Supporting Table 1: Data used in this study




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Supporting Table 1: Data used in this study. Average feeding time and mass data follow Ross, Washington et al. , with references reproduced here. Entries with multiple references represent averages among those references. Body mass estimates for extinct hominins used the splitting taxonomy” of Robson and Wood and relied on postcrania and orbit data (on dental characters). Question marks indicate that data were unavailable.

Species Name

Time feeding (%)

C' (C'=log(C/100-C)

Body Wgt (kg)

m2*** mesio-distal length (mm)

m2*** Bucco-lingual breadth (mm)

M2 area

feeding Time/Mass Sources

Molar Ref***

Strepsirrhini

Avahi laniger

17.2

-0.682502

1.175







13.11







Eulemur fulvus

21.4

-0.565009

2.038







31.46







Eulemur mongoz

9

-1.004799

1.62







26.07







Hapalemur griseus

29.8

-0.372121

0.987







18.62







Indri indri

38

-0.212608

6.335







44.23







Lemur catta

30.5

-0.357685

2.21







24.99







Lepilemur leucopus

33

-0.307561

0.606







9.77







Lepilemur mustelinus

15

-0.753328

0.777







12.76







Loris tardigradus

0.8

-2.093422

0.267







9.41







Propithecus diadema

25

-0.477121

6.1







42.1







Propithecus verreauxi

28.5

-0.399461

3.1







33.99







Varecia variegata

21.7

-0.557302

3.49







40.9







Cercopithecidae

Cercocebus galeritus

48

-0.034762

7.435

7.37

6.25

46.0625







Cercopithecus l’hoesti

45.1

-0.085396

4.71

6.87

5.49

37.7163







Chlorocebus aethiops

31

-0.347487

4.24

6.25

5.1

31.875







Colobus angolensis

34.115

-0.285841

8.625

?

?

?







Colobus guereza

22.5

-0.537119

13.5

7.42

6.27

46.5234







Colobus polykomos

29.48

-0.378785

9.1

7.41

6.45

47.7945







Erythrocebus patas

30

-0.367977

9.45

7.9

6.33

50.007







Lophocebus albigena

40

-0.176091

7.135

7.35

6.56

48.216







Macaca fascicularis

34

-0.288065

4.475

7.21

5.68

40.9528







Macaca fuscata

38

-0.212608

9.515

8.95

7.42

66.409







Macaca nigra

23.6

-0.510181

7.68

8.13

6.8

55.284







Macaca radiata

30

-0.367977

5.26

?

?

?







Papio anubis

50.6

0.010424

17.825

12.72

10.53

133.9416







Papio cynocephalus

40

-0.176091

15.263

9.91

8.28

82.0548







Papio hamadryas

30

-0.367977

13.4

12.24

9.65

118.116







Presbytis comata

30

-0.367977

6.695

6.03

5.42

32.6826







Presbytis melalophos

33

-0.307561

6.53

5.78

5.07

29.3046







Piliocolobus badius

35

-0.268845

8.285

7.35

5.73

42.1155







Rhinopithecus bieti^

35

-0.268845

12.48

?

?

?







Semnopithecus entellus

36

-0.249877

12.533

8.83

7.42

65.5186







Theropithecus gelada

47.7

-0.039983

15.35

12.33

9.14

112.6962







Trachypithecus cristatus

27.2

-0.427562

6.185

7.47

6.28

46.9116







Trachypithecus francoisi

23.1

-0.522314

7.525

6.71

5.66

37.9786







Trachypithecus johnii

31

-0.347487

11.6

?

?

?







Trachypithecus obscura

34

-0.288065

7.08

6.7

5.45

36.515







Platyrrhini and Tarsius

























Alouatta caraya

19

-0.629731

5.375

7.24

5.75

41.63







Alouatta palliata

18.5

-0.643986

6.24

7.88

6.11

48.1468







Alouatta pigra

18.6

-0.641111

8.915

7.76

5.59

43.3784







Alouatta seniculus

12.7

-0.837211

6.087

7.85

6.21

48.7485







Aotus azarae

31.7

-0.333361

1.21

3.32

2.95

9.794







Aotus trivirgatus

28.8

-0.393088

0.775

3.25

2.91

9.4575







Ateles belzebuth

23.3

-0.517439

8.07

5.2

5.3

27.56







Ateles geoffroyi

29.9

-0.370047

7.535

5.29

5.09

26.9261







Ateles paniscus

24.4

-0.491132

8.78

5.38

4.85

26.093







Brachyteles arachnoides

23.4

-0.515013

8.84

7.48

5.97

44.6556







Callicebus moloch

23

-0.524763

0.988

3.52

3.2

11.264







Callicebus torquatus

26

-0.454258

1.245

3.63

3.27

11.8701







Callimico goeldii

12

-0.865301

0.484

3

2.5

7.5







Callithrix aurita

11.5

-0.886245

0.429

?

?

?







Callithrix geoffroyi

21

-0.575408

0.359

?

?

?







Callithrix jacchus

27

-0.431959

0.372

1.92

1.66

3.1872







Callithrix kuhlii

23

-0.524763

0.375

?

?

?







Callithrix penicillata

16.5

-0.704203

0.326

2

1.81

3.62







Cebus albifrons

22

-0.549672

2.735

?

?

?







Cebus apella

24.3

-0.49349

3.085

4.45

4.45

19.8025







Cebus capucinus

40

-0.176091

3.11

4.32

4.32

18.6624







Cebus olivaceus

18

-0.658541

2.905

?

?

?







Lagothrix lagotricha

22.4

-0.539614

7.15

5.95

5.5

32.725







Leontopithecus chrysomelas

24

-0.500602

0.578

2.6

2.2

5.72







Leontopithecus chrysopygus

8

-1.060698

0.575

2.7

2.4

6.48







Leontopithecus rosalia

14.5

-0.770598

0.609

2.86

2.36

6.7496







Saguinus mystax

13.1

-0.821748

0.525

?

?

?







Saimiri sciureus

11

-0.907997

0.721

2.51

2.5

6.275







Tarsius spectrum

6.7

-1.143807

0.117

2.8

2.5

7







Hominoidea

Gorilla gorilla

54.2

0.073134

124.68

17.28

14.88

257.1264







Hylobates agilis

36

-0.249877

5.85

6.3

5.5

34.65







Hylobates lar

42

-0.140179

5.62

6.67

5.69

37.9523







Hylobates pileatus

26

-0.454258

5.47

6.35

5.42

34.417







Symphalangus syndactylus

52.5

0.043466

11.3

8.92

7.04

62.7968







Pantroglodytes schweinfurthii

37.5

-0.221849

38.2

11.87

10.51

124.7537







Pongo pygmaeus

55

0.08715

57.15

13.78

12.67

174.5926







Hominini

Ardipithecus ramidus

?

?

40

13

11.9

154.7







Australopithecus africanus

?

?

34

14.9

14.1

210.09







Australopithecus anamensis

?

?

42

14.1

13.5

190.35







Australopithecus garhi

?

?

?

?

?

?







Homo ergaster (erectus)

?

?

64

13.8

12.3

169.74







Homo habilis

?

?

33

14.9

12.6

187.74







Homo rudolfensis

?

?

55

16.4

13.7

224.68







Homo sapiens*

4.7

-1.306995

61.17

11.4

10.5

113.4

(See Supporting Table 2)




Homo neanderthalensis

?

?

72

11.1

10.7

118.77







Kenyanthropus platyops

?

?

?

13.9

12.2

169.58







Paranthropus aethiopicus

?

?

38

?

?

?







Paranthropus boisei

?

?

41

20.4

18.5

377.4







Paranthropus robustus

?

?

36

16.6

15.7

260.62







Australopithecus afarensis

?

?

38

14.3

13.5

193.05







Sahelanthropus tchadensis

?

?

?

12.5

12.8

160







* See Supporting Table 2 below for tabulation of human feeding time data.

*** Mean of male and female. If no data were available from the mandible, maxillary measurements were used.

^ Synonym: Pygathrix bieti, molar data from P. nemaeus

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