Texas History Fort Burrows 18. 3 Houston Becomes the Space City




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Texas History

Fort Burrows

18.3 - Houston Becomes the Space City



satellite - human-made object sent into space to orbit the Earth

aerospace - industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through this air and space
Cold War - conflict between the U.S. & the Soviet Union; The USSR wanted to spread communism and the US wanted to stop communism

*** Lasted from the end of WWII thru the 1980s

communism - economic system in which the state owns the land and means of production;

*** The people had no say in what they did or their future

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration




A History of Flight


The USS Texas (WWI) was the 1st ever American Ship to launch an aeroplane from her decks

The plane was called ‘ Sopwith Camel Biplane’

It did not crash

They flew about 104 MPH

  • A Texas company Texas Instruments ‘TI’ made the complex electronics used for space travel

  • In 1958, the first US satellite to orbit Earth had parts made by Texas Instruments

  • The first US satellite had parts from TI

  • This satellite was the beginning of the space program


The Space Race Begins
After WWII, the US and the Soviet Union struggled for World Leadership - Cold War

  • The Soviet Union tried to spread communism to other nations

  • The US tried to stop the spread it

  • This conflict lasted through the 1980s and was called the Cold War

  • Competition between the two nations fueled the race to the moon

  • In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the 1st space satellite, called Sputnik

  • The US was scared of falling behind the Soviets

  • In response, Congress passed the National Defense Education Act. This act provided schools with more funds for math and science education so the United States could produce a new generation of scientists.

  • President Kennedy helped found NASA, Manned Spacecraft Center outside Houston; Later named Johnson Space Center, In honor of PresidentLyndon Johnson of Texas, in 1973

  • Kennedy’s goal to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade ( 1960s )

  • They wanted a site near good universities, good transportation, and an attractive place for its employees to live

  • The choice was Houston, TEXAS

  • This would employ thousands of Texans

  • By 1963, Houston was the home and training location for NASA’s astronauts

  • In 1961, the Soviet Union put the 1st human into space; his name was Yuri

  • Later that year, Alan Shepherd became the 1st American in space

  • In 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon


On the Moon

  • The Apollo flights into space continue throughout the 60s

  • July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong was the 1st to step onto the moon

  • First words to America and the World, “Houston, the Eagle has landed.”

  • Tighten Up’, Archie Bell & the Drells, “Hi everybody. I’m Archie Bell and the Drells, from Houston, Texas.”

  • People around the world watched on television

  • Later that same year, Native Texan Alan Bean became the 4th person to walk on the moon. Born 1932 in Wheeler, TX. Pascal High School in Fort Worth. University of Texas Longhorn.

  • Astronaut Alan Bean was a Native born Texan in 1932. He joined the Navy after college and became a test pilot. In 1963, he was named an Astronaut. In 1969, Bean flew on Apollo 12. With another Astronaut on that mission, he walked on the moon. He was only the 4th person to do so. Bean continued in the Astronaut program until retiring in 1981. He then devoted all his time to painting. Many of Bean’s works convey the experiences and feelings of astronauts.


The Space Shuttle

  • NASA developed the space shuttle program in the 1970s

  • Scientists from around the country designed the orbiter

  • This was a vehicle that flew into space and returned to Earth

  • Shuttle pilots trained in Houston


The Space Station

  • The end of the Cold War enabled USA, Russia, and many other nations to work together on space research

  • Recently they developed the International Space Station, a flying laboratory

  • Astronauts stay in the station for up to six months at a time

  • Space shuttles and rockets bring supplies to the station



1. The National Defense Education Act provided more school funds for

A. reading education B. space education

C. math and science education D. engineering education

2. The International Space Station is a flying

A. laboratory B. hotel

C. United Nations D. refueling station

3. What was the conflict between the United States and the USSR ?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

4. Who was the 1st Native Texan and the 4th overall American to walk on the Moon ?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.


Space Shuttle Names - Each space shuttle was named after a famous ship.



Columbia was named after a sailing vessel the explored the Columbia River in 1792 and was the first American ship to sail around the world. (1981)



Discovery was named for two famous ships—Henry Hudson’s ship that searched for a route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean in the 1610’s and Captain James Cook’s ship that sailed the Pacific Ocean where he found the Hawaiian Islands in the 1770’s. ( 1983 )



Atlantis was named after the first U.S. ship used for ocean research. ( 1985 )



Endeavour was named after the first ship commanded by Captain James Cook. In 1788 the ship sailed to the South Pacific and around Tahiti, discovered New Zealand, mapped Australia, and sailed around the Great Barrier Reef. His ship often took scientists on explorations. ( 1991 )



Challenger was named after a British Naval research ship, The HMS Challenger that sailed into the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean in the 1870’s.


Challenger Disaster
Imagine sitting in a space shuttle being launched into space at over 3,000 mph. Then, in the blink of an eye, BANG! The shuttle that you’re on is torn to pieces, and there is no escape. This is exactly what happened on January 28, 1986 to the seven-crew members of the space shuttle Challenger—mission commander Francis Scobee; pilot Michael Smith; mission specialists Judith Resnick, Ronald McNair, and Ellison Onizuka; and payload specialists Gregory Jarvis and TEACHER Christa McAuliffe.
Columbia Disaster

The Space Shuttle accident occurred on Saturday, February 1, 2003, when the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated over Texas during re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere, shortly before concluding its 28th mission, STS-107. All seven crewmembers were killed. Commander: Rick D. Husband, pilot William C. McCool, Ilan Ramon, first Israeli astronaut, Kalpana Chawla, an India-born female, David M. Brown, Laurel Clark. The loss of the Columbia was caused by damage sustained during launch when a piece of foam insulation the size of a small briefcase broke off the main propellant tank under the aerodynamic forces of launch. The debris struck the leading edge of the left wing on the number 8 reinforced-carbon-carbon (RCC) tile, damaging the Shuttle's thermal protection system (TPS).



Future: X-33

One day the new X-33 will replace the space shuttle. It is only half the size of a space shuttle. NASA is conducting test flights now.



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