Synopsis for m. Pharm dissertation submitted to




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ISOLATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM LEAVES OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM (FABEACEAE) TOWARDS ACHIEVING CHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION.’’

SYNOPSIS FOR

M.PHARM DISSERTATION





SUBMITTED TO

RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES

KARNATAKA
BY

RAVI KUMAR K.S

I M.PHARM

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOGNOSY



PES COLLEGE OF PHARMACY

BENGALURU-560050



(2011-12)


RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES,

KARNATAKA, BANGALORE

ANNEXURE-II




PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECTS FOR DISSERTATION






1.



Name of the candidate and address


RAVI KUMAR K.S

P.E.S. COLLEGE OF PHARMACY

50FT. ROAD,

HANUMANTHNAGAR,

BENGALOORU-560 050
PERMANENT ADDRESS

DOOR NO: 953,24th MAIN ,38th CROSS,

4th T BLOCK, JAYANAGAR

BANGALOORU-560 028.




2.


Name of Institution



P.E.S. COLEGE OF PHARMACY

50FT. ROAD,

HANUMANTHNAGAR,

BENGALOORU-560 050.




3.


Course of study and subject


MASTER OF PHARMACY IN PHARMACOGNOSY


4.


Date of Admission


3rd July 2010


5.


TITLE OF THE TOPIC:
ISOLATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM THE LEAVES OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM (FABEACEAE) TOWARDS ACHEIVING CHEMICAL STANDARDISATION”





6.



Brief resume of the intended work:
6.1 Need For Study:

Trigonella foenum graecum which is commonly known as fenugreek is an annual herb with an erect or prostate, smooth , little branched stem & trifoliate leaves , the leaflets are oblanceolate to oblong & slightly toothed. They are bitter, arcid, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antirheumatic, appetizer12.

Many compounds have been reported from Trigonella Foenum Graceum. However, no HPTLC or HPLC based standardization is available and also no markers are available commercially. Therefore, our study is to isolate the markers with the help of major peaks/spots, on HPLC/HPTLC and then to develop a method for standardization for Trigonella foenum graecum crude herb and its extract .


Chemical constituents:Leaves contain saponins such as diosgenin, yamogenin, gitogenin, tigogenin neotigogens,Trigonelloside C, saponin graecunins A,B,C,D,E,F&G.

Other bioactive constituents of fenugreek include mucilage, volatile oils, and alkaloids such as choline and trigonelline.

Volatile constituents contains sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons , alkanes ,lactones .

Proteins (30%), seeds contains lipids (7%) , flavonoids & many sterols5 .


Therapeutic uses:
External use- Hair conditioners.

Internal use-

  • As hyperglycemic.

  • Rheumatism.

  • Galactagogue (milk producing agent).

  • Gout

  • Hypercholesterolemia.

  • Diarrhoea ,dyspepsia ,loss of appetite .



6.2 Review of the Literature:


  • Maleppillil Vavachan Vijayakumar et al.,(2005) have reported the hypoglycemic activity of Fenugreek seeds extract by mediated through the stimulation of an insulin signally pathway7.




  • Mayumi Ikuchi et al., (2006) have reported the effects of Fenugreek seeds extract on endurance on mice9 .




  • Anchallee Srichamroen et al., (2008) have reported the modifying effects of galactomann from Canadian- grown fenugreek on the glycemic & lipidemic status in rats1 .




  • Chris Poole et al., (2010) have reported the effects of a commercially available botanical supplement on strength ,body composition, power output & hormonal profiles in resistant trained males3 .




  • Asmena Mowla et al., (2009) have reported the antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella Foenum Graecum seed extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats & its use in diabetes mellitus 2.




  • Uma Nath Tripathi et al., (2009) have reported the antioxidant & antihyperglycemic properties for cardiac tissue during diabetes mellitus of the plant extracts of Momordica charantia & Trigonella Foenum Graecum




  • Subramanian Kavirasan et al., (2006) have reported the Fenugreek seed extract prevents ethanol induced toxicity & apoptosis in chang liver cells15.




  • Mohammad Rizwan Siddique et al., (2005) have reported the amelioration of altered antioxidant status & membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains10.




  • Rakhee S Dangi et al., (2004) have reported the assessment of genetic diversity in Trigonella Foenum Graecum and Trigonella Caerulea using ISSR and RAPD markers13.




  • Umesh C S Yadav et al., (2004) have reported the effects of sodium orthovandate and Trigonella Foenum Graecum seeds on hepatic and renal lipogenic enzymes and lipid profile during alloxan diabetes18.




  • S. Sreeja et al., (2010) have reported in vitro estrogenic activities of Fenugreek seeds14.




  • Gholamali A Jelodar et al., (2005) have reported the effect of Fenugreek ,onion, garlic on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas of alloxan induced diabetic rats .


6.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:



  1. Collection and authentication of leaves of Trigonella Foenum Graecum .




  1. Extraction of the drug with different solvents.




  1. Isolation of markers corresponding to the major peaks or spots in

TLC/HPTLC.


  1. Characterization of markers by UV, IR, NMR.




  1. Estimation of markers by HPLC/HPTLC


7

7 Materials and Methods

7.1 SOURCES OF DATA

Journals searched on RGUHS-Digital library, NCSI-IISC, Text books of Pharmacognosy

and Botany and Library of Natural Remedies Pvt Ltd.
Place of work: Natural Remedies Pvt.Ltd., Bengalooru 560 100

PES College of Pharmacy, Bengalooru- 560 050.



7.2 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION:
Collection of Plant: Leaves of Trigonella foenum Graecum will be collected and authenticated by the Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., Bengalooru.

Extraction: Extraction will be done by using different solvents, Preliminary identification by TLC.
Isolation of Markers The markers will be isolated from the suitable extracts by various chromatographic techniques.


Purity determination and Characterization: The isolated markers will be characterized

by various methods such as TLC, HPLC, G.C., M.P. and by spectroscopic methods such as



UV, NMR, IR, MASS Spectroscopy.

Quantification and Standardization: The extracts will be quantified with respect to the isolated markers and standardized by using analytical methods such as HPTLC/HPLC.



7.3 DOES THE STUDY REQUIRE ANY INVESTIGATION TO

BE CONDUCTED ON PATIENTS OR ANIMLAS?
-NO-

7.4 HAS ETHICAL CLEARANCE BEEN OBTAINED FROM

YOU’RE INSTITUTION IN CASE OF 7.3?

-Not applicable-


Bibliography:


  1. Anchalee S, Catherine FJ, Alan BR, Thomson., Tapan BK. The modifying effects of galactomannan from canadian grown fenugreek on the glycemic and lipidemic status in rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr,. 2008(43):167–74.




  1. Asmena M, Alauddin M, Atiar RM, Kabir A. Antihyperglycemic effect of trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seedextract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its use in diabetes mellitus: a brief qualitative phytochemical and acute toxicity test on the extract. afroethnomednet. 2009;6(3):255-61.




  1. Chris P, Brandon B, Cliffa F, Bill C, Darryn W, Richard K, et al. The effects of a commercially available botanical supplement on strength, body composition,power output, and hormonal profiles in resistance-trained males. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2010;7(34):1-9.




  1. Grant RJS, Mary EE, Cathryn DA, Catherine S, Michael GJ. Tobacco Transgenic Lines That Express Fenugreek Galactomannan Galactosyltransferase Constitutively Have Structurally Altered Galactomannans in Their Seed Endosperm Cell Walls. American Society of Plant Biologists. 2003;131:1487–95.




  1. Jean B. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry Of Medicinal Plants.




  1. Kannappan S, Anuradha CV. Insulin sensitizing actions of fenugreek seed polyphenols, quercetin & metformin in a rat model. Indian J Med Res. 2009(129):401-08.




  1. Maleppillil VV, Sandeep S, Rishi RC, Manoj KB. The hypoglycaemic activity of fenugreek seed extract is mediated through the stimulation of an insulin signalling pathway. British Journal of Pharmacology (2005) 146, 41–48. 2005(146):41-8.




  1. Manisha M, Priyanjali D, Jayant L, Saroj G, Thomas PAD. Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes. J Clin Biochem Nutr,. 2007(40):163-73.




  1. Mayumi I, Tomoyuki K, Yoshikatsu S, Kazunaga Y. Effects of Fenugreek seeds Extract on Endurance Capacity in Mice J Clin Biochem Nutr,. 2006(52):287-92.




  1. Mohammad RS, Asia T, Moorthy K, Mohd EH, Basir SF, Najma ZB. Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains. J Biosci 2005;30(4):483–90.




  1. Palaniswamy M, Pradeep BV, Sathya R, Angayarkanni J. In Vitro Anti-plasmodial Activity of Trigonella foenum–graecum L. Advance Access Publication. 2010;7(4).



  1. Prajapati. A HANDBOOK OF MEDICINAL PLANTS.




  1. Rakhee DS, Meena DL, Lal BC, Prabhakar KR, Vidya SG. Assessment of genetic diversity in Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea using ISSR and RAPD markers. BMC Plant Biology. 2004;4(13):1-11.




  1. Sreeja S, Anju VS, Sreeja S. In vitro estrogenic activities of fenugreek Trigonella foenum graecum seeds. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:814-19.




  1. Subramanian K, Nalini R, Palani G, Elango V, Carani VA. fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in chang liver cells. Advance Access publication. 2006;41(3):267–73.




  1. Toshiaki H, Kohji Y, Yoshikatsu S, Kazunaga Y. The hypoglycaemic activity of fenugreek seed extract is mediated through the stimulation of an insulin signalling pathway. BiosciBiotechnolBiochem. 2005;69(6):1186-88.




  1. Uma Nath T, Deepak C. The plant extracts of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum have antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties for cardiac tissue during diabetes mellitus. Landes Bioscience. 2009;2(5):290-6.




  1. Umesh CSY, Moorthy K, Najma ZB. Effects of sodium orthovandate and trigonella foenum graecum seeds on hepatic and renal lipogenic enzymes and lipid profile during alloxan diabetes. J BIOSCI. 2004;29(1): 81–91.




08.


NAME OF THE CANDIDATE



RAVI KUMAR K.S


09.

SIGNATURE OF THE CANDIDATE





(RAVI KUMAR K.S.)


10.

REMARKS OF THE GUIDE







11.






12.





11. 1 NAME AND DESIGNATION OF

THEGUIDE
11. 2 SIGNATURE


11. 3 HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT


11. 4 SIGNATURE

12.1 REMARKS OF THE PRINCIPAL

12.2 SIGNATURE




K.GIRIJA

ASST. PROFESSOR ,

DEPT. OF PHARMACOGNOSY

P.E.S. COLLEGE OF PHARMACY



BENGALOORU-560 050.

Dr. K.LAKSHMAN

Prof. Dr. S.MOHAN



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