Taken From The Knepp Castle Estate Baseline Ecological Survey

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Taken From
The Knepp Castle Estate Baseline Ecological Survey

Theresa E. Greenaway
3.2 Lichen Survey
3.2.1 Survey brief
Knepp Park Estate has never been surveyed extensively for lichens, although Francis Rose recorded 21 species between 1967-1969, including the Nationally Scarce Gyalecta flowtowii and Anaptychia ciliaris ciliaris (Vulnerable, declining). Sussex Lichen Group agreed to carry out a one-day lichen survey on the Estate. Clearly one day is not nearly enough time to cover the entire Estate, and so it was decided to focus effort on parkland trees in the original deer park area, Brickyard Wood and Spring Wood.
3.2.2 Methodology
The survey was carried out on 26th November 2005 by 5 members of SLG and three MSc students (University of Sussex). In the morning, a route from the Castle north-west towards Brickyard Wood was followed, identifying lichens epiphytic on parkland trees and those along the edge of Brickyard Wood. In the afternoon, lichens on the stone dog statue opposite the Castle were recorded, and then those on trees bordering part of the Knepp Mill Pond. Some specimens were removed for further inspection under the microscope.
3.2.3 Constraints
The 26th November was exceedingly cold, and lichen surveying involves much standing still. By 15.00hrs, the low temperature and falling light levels drew the survey to an early close.
3.2.5 Results
A total of 50 species were identified (Table 3.2.a)

Table 3.2.a. Lichens on trees and statue, Knepp

On Trees

On statue

Arthonia radiata

Parmelia sulcata

Aspicilia calcarea

Chrysothrix candelaris

Parmotrema chinense

Caloplaca citrina

Cliostomum griffithii

Pertusaria albescens

Caloplaca flavescens

Diploicia canescens

Pertusaria amara

Candelariella medians

Evernia prunastri

Pertusaria coccodes

Candelariella vitellina

Flavoparmelia caperata

Pertusaria flavida

Lecanora muralis

Flavoparmelia soredians

Pertusaria hymenea

Lecanora sulphurea

Hyperphyscia adglutinata

Pertusaria pertusa

Tephromela atra

Hypogymnia physodes

Physcia adscendens

Verrucaria nigrescens

Hypogymnia tubulosa

Physcia tenella

Xantoparmelia mougeotii

Hypotrachyna revoluta

Physconia grisea


Lecanora chlarotera

Placynthiella icmalea


Lecanora expallens

Punctelia reddenda


Lecanora symmicta

Punctelia subrudecta


Lecidella elaeochroma

Pyrrhospora quernea


Melanelia fuliginosa glabratula

Ramalina farinacea


Melanelia subaurifera

Ramalina fastigiata


Opegrapha atra

Ramalina fraxinea


Opegrapha rufescens

Xanthoria parietina


Opegrapha vulgata

Xanthoria polycarpa


3.2.6 Discussion

This single, short survey confirmed that the Knepp Castle Estate has potentially high lichen interest, although a number of individual parkland trees have very poor lichen floras (T. Greenaway, pers obs), possibly reflecting the results of many years of intensive arable management. The woodlands inspected have a far richer lichen flora, supporting species typical of woodlands in areas of reasonably good air quality, for example Parmotrema chinense, Ramalina fastigiata and Ramalina fraxinea. Further survey work would be expected to increase the list of lichens considerably.

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