Supplementary table 1: Examples of polyploid fungal species described in the literature




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Supplementary table 1: Examples of polyploid fungal species described in the literature

Species

References

Comments

Rhizopus oryzae

[1]

Paleopolyploid

Phycomyces blakesleeanus

[2]

Paleopolyploid

Allomyces macrogynus

[3]

Haploid, diploid, tetraploid

Allomyces arbuscula

[4, 5]

Haploid, diploid, triploid, tetraploid

Allomyces javanicus

[5]

Putative allopolyploid whose progenitors may be A. arbuscula & A. macrogynus

Glomus etunicatum

[6]




Cyathus stercoreus

[7, 8]

Tetraploid, possibly allotetraploid

Agaricus campestris

[9]




Coprinellus micaceus

[10]




Coprinopsis atramentaria

[10]




Botrytis alli

[11]

Allotetraploid whose progenitors may be B. byssoidea and B. aclada

Phyllactinia sp.

[12]

Autopolyploid and allopolyploid

Xylaria curta

[13]

Multivalent at meiosis

Stephensia shanori

[14]




Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

[15]

Allopolyploid whose progenitors may be Z. rouxii and Z. pseudorouxii

Saccharomyces genus

[16-18]

paleotetraploid

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

[19-24]

Autotetraploid, allotetraploid

Saccharomyces pastorianus

[25, 26]

Allotetraploid (in the curse of diploidization) whose progenitors may be S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus

Candida utilis

[27]

Ploidy status unclear, possibly tetraploid

Supplementary table 2: Examples of natural intra- and inter-specific fungal hybrids

Species

References

Comments

Melampsora medusa-populina

[28]

Interspecific hybrids whose progenitors are M. medusa and M. larici-populina

Melampsora x columbiana

[29]

Interspecific hybrids whose progenitors are M. medusa and M.occidentalis

Epichloe sp.

[30]




Verticillium dahliae

[31]

Interspecific hybrid

Agaricus bisporus

[32]

Interspecific hybrid

Flammulina genus

[33]

Interspecific hybrid whose progenitors are F.velutipes and F. rossica

Dekkera bruxellensis

[34]

Interspecific origin or/and duplications

Supplementary table 3: Factors affecting genome size in Fungi.

Species

References

Factors

Comments

Candida albicans

[35]

Abiotic

Chromosome loss associated with heat shock

Candida glabrata

[36]

Abiotic

Chromosome duplications and rearrangements associated with antifungal drug resistance

Dictyostelium discoideum

[37]

Abiotic

Ploidy increase associated with fungicides

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

[38]

Abiotic

Ploidy increase associated with saline stress during lab evolution

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

[39-45]

Genetic

Ploidy increase associated with , esp1, spa1, cdc31, kar1, ndc1, chc1, mps1, mps2 mutants

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

[46]

Genetic

Aneuploidy associated with Hsp90 stress.

Schizosaccharomyces pombe

[47]

Genetic

Ploidy increase associated with bub1 mutant

Armillaria mellea

[48]

Development

Ploidy associated with cellular differentiation

Aspergillus nidulans

[49-51]

Development

Frequent aneuploidy that increases with tissue age

Didymium iridis

[52]

Development

Polyploidy, chromosome loss and aneuploidy

Helicobasidium mompa

[53]

Development

Haploid, diploid and tetraploid cells

Macrophomina phaseoli

[54]

Development

Ploidy variation associated with development

Mucor hiemalis

[55]

Development

Ploidy variations associated with life cycle, including haploid, diploid, and aneuploid cells

Neurospora crassa

[56]

Development

Unreduced gametes, frequent aneuploidy

Phymatotrichum omnivorum

[57]

Development

Ploidy variations associated with life cycle, including haploids, diploids, and aneuploids

Pleurotus ostreatus

[58]

Development

Variation of genome size and chromosome number

Ajellomyces capsulatus

[59]




Formerly Histoplasma capsulatem, possible aneuploidy

Septoria tritici

[60]




Chromosome polymorphism

Nectrla haematococca

[61]

Biotic

Chromosome polymorphism associated with pathogenicity

Fusarium oxysporum

[62]

Biotic

Chromosome polymorphism associated with pathogenicity

Supplementary table 4: Examples of polyploid species belonging to the Chromalveolata eukaryotic supergroup

Species

References

Comments

Phytophthora infestans

[63]

Triploid & tetraploid

Phytophthora megasperma

[64]




Phytophthora alni

[65]

Autotetraploid, allotriploid

Phytophthora meadii

[66]

Tetraploid

Phytophthora genus

[67]

Paleopolyploid

Achlya racemosa

[68-70]




Saprolegnia multispora

[68-70]




Ascophyllum nodosum

[71]




Cystoseira nodicaulis

[71]




Macrocystis angustifolia

[71]




Dickieia ulvacea

[72]




Seminavis sp.

[73]




Paramecium tetraurelia

[74-78]

Paleopolyploid

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