Supplemental Online Material: Appendix Raw data




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Supplemental Online Material: Appendix 1. Raw data

Specimen

Species

Wear

Spec

Gen

2d SA

3d SA

Relief

M1 L

M1 W

codea

ms(g)b

ms(g)c

(mm2)d

(mm2)e

Indexf

mm

mm

AMNH 207949

Arctocebus calabarensis

3

309

309

7.019

26.970

0.673

3.30

2.38

MCZ 38316

Arctocebus calabarensis

3

309

309

6.301

21.479

0.613

3.12

2.37

AMNH 212954

Arctocebus sp.

1.67

309

309

6.919

21.360

0.564

3.33

2.41

USNM 83650

Avahi laniger

3

1175

1175

10.354

35.270

0.613

4.96

2.93

USNM 83652

Avahi laniger

3

1175

1175

9.685

31.650

0.592

4.96

2.94

AMNH 170501

Avahi laniger

2

1175

1175

10.787

30.450

0.519

4.70

2.94

AMNH 41267

Avahi laniger

2

1175

1175

9.636

29.641

0.562

4.26

2.78

AMNH 170461(L)

Avahi laniger

2

1175

1175

10.428

29.959

0.528

4.15

3.03

AMNH 170461(R)

Avahi laniger

2

1175

1175

10.187

30.237

0.544

4.15

2.86

AMNH 100635

Avahi laniger

3

1175

1175

10.303

35.584

0.620

4.85

2.85

AMNH 100640 (L)

Cheirogaleus major

2

400

400

7.223

14.541

0.350

3.43

2.58

AMNH 100640 (R)

Cheirogaleus major

2

400

400

7.281

14.299

0.337

3.37

2.54

AMNH 100830

Cheirogaleus major

3

400

400

7.545

15.800

0.370

3.46

2.55

AMNH 80072 (R)

Cheirogaleus major

3

400

400

8.750

16.860

0.328

3.49

2.76

AMNH 80072 (L)

Cheirogaleus major

3

400

400

8.507

16.870

0.342

3.49

2.72

AMNH 100654 (R)

Cheirogaleus medius

3

283

283

4.806

9.935

0.363

2.69

2.20

AMNH 100654 (L)

Cheirogaleus medius

3

283

283

4.890

10.030

0.359

2.70

2.18

AMNH 196618 (L)

Cheirogaleus medius

2

283

283

5.957

12.041

0.352

2.84

2.41

AMNH 196618 (R)

Cheirogaleus medius

2

283

283

6.245

11.971

0.325

2.95

2.42

AMNH 103734

Cynocephalus variegatus

0

1260

1360

6.730

20.360

0.554

3.13

3.04

AMNH 103735

Cynocephalus variegatus

0

1260

1360

7.080

18.524

0.480

3.16

2.72

AMNH 102703

Cynocephalus variegatus

3

1460

1360

7.841

29.363

0.660

3.30

3.05

AMNH 107136

Cynocephalus variegatus

3

1460

1360

7.390

26.003

0.629

3.24

2.88

AMNH 106286

Cynocephalus variegatus

3

1460

1360

5.970

20.441

0.615

2.70

2.66

AMNH 120449

Cynocephalus volans

3

1260

1360

12.159

43.362

0.636

4.36

3.59

AMNH 203258

Cynocephalus volans

3

1260

1360

12.111

43.582

0.640

4.31

3.66

AMNH 24958

Cynocephalus volans

3

1260

1360

13.280

47.670

0.639

4.32

3.94

AMNH 100632 (L)

Daubentonia madagascarensis

2

2555

2555

12.809

25.889

0.352

3.87

3.09

AMNH 100632 (R)

Daubentonia madagascarensis

2

2555

2555

12.967

27.030

0.367

3.93

3.07

AMNH 41334 (L)

Daubentonia madagascarensis

3

2555

2555

15.660

33.593

0.382

4.47

3.32

AMNH 41334 (R)

Daubentonia madagascarensis

3

2555

2555

15.673

32.219

0.360

4.43

3.31

AMNH 185643

Daubentonia madagascarensis

1.33

2555

2555

15.814

32.730

0.364

na

na

SBU MadDb

Daubentonia madagascarensis

1

2555

2555

12.689

25.950

0.358

3.84

3.17

AMNH 19159

Eulemur fulvus fulvus

3

2215

2215

18.871

51.678

0.504

6.13

4.07

AMNH 18696

Eulemur fulvus fulvus

3

2215

2215

19.358

54.762

0.520

5.93

3.82

USNM 063338

Eulemur fulvus rufus

3

2215

2215

19.595

53.540

0.503

6.11

4.21

USNM 083961

Eulemur fulvus rufus

1

2215

2215

17.544

43.560

0.455

6.20

3.78

AMNH 100569

Eulemur fulvus rufus

2

2215

2215

18.436

47.600

0.474

5.78

4.06

AMNH 41264

Eulemur fulvus rufus

2

2215

2215

18.735

52.440

0.515

6.36

3.95

AMNH 100517

Eulemur fulvus rufus

2

2215

2215

16.264

44.650

0.505

5.54

3.68

AMNH 41268

Eulemur fulvus rufus

2

2215

2215

19.752

58.125

0.539

6.11

3.93

AMNH 236379

Galago alleni

3

273

273

6.178

17.784

0.529

3.18

2.42

AMNH 241119

Galago alleni

3

273

273

5.461

15.685

0.528

2.79

2.30

AMNH 236348

Galago alleni

2

273

273

5.854

16.030

0.504

3.14

2.36

AMNH 119810

Galago demidovii

3

62

62

2.355

7.650

0.589

1.67

1.33

AMNH 241124

Galago demidovii

3

62

62

2.696

8.801

0.592

1.84

1.47

AMNH 239438

Galago demidovii

3

62

62

3.213

9.860

0.561

1.97

1.55

AMNH 241122

Galago demidovii

3

62

62

2.765

9.000

0.590

1.97

1.56

AMNH 187359

Galago senegalensis

2.67

143

143

3.405

10.696

0.572

2.43

2.11

AMNH 187360

Galago senegalensis

3

143

143

3.978

13.248

0.602

2.31

1.90

AMNH 187362

Galago zanzibaricus

3

143

143

4.204

13.754

0.593

2.26

1.79

AMNH 100503 (L)

Indri indri

2

6335

6335

35.523

106.034

0.547

8.54

4.97

AMNH 100503 (R)

Indri indri

2

6335

6335

35.158

103.411

0.539

8.56

4.97

AMNH 185638

Indri indri

2

6335

6335

33.278

89.770

0.496

8.71

5.06

AMNH 100504

Indri indri

3

6335

6335

33.484

95.885

0.526

8.67

4.83

AMNH 170737

Lemur catta

1

2210

2210

16.209

40.020

0.452

5.24

3.40

AMNH 100598

Lemur catta

3

2210

2210

15.096

42.380

0.516

5.26

3.49

AMNH 100821

Lemur catta

2

2210

2210

17.227

45.140

0.482

5.41

3.62

AMNH 170743

Lemur catta

2.33

2210

2210

15.454

42.080

0.501

5.05

3.35

AMNH 170740

Lemur catta

1

2210

2210

14.215

35.900

0.463

5.09

3.31

AMNH 170741

Lemur catta

2.67

2210

2210

15.633

39.540

0.464

5.30

3.52

AMNH 100642

Lepilemur edwardsi

3

921

703

9.514

26.290

0.508

4.02

2.79

AMNH 170576

Lepilemur leucopus

3

606

703

6.637

18.510

0.513

3.68

2.36

AMNH 170578

Lepilemur leucopus

2

606

703

6.650

18.390

0.509

3.60

2.36

AMNH 170569

Lepilemur leucopus

2

606

703

6.373

18.330

0.528

3.79

2.36

AMNH 100612

Lepilemur ruficaudatus

3

775

703

9.385

27.900

0.545

3.94

2.56

AMNH 165931

Loris tardigardus

3

267

267

5.907

18.430

0.569

2.99

2.28

AMNH 150062

Loris tardigradus

3

267

267

5.493

18.280

0.601

2.80

2.13

AMNH 240827

Loris tardigradus

3

267

267

5.977

19.970

0.603

na

na

AMNH 217303

Loris tardigradus

3

267

267

6.650

21.160

0.579

2.64

2.50

AMNH 174530

Microcebus griseorufus

2

61

61

1.669

4.489

0.495

1.58

1.20

AMNH 174533

Microcebus griseorufus

2.33

61

61

1.731

4.450

0.472

1.46

1.29

AMNH 174534

Microcebus griseorufus

2.33

61

61

1.968

5.360

0.501

1.69

1.32

AMNH 174498

Microcebus griseorufus

2

61

61

2.110

5.080

0.438

1.67

1.37

AMNH 174483

Microcebus griseorufus

2

61

61

1.777

4.610

0.477

1.53

1.26

AMNH 174531

Microcebus griseorufus

2.33

61

61

1.896

4.860

0.471

1.61

1.27

AMNH 174489

Microcebus griseorufus

3

61

61

1.952

5.190

0.489

1.54

1.34

AMNH 100832 (R)

Mirza coquereli

2

315

315

5.878

15.637

0.489

2.98

2.20

AMNH 100832 (L)

Mirza coquereli

2

315

315

5.834

15.302

0.482

2.95

2.20

AMNH 87279

Nycticebus coucang bengalensis

3

1210

987

10.385

27.620

0.489

3.82

3.14

AMNH 183827

Nycticebus coucang bengalensis

1.67

1210

987

9.359

24.390

0.479

3.68

2.96

AMNH 164442

Nycticebus coucang bengalensis

2

1210

987

9.760

26.390

0.497

3.87

2.93

AMNH 106650

Nycticebus coucang coucang

2.33

653

987

8.076

21.510

0.490

3.23

2.61

SBU Nc-01

Nycticebus coucang coucang

2.66

653

987

8.327

21.330

0.470

3.76

2.85

AMNH 106653

Nycticebus coucang coucang

3

653

987

7.606

18.410

0.442

3.77

2.91

AMNH 101508

Nycticebus coucang javanicus

3

653

987

7.129

20.650

0.532

3.44

2.70

AMNH 101782

Nycticebus coucang javanicus

3

653

987

7.430

20.200

0.500

3.47

2.74

AMNH 102845

Nycticebus coucang javanicus

3

653

987

8.010

23.650

0.541

3.74

2.87

AMNH 269907

Perodicticus potto

3

833

833

7.596

18.210

0.437

3.20

2.35

AMNH 269860 (L)

Perodicticus potto

2.67

833

833

10.679

25.529

0.436

3.72

3.19

AMNH 269860 (R)

Perodicticus potto

3

833

833

10.527

25.358

0.440

3.86

3.20

AMNH 269851

Perodicticus potto

3

833

833

8.867

23.872

0.495

3.58

2.80

AMNH 241117

Perodicticus potto

3

833

833

9.382

24.558

0.481

3.39

2.71

AMNH 31252

Perodicticus potto

3

833

833

12.929

31.747

0.449

3.77

3.16

AMNH 100829 (R)

Phaner furcifer

3

460

460

4.105

10.220

0.456

2.55

2.11

AMNH 100829 (L)

Phaner furcifer

3

460

460

4.115

10.430

0.465

2.48

1.95

AMNH 100633

Propithecus diadema

1

6100

4600

32.530

93.667

0.529

7.17

4.70

AMNH 17356

Propithecus diadema

2

6100

4600

24.103

66.913

0.511

6.76

4.38

USNM 063349

Propithecus diadema

3

6100

4600

32.252

105.210

0.591

7.89

4.89

USNM 063351

Propithecus diadema edwardsi

3

6100

4600

31.169

96.700

0.566

7.28

4.83

USNM 257397

Propithecus verreauxi

3

3100

4600

25.340

76.860

0.555

6.94

4.40

AMNH 16699

Propithecus verreauxi

2

3100

4600

24.210

74.959

0.565

6.52

4.47

AMNH 100827

Propithecus verreauxi

2

3100

4600

24.466

71.445

0.536

6.64

4.35

AMNH 106649

Tarsius bancanus

3

123

115

5.074

16.400

0.587

2.60

2.20

AMNH 106754

Tarsius borneanus

3

117

115

5.769

17.830

0.564

2.75

2.29

AMNH 109368

Tarsius spectrum

3

117

115

4.805

14.970

0.568

2.47

2.20

AMNH 109366

Tarsius spectrum

2

117

115

4.661

14.380

0.563

2.50

2.03

AMNH 196485

Tarsius spectrum

3

117

115

4.821

14.890

0.564

2.41

2.02

AMNH 196480

Tarsius spectrum

2.67

117

115

5.003

15.800

0.575

na

na

AMNH 166856

Tarsius syricta

2

111

115

5.826

17.620

0.553

2.77

2.42

AMNH 203297

Tarsius syricta

2

111

115

5.690

16.630

0.536

2.47

2.34

AMNH 187935

Tarsius syricta

2.33

111

115

5.560

17.950

0.586

2.70

2.28

UMMZ 118309

Tupaia glis

1

152

152

5.410

19.820

0.649

3.15

2.38

UMMZ 123395

Tupaia glis

3

152

152

6.873

26.180

0.669

3.38

2.57

Dummont

Tupaia glis

3

152

152

5.553

20.969

0.664

3.20

2.34

SBU

Tupaia glis

1

152

152

6.148

18.323

0.546

3.20

2.44

UMMZ 117120

Tupaia minor

1

51

152

2.937

7.898

0.495

2.28

1.56

UMMZ 117121

Tupaia minor

1.67

51

152

3.166

9.851

0.568

2.29

1.58

UMMZ 113339

Tupaia montana

3

126

152

5.889

24.330

0.709

3.20

2.22

UMMZ 58982

Tupaia. sp. (cf. glis)

2

152

152

5.976

23.162

0.677

3.14

2.33

UMMZ 58979

Tupaia. sp. (cf. glis)

2.33

126

152

5.809

21.330

0.650

3.18

2.32

UMMZ 58981

Tupaia. sp. (cf. glis)

1

152

152

6.339

20.982

0.598

3.12

2.49

UMMZ 58978

Tupaia. sp. (cf. glis)

0

152

152

6.859

20.939

0.558

3.49

2.47

UMMZ 58984

Tupaia. sp. (cf. glis)

3

152

152

6.183

24.860

0.696

3.18

2.50

UMMZ 58980

Tupaia. sp. (cf. glis)

1.33

152

152

6.589

21.822

0.599

3.25

2.54

UMMZ 113365

Tupaia. sp. (cf. glis)

2

152

152

7.176

26.164

0.647

3.52

2.63

AMNH 100514

Varecia variegata rubra

3

3575

3575

26.257

60.800

0.420

8.32

4.95

AMNH 100513

Varecia variegata rubra

2

3575

3575

25.424

57.880

0.411

7.97

5.13

AMNH 245092

Varecia variegata variegata

3

3575

3575

27.380

68.470

0.458

na

na

AMNH 18041

Varecia variegata variegata

3

3575

3575

27.015

67.534

0.458

8.16

4.99

AMNH 17338

Varecia variegata variegata

3

3575

3575

22.535

54.855

0.445

6.79

4.25

AMNH 100512

Varecia variegata variegata

2

3575

3575

29.863

71.470

0.436

8.51

5.18

USNM 084382

Varecia variegata variegata

2

3575

3575

26.743

65.520

0.448

7.94

4.60

USNM 084383

Varecia variegata variegata

2

3575

3575

26.982

68.170

0.463

7.86

5.06


a Wear code is on a scale from 0 (major exposure of dentine) to 3 (nearly pristine). Each tooth was coded three times on separate occasions and the average of the three independent codings is given here.

b Species ms (g) is the average given for male and female weights of each extant taxon in Smith and Jungers (1997) for primates. Scandentia masses are obtained from Sargis (2002). Cyncephalidae mass is obtained from Stafford and Szalay (2000).

c Gen ms (g) is the average mass for all the species included for each genus of the extant group—which is the taxonomic level at which analyses are run.

d 2d area (mm2) is the planar area encompassed by the silhouette of the crown of the second mandibular molar in occlussal view (described as “the area of the tooth’s projection into the occlussal plane” by M’Kirera and Ungar [2003]).

e 3D area (mm2) is the crown area of the second mandibular molar recorded in AMIRA from a microCT data set surface reconstruction of each tooth that had been cropped and smoothed following discussion in the Materials and methods section.

f Relief index [= natural log {Ö(3d area)}/Ö{2d area}] of second mandibular molars following M’Kirera and Ungar (2003). This is a dimensionless shape ratio for which higher values reflect increased deviation of the shape of the occlusal surface from a flat plane.

na = not applicable.


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