Taken From The Knepp Castle Estate Baseline Ecological Survey




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Taken From
The Knepp Castle Estate Baseline Ecological Survey

Theresa E. Greenaway
2005
3.11 Pitfall trap invertebrates
3.11.1. Survey brief

Professor Paul Buckland has an ongoing research interest in the Knepp grazing project and agreed to contribute to the invertebrate survey effort by setting up pitfall traps. His interest is primarily in the coleopteran fauna.


3.11.2. Methodology

Four pitfall traps were put in place in each of three sites (Table 3.11.a). Each trap site was photographed (photographs available in the separately produced Appendix), and each contained water plus a drop of wetting agent to kill the invertebrates trapped. Pitfall traps were emptied on a weekly basis by Charlie Burrell, who transferred to contents to tubes that were then forwarded to P. Buckland for sorting. Other taxa caught were passed on to relevant invertebrate experts (Table 3.11.b) in West Sussex who kindly agreed to identify as much as possible within the constraints of their own time. Specimens obtained from sweep netting were also forwarded to P. Buckland.


In addition to the pitfall traps, beetles were collected and identified from dung and corpses.
Table 3.11.a. Site of pitfall traps.

Site No.

Traps

Location (field or wood)

Site description

A1

2

Coates Furzefield

Edge of young oak plantation by ride

A2

2

Constable

Edge of woodland in field on old farm track

A3

2

Long Eight / Hilly

In ley sown Oct. 2004, one under tree

A4

2

Long Eight

In old hedgeline next to leys sown Oct. 2004

B1

2

North Drive West

New ley in 2001 – wildflower mix and CSS grass

B2

2

Matchetts Wood




B3

2

Spring Wood Corner

New ley in 2001 – CSS grass only used

B4

2

Spring Wood

150 year old oak plantation

B5*




Knepp Mill Pond

Top of pond

B6*




Knepp Mill Pond

Top of pond

C1

2

Tumbledown Lagg

Old water meadow next to hedge

C2

2

Jackson’s Wood

300 year old oak wood

C3

2

Sherwoods

New ley 2004 – wildflower mix and CSS grasses

C4

3

Middle Brook

Old lagg grassland by River Adur

* Added later.

A = Pondtail survey area

B = Knepp Park survey area

C = Swallows survey area


Table 3.11.b. Invertebrate experts to whom pitfall material was sent.

Taxon

Sent to

Results received


Arachnida (spiders)

Andy Phillips

No

Coleoptera (beetles)

Paul Buckland

Yes (incomplete)

Collembola (springtails)

Gerald Legg

Yes (incomplete)

Diptera (flies)

Patrick Roper

Yes

Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps)

Mike Edwards

Yes



3.11.3. Results
Coleoptera – beetles.

To date (January 2006), Paul Buckland has identified approximately 190 species of beetles, and more are still awaiting identification. Six of these species are of conservation interest (Notable B):-


Notiophilus quadripunctatus

Pterostichus longicollis

Pterostichus anthracinus

Chlaenius nigricornis

Badister dilatatus

Cercyon ustulatus
These beetles all belong to the ground beetle family (Carabidae) except for Cercyon ustulatus, family Hydrophilidae.
The raw data are held by the Record Centre Survey Unit. A full evaluation of the beetle fauna will be produced when the identification is completed.

Collembola


Initial work on the material collected identified 12 fairly common species of springtails:

Ptenothrix atra

Orchesella villosa

Dicrotoma fusca

Dicrotoma ornate

Isotomodes productus

Isotomodes minor

Anurida granaria

Micranurida pygmaea

Kalaphorura burneisteri

Brachystomella parvula

Pseudosinella alba

Lepidocrytus cyaneus




Diptera – Flies


Patrick Roper has identified forty-three species of flies from Knepp. This includes material from the pitfall traps and from a day’s voluntary survey work that he carried out (Table 3.11.c).


Table 3.11.c. Fly species recorded, 2005.

Family

Species

Common name

Status

Limoniidae

Limonia nubeculosa

A short-palped cranefly

 

Limoniidae

Erioptera lutea f. taenionota

A short-palped cranefly

 

Ptychopteridae

Ptychoptera contaminata

A ptychopterid cranefly

Local

Bibionidae

Bibio reticulatus

A St Mark's fly

 

Sciaridae

Schwenckfeldina carbonaria

A black fungus gnat

 

Stratiomyidae

Chloromyia formosa

Broad centurion

 

Stratiomyidae

Oplodontha viridula

Common green colonel

Local

Rhagionidae

Chrysopilus cristatus

Black snipefly

 

Asilidae

Leptogaster cylindrica

Striped slender robberfly

 

Hybotidae

Drapetis ephippiata

A dance fly

Local

Hybotidae

Platypalpus calceata

A dance fly

 

Empididae

Empis praevia

A dance fly

Local

Dolichopodidae

Dolichopus plumipes

A dolichopodid fly

 

Dolichopodidae

Dolichopus virgultorum

A dolichopodid fly

Notable/Nb

Dolichopodidae

Rhaphium appendiculatum

A dolichopodid fly

 

Dolichopodidae

Syntormon denticulatus

A dolichopodid fly

Local

Dolichopodidae

Chrysotus collini

A dolichopodid fly

Local

Dolichopodidae

Chrysotus cupreus

A dolichopodid fly

Local

Lonchopteridae

Lonchoptera furcata

A lonchopterid fly

 

Phoridae

Megaselia sp.

A scuttle fly

 

Syrphidae

Platycheirus clypeatus

A hoverfly

 

Syrphidae

Melanogaster hirtella

A hoverfly

 

Syrphidae

Pipiza lugubris

A hoverfly

Notable/Nb

Tephritidae

Tephritis formosa

A picture-wing fly

 

Sepsidae

Themira lucida

A sepsid fly

 

Sepsidae

Themira minor

A sepsid fly

 

Sepsidae

Themira superba

A sepsid fly

Local

Sepsidae

Sepsis cynipsea

A sepsid fly

 

Sepsidae

Sepsis punctum

A sepsid fly

 

Sciomyzidae

Limnia unguicornis

A snail-killing fly

 

Sphaeroceridae

Leptocera lutosa

A lesser dungfly

 

Sphaeroceridae

Opacifrons humida

A lesser dungfly

 

Ephydridae

Notiphila cinerea

A shore fly

 

Ephydridae

Notiphila dorsata

A shore fly

 

Ephydridae

Hydrellia nasturtii

A shore fly

 

Ephydridae

Coenia palustris

A shore fly

 

Diastatidae

Diastata adusta

A diastatid fly

 

Agromyzidae

Cerodontha denticornis

A leaf-mining fly

 

Sarcophagidae

Sarcophaga dissimilis

A flesh fly

 

Scathophagidae

Scathophaga stercoraria

Yellow Dung Fly

 

Anthomyiidae

Hylemya vagans

A woodfly

 

Fanniidae

Fannia serena

A lesser housefly

 

Muscidae

Phaonia tuguriorum

A muscid fly

 



Hymenoptera - Ants, bees and wasps.


Three species of ant and twelve species of bee were identified from the pitfall traps (Table 3.11.d).



Table 3.11.d. Hymenoptera recorded from pitfall traps

Trap No.

Group

Species

Conservation status

A1

Ant

Myrmica ruginodis

Commonly found in many habitats

 

Cuckoo bee

Nomada flavoguttata

Common parasite of Andrena spp.

A2

None recorded

 

 

A3

Bumblebee

Bombus terrestris

Widespread and abundant

 

Solitary bee

Lasioglossum fulvicorne

Locally common on more basic soils

 

Solitary bee

Lasioglossum malachurum

Nationally Scarce A, southern, restricted

 

Cuckoo bee

Nomada flava

Common parasite of Andrena spp.

A4

Ant

Myrmica ruginodis

Commonly found in many habitats

 

Ant

Myrmica scabrinodis

Commonly found in many habitats

B1

Solitary bee

Lasioglossum lativentre

Widespread & frequent, especially on heathlands

 

Solitary bee

Lasioglossum pauxillum

Nationally Scarce A, prefers sandy clays to nest

 

Solitary bee

Lasioglossum puncticolle

Nationally Scarce B, clay meadows & woodland rides

B2

Ant

Myrmica rubra

Locally common in damp, sheltered habitats

B3

Ant

Myrmica scabrinodis

Commonly found in many habitats

 

Solitary bee

Lasioglossum fulvicorne

Locally common on more basic soils

 

Solitary bee

Lasioglossum lativentre

Widespread & frequent, especially on heathlands

 

Solitary bee

Lasioglossum malachurum

Nationally Scarce A, southern, restricted

 

Solitary bee

Lasioglossum pauxillum

Nationally Scarce A, prefers sandy clays to nest

B4

Ant

Myrmica ruginodis

Commonly found in many habitats

 

Solitary bee

Andrena chrysosceles

Abundant in south, especially in clay woodlands

 

Solitary bee

Andrena nitida

Abundant in south, meadows

 

Solitary bee

Andrena subopaca

Widespread & abundant, especially in clay woodlands

 

Cuckoo bee

Nomada fabriciana

Common parasite of Andrena spp.

 

Cuckoo bee

Nomada flavoguttata

Common parasite of Andrena spp.

C1

Ant

Myrmica ruginodis

Commonly found in many habitats

 

Cuckoo bee

Nomada flavoguttata

Common parasite of Andrena spp.

C2

None recorded

 

 

C3

Ant

Myrmica ruginodis

Commonly found in many habitats

 

Solitary bee

Lasioglossum fulvicorne

Locally common on more basic soils

 

Solitary bee

Lasioglossum malachurum

Nationally Scarce A, southern, restricted

C4

None recorded

 

 



3.11.4. Discussion
The pitfall survey was limited in scope, but nevertheless produced so much material that getting it identified was problematic. Some of those who volunteered to identify various groups were simply unable to because of other demands on their time. In spite of these limitations, the results are useful and will enable the identification of promising lines of research for the future.
The Coleoptera is a notoriously species-rich order of insects, and the identification of at least 190 species from the pitfall traps comes as no great surprise. Further survey and evaluation of the beetle fauna would be of considerable interest.
Of the forty-three species of fly recorded, 10 were of conservation interest (Table 3.11.c). These totals would be expected to increase with further survey effort.
The records of Hymenoptera are interesting, not only because three species of conservation interest were found - Lasioglossum malachurum, Lasioglossum pauxillum (both Nationally Scarce A) and Lasioglossum puncticolle (Nationally Scarce B), but because of the overall range of habitat preferences of the recorded species. Many, for example the ant Myrmica ruginodis, are widespread and abundant throughout the UK, but others have more specialised habitat requirements. The bee Lasioglossum fulvicorne is generally found on more basic soils, whereas Lasioglossum lativentre is more typical of heathlands. Predictably other species are those of meadows (Andrena nitida) or clay woodlands (Andrena chrysosceles and Andrena subopaca).
It is felt (Gerald Legg, pers. comm.) that the full list of Collembola (springtails) could well reveal the presence of rarities, in addition to the 12 more common species. However, this is an under-recorded group that would benefit by further study. Gerald Legg hopes to continue identifying the pitfall material has time allows.
Coleoptera – beetles

Six of these species are of conservation interest (Notable B)


Species











Pterostichus anthracinus



Chlaenius nigricornis




Pterostichus longicollis



Cercyon ustulatus



Badister dilatatus




Notiophilus quadripunctatus

No Image








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