Table of contents executive Summary




старонка7/7
Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
Памер0.5 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7

[GRAPHIC: Figure 71: Frank Caldeiro]
Bob Danielson

Bob was a Lockheed engineer, who was a critical player in the initial acquisition of the ER-2 aircraft (circa 1971) for the High Altitude Earth Science program at Ames Research Center. Under Marty Knutson and in conjunction with a strong ARC management team, he formed the initial airborne science group, which elevated remote sensing into a state-of-the-art science contributor. Under his engineering oversight, the High Altitude Branch flourished and provided grist for the mill for the medium altitude aircraft, which included the C-130, Convair 990, Lear 23/24, DC-8, BE-200 and the C-141 Kuiper Space Science aircraft (circa 1974). During this time, Bob was an indispensable cog in the safety and oversight for the engineering development of such programs.


Bob was the first front seater that came down from the USAF 58th Weather Reconnaissance Squadron at Kirtland AFB in September of 1968. The fleet of WB-57s they flew were used for the usual looking at other people from up high as well as atomic testing sampling. They called themselves “F Troop” after the TV show that was popular at the time. A major at the time, Bob acted as the contingent commander. NASA/JSC contracted with the USAF in 1968 to operate a WB-57F: this was the initiation of high altitude remote sensing in the agency. The 58th personnel, like Bob, flew front seat and NASA and USAF personnel flew back seat as sensor operators/navigators. JSC modified the WB-57F at General Dynamics, Fort Worth, to accept a removable NASA earth observation pallet in the space that had served as the rotating bomb bay. In 1972, the USAF left the program due to budget constraints and the aircraft was transferred to NASA and JSC. It was renumbered NASA 925 and was the first NASA high altitude aircraft with remote sensing capabilities in the inventory. Bob was a pilot during these first years and in 1972 returned to his USAF duties. Marty hired Bob when he retired from the USAF and the rest is history.
I would be remiss, if I didn’t mention a personal experience with Bob. He was detailed to the DC-8 program to provide engineering oversight during a major D check in Tucson, Arizona. There were six of us going to dinner at a steak house, where suit ties were not welcome and if you tried to enter with one, you were immediately grabbed and your tie was scissored off. Bob was the only one who didn’t get the message and the inevitable happened. He took it in stride and everyone had a good laugh.
He will be missed.
Contributed by Geary Tiffany and Ole Smistad
[GRAPHIC: Figure 72: Bob Danielson (right) talking with visitors to NASA Ames watching an ER-2 launch.]

APPENDIX B

Airborne Program History

Origins of an Airborne Earth

Science Program at NASA

Marty Knutson, godfather of U-2s at NASA, revealed some of his highlights of the Program during a recent interview.

Today’s Airborne Science Program (ASP) continues a proud tradition supporting the study of Earth from space, begun in the Gemini years, continuing through MTPE, EOS, and forward now with the Decadal Survey Recommendations. In 1964 Olav (Ole) Smistad was head of the JSC Aircraft Office at the Johnson Space Center where Ole Leo Childs and Harold Toy acquired a Convair 240, which flew its first Earth remote sensing mission that same year. From these simple beginnings, the management structure sprouted, that would evolve into our Airborne Science Program.


In an effort to capture some of the heritage and evolution of the program, ASP is collecting and archiving program related history snippets when ever possible. In this short article I have tried to share some insight into the early years of the U-2 program at NASA, highlighting the contributions of a stubborn, blunt speaking, professional aviator, who had a huge impact on Airborne Science at NASA. In 2008, Jim Weber and Andy Roberts talked to Marty Knutson in a taped interview. The thirty nine page interview transcript was rich with stories, often rambled and appeared stream of consciousness, with little direction from the interviewers. These stories spoke to the origins of the U-2 program at NASA and twists of fate that brought them to Ames, the evolution of the reimbursable projects,, and Marty’s as facility director at Dryden. Unfortunately the interview ran out of steam before we got to the meaty topics of Aircraft consolidation at DFRC, or the establishment of Dryden as an independent Center. I have tried to take these war stories and place many of them in the context of NASA themes of the late ‘60s, early ‘70s.
In this short story, I have captured several of Marty’s stories in limited detail and without his colorful language.
Contributed by Jim Weber

Marty Knutson attended the University of Minnesota majoring in electrical engineering. He began his aviation career as an aviation cadet in the U.S. Air Force in 1950. Following service in the Korea conflict and participation in developmental test and operation missions in F-84s, he joined the CIA’s Air Division flying U-2s. He retired from the Air Force in 1970, having logged over 6,500 hours of flight time.


Marty was flying U-2s out of Cyprus in mid 1970, when he retired from the Air Force. As Marty was retiring, the CIA was considering getting out of the air business, as the big eyes in space were becoming very capable. The agency was planning to give a couple of U-2s to NASA. Marty was asked to help NASA develop a U-2 Program Plan, Marty reluctantly agreed after loosing a drinking contest with Carl Duckett, the Deputy Director of the CIA.
These were heady times for NASA, we were in the thick of the Apollo missions, and trying to come up with a new, post Apollo plan for the Agency. Thomas O. Paine was the NASA administrator. John Naugle was NASA’s Associate Administrator for Space, The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) program was just starting. In 1970 NASA selected GE as prime contractor for ERTS.
John Naugle was reluctant to embrace Marty, as he was concerned about Marty’s connection with the CIA, concerned about any connection with a spy agency. Naugle left an introductory meeting when he learned Marty was flying CIA missions as recently as the week before.
Naugle came to want Marty to come to NASA with the aircraft, currently slated to go to Rome NY. Marty, who grew up in Minnesota, knew he doesn’t like the cold, balked at the idea. After some wrangling, Marty agreed to start the U-2 program at Ames, an offer he couldn’t pass up. It seems JSC wasn’t interested in the U-2s, as they were convinced hey would crash.
Hans Mark was the Director of Ames at the time. He had heard from the NASA Administrator and the Director of the CIA that Marty was coming. In 1971 Marty Joined NASA at the Ames Research Center as manager of the Airborne Instrumentation Research Project. Shortly after arriving at Ames, Marty was prohibited from flying the U-2s, reflecting John Naugle’s fear of agency guys.
Marty combined his knowledge of the U-2 ops, and the insight into the AF/CIA U-2 supply chain to ensure NASA got low hour airframes, Marty got three airplanes from the Agency, just out of overhaul, all the updates and everything. Marty repainted the U-2s in the NASA colors. The first airplane came to Ames Research Center in June of ’71.
The U-2s filled an important niche in the early ‘70s. ERTS was late and there were science investigators already funded. They let Marty design the sensors that would simulate what the satellite was supposed to produce, and then fly over three major test sites: the East Coast, the center of the U.S., and a bunch of other test areas.
That’s when Marty started flying again. Headquarters had them on a flight schedule that they couldn’t meet. The airplane had more legs than the pilots did. So I started flying. So Marty went to Hans Mark and said, “Here’s the program and your plan you signed when it went to headquarters. And here’s the one we can use, because we don’t have enough pilots.”
In 1984, on deployment to Alaska, while sitting in his BOQ room, Marty was putting new fishing line on his rod when Ames Center Director, Bill Ballhouse calls. Marty is summoned back to Ames. Marty returns quickly and when meeting with Ballhouse is requested to run the Dryden Flight Research Facility. Marty, not wanting to go to the desert again, was able to negotiate a number of changes, including that he maintain his position at Ames, in addition to managing the Dryden facility, keep his residence in Los Altos, be on TDY at Dryden, and have access to an airplane. Marty also made a point that should Dryden a full-fledged NASA Center and he would advocate for that In May, 1984, Martin A. Knutson was appointed Director of Flight Operations for NASA’s Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, California, and also was assigned the additional position as Site Manager of the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, a position he held until 1990. (Here the interview ends)
Marty returned to Ames in 1990 as Chief of Flight Operations for Ames Research Center until his retirement from NASA in 1997.
Marty has several awards including the Meritorious Service Medal and the Distinguished Flying Cross, both from the Air Force. He has also received the Intelligence Star twice, NASA’s Outstanding Leadership Award and the Presidential Rank of Meritorious Executive. He is an Associate Fellow of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots and a charter member of the federal government’s Senior Executive Service.
[GRAPHIC: Figure 73: 1981 photo of Ames Aircraft on the ramp.]
APPENDIX C

Five-Year Plan



APPENDIX D

ASP Bibliography Project

NSERC began working on a NASA Airborne Science bibliography in September 2007. Scopus (www.scopus.com), an on-line database product of Elsevier Publishing Co., was used to conduct the search. Scopus currently contains 33 million references and is continuously updated. References date back to 1869. Scopus contains references from 15,000 peer-reviewed journals representing all the sciences, in addition to conference proceedings, book series, trade publications, and other sources.


Keywords were provided by NASA’s Airborne Science Program, and were searched in both acronym and expanded form. A list of keywords used is given below. From the keyword searches, 1,357 journal articles, 244 conference papers, and 53 review papers were found. Each journal article abstract was read to confirm its relevance to NASA Airborne Science. As of November 2009, the tally for the number of citations related to journal articles is 15,437. The content of journal articles and conference proceedings published during 2009 included the CAMEX, INTEX, NAMMA, CRYSTAL-FACE, AVE, STRAT, TC4, ARCTAS and ATV-1 Jules Verne missions.
The bibliography is constructed as an Excel file that can be sorted on many different parameters including year published, author and research aircraft. This file can be accessed at www.nserc.und.edu/missions/ASbiblio.html. References dating from 1979 to November 2009 are represented.
The information compiled to date is likely incomplete. Scopus is not able to conduct full-text search of references. Thus, if a keyword is not present in the abstract or title of a reference, the reference will be absent from bibliography as-is. Work will continue to locate additional NASA Airborne Science references. Plans for improving the bibliography include searching on more variations of the keywords; searching for key authors; and searching in alternate databases.
Key words used for SCOPUS and Scirus search:

1. African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA/NAMMA)

2. Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE)

3. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (NASA AASE)

4. Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment (ASHOE)

5. Arctic Mechanisms for Interaction Between Surface and Atmosphere (AMISA)

6. Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere (ARCTAS)

7. ATV-1 Jules Verne

8. Aura Validation Experiment (AVE/NASA AVE/CR-AVE)

9. Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL-FACE)

10. DC 8 mission

11. DC-8


12. ERAST

13. Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX/INTEX-A/INTEX-B)

14. KWAJEX

15. Measurement for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (MAESA)

16. NASA Convection And Moisture Experiment (NASA CAMEX)

17. NASA DC 8

18. NASA DC-8

19. NASA ER-2

20. NASA ERAST

21. NASA Ozone and Nitrogen Experiment

22. NASA P-3B

23. NASA POLAR AVE

24. NASA POLARIS

25. NASA SAGE III

26. NASA SASS Ozone and Nitrogen Experiment

27. NASA SPADE

28. NASA TC4

29. NASA Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes

30. NASA WB-57

31. Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment

32. Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in summer

33. Polar Aura Validation Experiment

34. SASS Ozone and Nitrogen Experiment

35. Southern African Regional Science Initiative

36. Stratospheric Photochemistry Aerosol and Dynamics Experiment (SPADE)

37. Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT)

38. Stratospheric Troposphere Exchange Project

39. Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes

40. Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment

41. Twin Otter

42. Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment
APPENDIX E

Acronyms & Abbreviations





A




AAFEx

Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment

AAPS

Air Particulate Sampler

ACE

Aerosol Cloud Ecosystems

ACCLAIM

Advanced Carbon and Climate Laser International Mission

AESMIR

Airborne Earth Science Microwave Radiometer

AFB

Air Force Base

AGU

American Geophysical Union

AIAA

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AIRSAR

Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar

AITT

Airborne Instrument Technology Transfer

AMISA

Arctic Mechanisms of Interaction between Surface and Atmosphere

AMMA

African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses

AMS

American Meteorological Society

AMS

Autonomous Modular Sensor

AOD

Aerosol Optical Depth

ARC

Ames Research Center

ARM AAF

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility

ARM CF

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Central Facility

ARMD

Associate Administrator of Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate

ARRA

American Recovery & Reinvestment Act

ASCENDS

Active Sensing of CO2, Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons

ASF

Airborne Sensor Facility

ASTER

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission & Reflection Radiometer

ASP

Airborne Science Program

ATM

Airborne Topographic Mapper

AVIRIS

Airborne Visible & Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

AVOCET

Atmospheric Vertical Observations of CO2 in the Earth’s Troposphere

AXCTD

Airborne eXpendable Conductivity Temperature Depth







B




BGAN

Broadband Global Area Network

BPA

Blanket Purchase Agreement







C




CALIOP

Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization

CALIPSO

Cloud Aerosol Lidar & Infrared Pathfinder Satellite

Observation



CASIE

Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment

CDE

Collaborative Decision Environment

CDF

California Department of Forestry

CeNAT

Costa Rican National Center for Advanced Technology

CEODE

Center for Earth Observation & Digital Earth

CH4

Methane

CHAPS

Cumulus-Humilus Aerosol Processing Study

CIMH

Caribbean Institute for Meteorology

CIRES

Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

CIRPAS

Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies

CLASIC

Cloud & Land Surface Interaction Campaign

CMU

Carnegie Mellon University

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

COA

Certificate of Authorization

CPL

Cloud Physics Lidar







D




DACOM

Differential Absorption CO Measurement

DAOF

Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility

DAWN

Doppler Aerosol Wind [lidar]

DCS

Digital Camera System

DESDynI

Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice

DFRC

Dryden Flight Research Center

DHS

Department of Homeland Security

DLH

Diode Laser Hygrometer

DMS

Digital Mapping System

DOD

Department of Defense

DOE

Department of Energy

DOE LBNL

Department of Energy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

DSS

Decision Support System







E




EIP

Experimenter Interface Panel

ENVISAT

Environment Satellite

eMAS

Enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator

EMVIS

Environmental Mapping Visible Imaging Spectrometer

EOS

Earth Observing System

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

ESA

European Space Agency

ESPO

Earth Science Project Office

ESTO

Earth Science Technology Office

EUFAR

European Fleet for Airborne Research

ESRP

Ecosystem Services Research Program







F




FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FEMA

Federal Emergency Management Agency

FOR

Flight Operations Room

FT

Fisher/Tropsch







G




GABRS

General Aviation Baseline Research System

GE

General Electrics

GHOC

Global Hawk Operations Center

GISMOS

Global Integrated Sustainability MOdel

GLISTIN

Glacier and Land Ice surface Topography Interferometer

GloPac

Global Hawk Pacific

GOLD

Global Ozone Lidar Demonstrator

GPS

Global Positioning System

GRIP

Genesis & Rapid Intensification Processes

GSFC

Goddard Space Flight Center

GSPRS

GPS Remote Sensor







H




H2O(v)

Water vapor

HAPS

Hazardous air pollutants

HATS

High Altitude Telemetry Sensor

HI-WRAP

High Altitude Imaging Wind & Rain Profiler

HSRL

High Spectral Resolution LIDAR

HSRL

Histo-Scientific Research Laboratories

HyperOCR

Hyperspectral Ocean Color Radiometers

HUREX

Hurricane Exercise







I




ICCAGRA

Interagency Coordinating Committee for Airborne Geosciences Research and Applications

ICECAP

International Climate & Environmental change Assessment Project

ICESat

Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite

ICF

Instrument Check Flights

IIP

Instrument Incubator Project

INTEX

Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment

IRAD

Internal Research & Development

IPY

International Polar Year

ISPRS

International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

ISRSE

International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment

IWGADTS

Interagency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telecommunication System







J




JASSIWG

Joint Airborne Science Sensor Integration Working Group

JP-8

Jet fuel

JPL

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

JSC

Johnson Space Center







K




KaSPAR

Ka-band SWOT Phenomenology Airborne Radar







L




LAC

Large Area Collectors

LaRC

Langley Research Center

LIDAR

Laser Imaging Detection & Ranging

LSP

Launch Services Program

LVIS

Laser Vegetation Imaging System













M




MACC

Multi-Agency Coordination Center

MACPEX

Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment

MANPADS

Man-Portable Air Defense Systems

MAS

Modis Airborne Simulator

MAST

Multi-mission Advanced Sensor Testbed

MASTER

Modis/Aster Airborne Simulator

MCoRDS/I

Multi-channel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder

MERIS

Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

MODIS

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

MOU

Memorandum of Understanding

MPCS/PDU

Master Payload Control System/Power Distribution Unit

MSU

Missouri University of Science and Technology







N




N2O

Nitrogen oxide

NAS

National Academy of Science

NAS

National Airspace System

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASDAT

NASA Airborne Science Data & Telemetry

NCAR

National Center for Atmospheric Research

NGC

Northrup Grumman Corporation

NIR

Near IR

NMEA

National Maritime Electronics Association GPS

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOVICE

Newly-Operating and Validated Instruments Comparison Experiment

NOx

Nitrogen oxides

NRL

Naval Research Laboratory

NSF

National Science Foundation

NSERC

National Suborbital Education and Research Center







O




OIB

Operation ICE Bridge







P




PALS

Passive active L- and S-band (microwave instrument)

PolSCAT

Polarimetric Scatterometer

POR

Payload Operations Room

POS

Position & Orientation Systems

PPA

Platform Precision Autopilot

PPS

Precise Positioning Service

PPS

Pulse per second

PRIAS

National Program for Airborne Research and Remote Sensing

PSR

Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer







Q




QuickSCAT

Quick Scatterometer







R




RACORO

Routine ARM Clouds with Low Optical Radiative Observations

ReSePP

Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Program

ROTC

Reserve Officers’ Training Corps

RSD

Research Services Directorate

RSP

Research Scanning Polarimeter

RTMM

Real Time Mission Monitor

RTVSM

Reduced Vertical Separation Minima







S




SAR

Synthetic Aperture Radar

SARP

Student Airborne Research Program

SIERRA

Sensor Integrated Environmental Remote Research Aircraft

SIMPL

Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-Counting Lidar

SMAP

Soil Moisture Active-Passive

SMD

Science Mission Directorate

SOFIA

Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

SOFRS

Airborne Science Flight Request System

SPS

Standard Positioning Service

SSG

Senior Steering Group

sUAS ARC

small UAS Aviation Rule Making Committee

SUA

Special Use Airspace

SWOT

Surface Water and Ocean Topography







T




TC4

Tropical Composition, Cloud & Climate Coupling Experiment

TCAS

Traffic Collision Avoidance System

THC

Total hydrocarbons

TM

Telemetry

TTL

Tropical Tropopause Layer

TWiLiTE

Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment







U




UAPO

Unmanned Aircraft Program Office

UAS

Unpiloted Aircraft Systems

UAV

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

UAVSAR

Unmanned Air Vehicle Synthetic Aperture RADAR

UCSD

University of California San Diego

UND

University of North Dakota

URS

Uninterruptible power supply

UTRC

United Tech Research Center







V




VIMS

Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences







W




WAS

Whole Air Sampler

WETMAAP

Wetland Education Through Maps and Aerial Photography

WFF

Wallops Flight Facility

WPAFB

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

WRAP

Wildfire Research and Applications Partnership

WSFM

Western States Fire Mission


1   2   3   4   5   6   7


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка