet light called UVB. UVB has been linked to many harmful effects, including various types of skin cancer, cataracts, and harm to some crops, certain materials, and some forms of marine life.
Ozone molecules are constantly formed at any given time and destroyed in the stratosphere. The total amount remains relatively stable. While ozone concentrations vary naturally with sunspots, the seasons, and latitude, these processes are well understood and predictable. Each natural reduction in ozone levels has been followed by a recovery. Scientific evidence has shown that the ozone shield is being depleted well beyond changes due to natural processes.
The ozone layer acts like a giant sunshade. It protects plants and animals from much of the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. It shields plants and animal life from UVB, which, in high doses of incidence, can be particularly damaging to environment and natural life. The absorption of UVB by the ozone layer also creates a source of heat, which plays a key role in the temperature structure of the atmosphere.
Ozone layer depletion is a threat to humanity and all living organisms. Ozone layer depletion seems likely to increase the rate of greenhouse warming, by reducing the effectiveness of the carbon dioxide sink in the oceans. Phytoplankton (micro-organisms) in the oceans assimilates large amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Increased UV radiation reduces phytoplankton activity significantly. This means that large amounts of carbon dioxide remain in the atmosphere.
Increasing amounts of UV radiation have an impact on plankton and other tiny organisms at the base of the marine food web. These organisms provide the original food source for all other living organisms in the oceans. A high increase in UV radiation may disrupt many ecosystems on land. Rice production may be drastically reduced by the effects of UVB on the nitrogen assimilating activities of micro-organisms. With a diminishing ozone layer, it is likely that the supply of natural nitrogen to ecosystems, such as tropical rice paddies, will be significantly reduced.
Most plants (and trees) grow more slowly and become smaller and stunted when exposed to large amounts of UVB. Increased UVB also inhibits pollen germination.
The protection of the earth's ozone layer is one of the major challenges over the past 30 years, spanning the fields of environment, trade, international cooperation and sustainable development. The thinning of the ozone layer threatens human health through diseases such as skin cancer, eye cataracts and immune deficiency, affects flora and fauna, and also influences the planet's climate. Ozone depletion is brought about by a number of chemicals known as ozone depleting substances (ODS), the most notorious of which are the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
CFCs, created by humans, are a main cause of the hole in the ozone layer, which permits ultraviolet (UV) radiation to hit the earth surface. This radiation can also damage plant and marine life. Scientists believe that the development of ozone layer hundreds of million years ago allowed the evolution of complex life forms on earth.
Worldwide, CFCs are declining because of the control on their use under the Montreal Protocol, especially among the countries with the heaviest use from 1986 to 1998. Cape Grimm Global Atmosphere Watch Monitoring Station located in Australia measures worldwide CFCs on the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere, which extends to the ground about 6 miles above sea level.
International cooperation has been the key to protecting the stratospheric ozone layer. Nations agreed in principle to tackle a global problem before its effects became evident or its existence scientifically proven.
In 1977, the United States banned use of CFCs in non-essential aerosols. Canada, Norway and Sweden enacted similar control measures. The European Community (EC) froze production capacity and began to limit use of aerosols. These initiatives, though useful, provided only a temporary respite. After falling for several years, CFC consumption began increasing again in the 1980s, as non-aerosol uses, such as foam blowing, solvents and refrigeration, increased. Stricter control measures were needed and UNEP and several developed countries took the lead, calling for a global treaty on stratospheric ozone layer protection (Benedick 1998).
Due to continuous efforts by the international communities the global consumption of ODS has decreased markedly and the ozone layer is predicted to start recovering in the next one or two decades and to return to a pre-1980 level by the middle of the 21st century of all the future control measures of the Montreal Protocol are adhered to by all countries (UNEP 2000a).
India and China are the largest regional producers and users of CFCs. China's consumption of ODS increased more than 12 percent per year during 1986-94. India is the second largest producer and the fourth largest consumer of CFCs in the world (UNEP 1998). The Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol and GEF have been helping the region meet the goals of the Montreal Protocol. China has made a commitment to phase out the consumption of ODS by 2010. It has already banned the establishment of new CFC- and halon-related production facilities, and developed general and sector-specific plans with the help of the World Bank and the Multilateral Fund. The latter has approved a World Bank project which will help India phase out CFC production by 2010.
Bangladesh accessed the protocol on August 2, 1990. Until August 19, 2004 Montreal Protocol was ratified by 187 countries. Through ratification/ accession to the protocol, government is committed to protecting the ozone layer by phasing out the use of ozone-depleting substances within fixed period of time. As per Montreal Protocol maximum allowable limit of use of ODS for Bangladesh is 580.4 MT (Metric Tons) up to December 2004, 290.2 MT up to December 2007, 087.1 MT up to December 2009 and 000.0 MT for January 2010.
In 1994, the United Nations General Assembly voted to designate September 16 as "World Ozone Day", to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol on that date in 1987.
Bangladesh is going to observe the International Ozone Day on 16 September along with other countries of the world. Through observance of the International Ozone Day it would be possible to create awareness among people to protect the ozone layer and this will ensure sustainable and livable environmnet for all .
The writer is a senior assistant secretary of the Ministry of Environment and Forest and is a reelance contributor to The Daily Star.

http://www.thedailystar.net/2006/09/16/d609161501112.htm

Ozone Day today


The New Nation – Bangladesh. By BSS, Dhaka, Fri, 15 Sep 2006, 10:19:00

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The International Ozone Day will be observed in the country as elsewhere of the world today as part of the global effort to create mass awareness about the ozone layer depletion and its consequences on the earth.
Bangladesh has been observing the day since 1995 with other member-countries of the United Nations after adoption of a decision on December 19, 1994 to observe September 16 every year as the International Ozone Day.
The ozone layer protects the planet from ultraviolet radiation, which at high levels poses a number of dangers, including increased risk of skin cancer and cataracts. Scientists first marked the decline in the stratospheric ozone over Antarctica in 1986.

They said the hole varied between 20 and 29 million sq. kms in the early 1990s. It was 29 million sq. km in September 2000, 27 million sq. km in September 2003, and 24 million sq. km in 2004.


According to their estimation, the Ozone layer would be healed by 2050 if no further ozone-damaging chemicals were released into the atmosphere.
To achieve the goal, the UN has set a time-frame under the Montreal Protocol to stop the use and production of all categories of ozone depleting substances. .
The theme of this year's International Ozone Day is: Protect the Ozone Layer, Save Life on Earth.
President Prof. Dr Iajuddin Ahmed and Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia in separate messages urged all to put in their best efforts in making a success the global endeavours to stop the ozone layer depletion.
The President said Ozone Layer is a natural shield, which protects the earth by absorbing the ultra-violet rays of the sun that are harmful for life on the earth.
So, he said, it is our first and foremost duty to protect the shield through reducing the use of ozone depleting gases.

http://nation.ittefaq.com/artman/publish/article_30805.shtml

NGO ropes in teachers, holds ‘World Ozone Day’


Mumbai Newsline - Mumbai, India, Express News Service

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Mumbai, September 15: To increase awareness on environmental changes among teachers with special emphasis to the ozone layer, Oasis, an environmental NGO, organised a workshop to commemorate the ‘World Ozone Day’.
“Every year, we conduct events as part of our eco-mission from June to March as we feel that such informative sessions for the teachers will help them to incorporate environmental concepts in their respective subjects easily,” said Oasis executive director Puja Vijay Sukhija. Oasis or Organization of Aware Saviours in Society’s “The Ozone zone tour” for the teachers at a Khar club on Friday was part of its eco-mission 2006-2007.

The 25 participating schools include St Xaviers High Schools (Virar and Goregaon), St Joseph High School, St Mary’s High School (Mira Road and Kalyan) and J H Ambani Saraswati Vidyamandir (Surat) to mention a few.


The workshop initially focused on evidences of human activities that were affecting the ozone layer over the last 20 years. However, the highlight of the event was an interactive session whereby teachers were asked to enact situations and relate them to different subjects being taught in the schools.
For instance, while one group enacted science lessons and related ozone depleting substances to it, another combined history lessons and the industrial revolution and its harmful effects on the atmosphere. “These exercises will give us an understanding of what exactly is happening as far as ozone depletion is concerned and help us in incorporating this knowledge in subjects like Geography, English, Mathematics besides Environmental Studies,” said Radhika Iyer, a teacher with the J H Ambani Saraswati Vidyamandir, Surat.
Oasis, as part of its programme, also trains five students as eco-ambassadors. These students are responsible for spreading awareness about environmental changes among students and the school management.

http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=201482

TWELFTH INTERNATIONAL DAY FOR PRESENTATION OF OZONE LAYER CELEBRATED


Press Information Bureau (press release) - New Delhi, India, 16 September 2006

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Twelfth International Day for preservation of Ozone Layer was celebrated today to commemorate the date of signing of Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer. Minister of State for Environment & Forests, Shri Namo Narain Meena in his presiding address said, “India has so far received about Rs. 1000 crore to phase-out 23000 MT production of CFC and CTC and about 22000 MT consumption of CFC,CTC, Halon and methyl chloroform. India has achieved 50% target of CFC production from 22558 MT to 11294 MT and consumption from 6681 MT to 1940 MT. The most critical and important target of CTC production and consumption has also been achieved by adopting suitable alternative technology for non-feedstock applications of CTC. The Government has developed new polices and regulatory measures e.g., customs and excise duty exemption is given to investments made by the industries converting to non-ODS technology since 1995. These provisions will be extended during the current financial year 2006-07”.
He attributed this success to the active role taken by industries, government authorities, technical institution, experts, NGOs and said that India has complied with its commitment under the Montreal Protocol successfully. He further emphasised the interactions held with the governments of Thailand, Philippines and Malaysia on ODS trade related issues.
Dr.S.Devotta, Director, National Environment Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, in a key note address said, “Depletion in ozone layer will create innumerable problems for flora, fauna and human beings. There will be reduction in crop yield, decrease in photosynthesis, disappearance of large number of species and deteriorated air quality that will affect health and growth of human beings. He said that India has participated extensively in drafting the Montreal Protocol and is successfully phasing out CFC. He further added, “Identifying alternative for CFC has been one of the most challenging Research and Development work of the last century”.
Mr. Rajendra Shende, Chief of OzoneAction, United Nations Environment Programme said that the ozone layer plays a crucial role in the protection of life on earth from harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. Giving examples of action taken by children in China and America, he added, “While some solar UV radiation is necessary for bone health besides, preventing certain chronic diseases, excessive sun exposure causes immediate and long term health problems”. He appealed to the children to initiate movement in preserving the ozone layer.
On this occasion, National awards for Prevention of Pollution as well as the Rajiv Gandhi Environment Awards for clean Technology were given.
These Awards are given annually to encourage industrial Units for taking significant steps and measures towards prevention of environment pollution.
The National Awards for Prevention of Pollution for the year 2004-2005 were awarded to M/s Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizer Ltd. Thal, Raigarh, Maharashtra and M/s Seagram Distillers Pvt. Ltd., Dindori, Nasik, Maharashtra. Rajiv Gandhi Environment Awards for Clean Technology is given annually to encourage industrial units for adoption of clean technologies and practices in their processes that substantially reduce, eliminate and prevent environment pollution. This Award for the year 2004-2005 was awarded to M/s Pigments Pvt. Ltd., Ankleshwar, Gujarat.
Prizes to the winners of various competitions like Poster design Competition, Painting Competition, Quiz on Ozone Science, Skit Competition, Model Making Competition and Slogan Writing Competition were given to 53 students from various schools in and around Delhi.

http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=20760

Ozone Day celebrations


Hindu - Chennai, India

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Thiruvananthapuram: Oxford School, Thiruvananthapuram, organised a photo session, seminar and quiz competition in connection with the Ozone Day celebrations on Friday. Speakers at the seminar stressed the need for collective efforts to reduce pollution and conserve the ozone layer. Gopika Dutt led the students in taking the ozone pledge. Prizes were distributed to the winners of various competitions held as part of the Ozone Day celebrations. — Special Correspondent

http://www.hindu.com/2006/09/16/stories/2006091621770300.htm

India achieved 50 pc target of phasing out CFCs: Meena


Zee News - Noida,India

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New Delhi, Sept 16: India has achieved 50 per cent target of phasing out Chloro-Fluro-Carbons (CFCs) from 22,558 tonnes to 11294 tonnes and consumption from 6681 tonnes to 1940 tonnes, Minister of State for Environment and Forest Namo Narain Meena said today.
Attributing this success to the suitable alternative technology being adopted for non-feedstock applications of CTC, Meena said, "India has so far received about Rs 1000 crore to phase-out 23,000 tonnes production of CFC and CTC and about 22,000 tonnes consumption of CFC, chloro-tetra-chloride, halon and methyl chloroform.
"The government has developed new policies and regulatory measures, incentives on investments made by the industries converting to non-ODS technology since 1995. These provisions will be extended during the current financial year," he said.
Observing that India has successfully complied with its commitments under the Montreal protocol, the minister said the interactions held with the governments of Thailand, the Philippines and Malaysia on ODS trade-related issues.
"Depletion in ozone layer will create innumerable problems for flora, fauna and human beings. There will be reduction in crop yield, decrease in photosynthesis, disappearance of large number of species and deteriorated air quality that will affect health and growth of human beings," Dr S Devotta, Director of National Environment Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, said.
Rajendra Shende, Chief of Ozoneaction, United Nations Environment Programme underlined the importance of ozone layer that plays a crucial role in the protection of life on Earth from harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. Bureau Report
http://www.zeenews.com/znnew/articles.asp?aid=323142&ssid=26&sid=ENV

Call to check Ozone depletion]


Newindpress (subscription) - Chennai, India, Saturday September 16 2006 12:50 IST

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VISAKHAPATNAM: On the occasion of World Ozone Day on September 16, the Environmental Studies Department of GITAM College of Science would organise an exhibition highlighting the ozone depletion, global warming and its effects on earth.
The World Ozone Day is being celebrated with the theme of ‘Protect the Ozone layer - Save life on earth’ given by the United Nations.
Addressing a press conference here on Friday, environmentalist T Shivaji Rao stressed upon the need to protect the Ozone layer and look for alternative methods to avoid CFC emissions from thinning the Ozone layer to protect the life on the earth.
GITAM College of Science Principal Prof N Lakshamana Das pointed out that there is an urgent need for advanced research in environment related fields.
http://www.newindpress.com/ad/icici_popunder.htm

Govt apathy: green sheen off on World Ozone Day


Ludhiana Newsline - Ludhiana, India, 18 September 2006, Anupam Bhagria

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Ludhiana, September 17: Committed to its aim, this year also Vatawaran Sambhal Society, a Non Government Organisation (NGO)celebrated the World Ozone Day today but minus the enthusiasm that was there earlier. The NGO received a big jolt, courtesy government departments and the number of saplings, which it was decided earlier will be planted at 10 different schools, has now reduced to only 120 from 1,000.
Jagjit Singh Mann, Founder chairman of Vatawaran Sambhal Society said,’’We met Ashok Gupta Deputy Commissioner Ludhiana in June and acquainted him with our activities to keep the environment pollution free. He assured us to provide saplings for free or on lesser rates. He also asked for details of our requirements. In the last week of June we handed over him the details. Following which he again assured us that he would get the needful done about saplings.’’ He further said that when they approached District Forest Officer, he refused to give saplings.
Mann said, ‘’We met District Forest Officer, Ludhiana Sushil Kanti Bahera two days ago and requested for saplings but he refused, saying that his departments’ target of ‘free plantation’ is over. We we even proposed to buy saplings from the government nurseries, but were told that there no plants. However, in the nurseries of Salempur and Mattewara that we visited yesterday, there are many plants.’’
When Newsline contacted Bahera, he said, ‘’Our target of free plantation is over for this year. We have already planted 10,000 saplings. We cannot issue anymore plants under this scheme. The plants which are left with us are to be planted under other schemes.’’ It needs to be mentioned here that this NGO, which came into existence three years ago has planted 10,000 saplings in 88 Government Primary Schools of Ludhiana district, out of which 2,000 have been planted in two villages adopted under Green Village Project. Maan, while showing the bills of government nurseries said, ‘’All the plants we planted were not for free. We bought them from government nurseries as rates are cheaper as compared to private ones. But this time when we were planning to plant 1,000 plants in 10 school on World Ozone Day, we could not get saplings from government nurseries. As the rates of private nurseries are almost double, we can afford to plant only 250 saplings. These saplings will be planted in Government Primary School Dhanansu, two Jawahar Novodya Vidyalas and other government schools.’’
http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=201666

Call For Renewed Efforts To Restore Ozone Layer


Scoop Independent News, Sunday, 17 September 2006, 2:40 pm, Press Release: United Nations

Secretary-General Calls For Renewed Efforts To Restore Ozone Layer

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New York, Sep 16 2006 7:00PM


Efforts to protect the ozone layer are showing signs of progress, but much remains to be done to restore this life-saving part of the earth's atmosphere that filters out the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays, Secretary-General Kofi Annan said in a message marking the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer.
The latest scientific assessments conducted under the auspices of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) found clear evidence of a reduction in ozone-depleting substances in the lower atmosphere, as well as indications that their destructive impact in the stratosphere was also on the wane, according to the message. But they also push back the estimated date for total ozone layer recovery by 15 years, to 2065.
Mr. Annan cautioned that failure to comply with the Montreal Protocol, the 1987 international treaty set up to protect the ozone layer, could delay or even bring this progress to a halt.
"The work is still unfinished, and it is only through persistent dedication over the course of this century that our generation and future generations will realize the benefits of full ozone layer recovery," he said.
Meanwhile, the WMO has launched its first bulletin detailing depletion of the ozone layer over the Arctic.
While the hole in the ozone layer remains fairly static when it appears over the Antarctic, areas of depletion in the Arctic are much more likely to shift around, subjecting populations across far northern latitudes to less protection from the ultraviolet rays that cause skin cancer, cataracts and other ills, the report said.
The WMO also found that the degree of ozone loss depended to a large extent on meteorological conditions, with this past year's mild winter resulting in less ozone loss than the previous winter, which saw one of the largest Arctic ozone losses ever recorded.
This comes as three UN agencies today jointly launched a teach

programme aimed at showing children how to protect the ozone layer and safely enjoy the sun.


The OzonAction Education Pack is the product of a collaboration between UNEP, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Health Organization (WHO)
It involves teaching such basic concepts like looking at your shadow to determine how direct the sun is and covering up with hats, sunglasses and sunscreen.
"The OzonAction Education Pack will help schoolchildren to become aware of the simple protection steps that reduce solar UV health risks," said Dr. Anders Nordström, Acting Director-General of WHO. "Severe health effects such as melanoma and other skin cancers are largely preventable through reduced sun exposure." Ends
http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WO0609/S00284.htm

BMP distributes 10,000 herbs


The Hindu, 18 September 2006, Staff Reporter

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BANGALORE: It was a day when the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BMP) went back to Nature.
On Saturday, "go green" was the message that the civic body gave all the citizens.
It celebrated the World Ozone Day and Vanamahotsava. A Bio-Diversity Committee was also formed on this day at the Jogupalya Girls High School in Ward No 75.
It was appropriately marked by the planting of saplings by Kannada Development Authority Chairman Siddalingaiah and Mayor Mumtaz Begum. That was not all — BMP Commissioner, K. Jairaj released sparrows to spread the message of conservation of flora and fauna.
Nearly 10,000 medicinal plants were distributed. The BMP also plans to plant one lakh seedlings in Bangalore during the rainy season.

http://www.thehindu.com/2006/09/18/stories/2006091801280200.htm


BMP gears up to celebrate Ozone Day


New Indian Express, Sights, sounds and smells from Bangalore, 17 September 2006

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BANGALORE: Ozone Day is round the corner and the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BMP) along with Horticulture Department is all geared up to green the Garden City in a big way.
Over one lakh saplings will be distributed across the City in next 45 days. Medicinal plants, flowering plants and fruit bearing plants will be distributed and planted at parks, hospitals, schools, play grounds, railway lines, prayer centres and graveyards coming under all the 100 wards of BMP.
On Saturday, Mayor Mumtaz Begum and President of Kannada Development Authority Siddhalingaih will initiate tree-planting programme. A special programme has been arranged at Ward no 75 at the BMP Girl’s High School in Jogipallya Ulsoor.
“BMP had recently constituted a ‘Biodiversity Management Committee’ under the chairmanship of A N Yellappa Reddy, former Secretary of the Government for Forest and Ecology. The recommendations of the committee will be implemented in the 45-day programme,” Udapudi D Krishna, Tree Officer BMP, told this paper.
“Distribution of tree saplings was a ongoing programme of the BMP and we will take it in a big way on the occasion of World Ozone Day.
The sapling distribution programme will be undertaken by BMP along with the Horticulture Department, local corporators, MLAs, MPs, Residents Welfare Associations, School children, NSS volunteers and Scouts and Guides,” he added.

http://bangalorebuzz.blogspot.com/2006/09/bmp-gears-up-to-celebrate-ozone-day.html

International Ozone Day: Drastic reduction in use of harmful chemicals urged


The Daily Times, Pakistan, 17 September 2006, By Imran Naeem Ahmad

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ISLAMABAD: Federal Minister for Environment Syed Faisal Saleh Hayat on Saturday called for a drastic reduction in the use of the Ozone depleting chemical Carbon Tetra Chloride (CTC).
“This poses a great challenge and we need to control the use of the chemical by cutting down its consumption to 15 percent,” said the minister while speaking at a function organised to mark the International Ozone Day.
Pakistan is a signatory to virtually all international environmental conventions and protocols including the Montreal Protocol. “Pakistan will continue to make efforts to control CTC’s usage in partnership with national stakeholders and through governmental controls,” he added.
In order to check the problem, Pakistan’s Directorate General of Customs and Research and UN’s Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) has trained 199 customs officers to increase their capacity in identifying Ozone depleting substances, Faisal said, adding that “The role of the customs departments at this stage is of key importance to government’s efforts in tackling the problem”.
Faisal stressed that no government could accomplish much without the participation of the general public and all stakeholders.
The Ozone layer acts protects life on earth from the harmful ultraviolet-B radiation rays emitted by the sun. But the use of chemicals such as Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), Halons, CTC, Methyl Chloroform and Methyl Bromide has led to the layer’s depletion, commonly known as the Ozone Hole.
The Ozone Day is held annually on September 16. In 1995 the United Nations General Assembly announced an international day for the Ozone. On this day, 188 member countries of the Montreal Protocol draw the attention of the world community towards the problem. Earlier, Khizar Hayat, the project director of the Ministry of Environment’s Ozone Cell, highlighted the policy and regulatory measures undertaken to protect the Ozone layer while Jan Vandermootle, the UNDP representative, read out the UN secretary-general’s message on the day’s significance.

http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006\09\17\story_17-9-2006_pg11_1

Ozone Day today


The Daily Times, Pakistan, Saturday, September 16, 2006

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ISLAMABAD: The International Ozone Day for protection of the Ozone Layer will be observed across the world today. The Ministry of Environment, in collaboration with the UNDP, will organise a seminar to mark the day.
Minister for Environment Makhdoom Syed Faisal Saleh Hayat is likely to be chief guest on the occasion. On December 19, 1994, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed September 16 as the International Day for the preservation of the Ozone Layer, commemorating the date on which the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the Ozone Layer was signed 19 years ago.

http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006\09\16\story_16-9-2006_pg11_9

Bhutan observes International Ozone day


South Asian Media Net, Saturday, September 16,2006

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THIMPHU: Bhutan has joined the global community to observe the International Ozone day tomorrow, September 16. The theme this year is “Protect the ozone layer – save life and earth.” Bhutan ratified the Vienna convention for the protection of ozone layer and Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer in 2004.
http://www.southasianmedia.net/index_story.cfm?id=325516&category=Frontend&Country=BHUTAN

International Ozone Day today


Daily Star, Bangladesh, 16 September 2006, Bss, Dhaka

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The International Ozone Day will be observed in the country as elsewhere across the world today as part of the global effort to create mass awareness about the ozone layer depletion and its consequences.
Bangladesh has been observing the day since 1995 along with other member countries of the United Nations.
The ozone layer protects the planet from ultraviolet radiation, which at high levels poses a number of dangers, including increased risk of skin cancer and cataracts.
Scientists first marked the decline in the stratospheric ozone over Antarctica in 1986.
The theme of this year's International Ozone Day is: Protect the Ozone Layer, Save Life on Earth.
President Iajuddin Ahmed and Prime Minister Khaleda Zia in separate messages urged all to put in their best efforts in making a success the global endeavours to stop the ozone layer depletion.

http://www.thedailystar.net/2006/09/16/d60916062392.htm
International Ozone Day

Ozone layer depletion threat to ecosystem


The Daily Star, Bangladesh, 16 September 2006, Khandoker Azizul Islam

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Over the past three decades, anthropogenic emissions of chemical compounds into the atmosphere have caused pollution in environment with serious impact on human health.

http://www.thedailystar.net/2006/09/16/d6091615.htm


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