Suborder Fissipedia the fissipeds (toes separated from one another)




Дата канвертавання18.04.2016
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Order Carnivora
Suborder Fissipedia – the fissipeds (toes separated from one another)

Creodonta (“mongoose”-size to “wolf”-size)


Canidae Ursidae Procyonidae Mustelidae Felidae Viverridae Hyaenidae



Superfamilies Arctoidea Aeluroidea


(Eocene) Miacidae (Fissipedia)


???
(Early Tertiary) Creodonta (lack defined carnassials)

General Characteristics:


1) Complex foot structure

Digitigrade (walk on toes) = canids & felids

Plantigrade (walk on soles with heels touching ground) = ursids,

procyonids

2) Skull

3) Jaw articulation



  • No side-to-side movement of lower jaw

4) Carnassials






Family Canidae – dogs

Canis lupus (gray wolf)

  • Huge skull

  • Sharp and elongate carnassials

  • Massive molars

  • Canines do not extend below mental foramina

  • Broad palate/rostrum


Canis latrans (coyote)

  • Canines extend below mental foramina

  • Slender palate/rostrum

  • Flat skull


wolf coyote


Canis familiaris (dog)


Vulpes vulpes (red fox)


Urocyon cinereoargenteus (gray fox)

  • Black line on tail

  • Temporal ridges on top of skull form bell-lyre shape

  • Step in dentary

  • Salt & pepper gray, reddish brown, black, white

Family Ursidae – bears
Ursus americanus (black bear)

  • Large skull

  • Huge bunodont molars/premolars

  • Anterior premolars vestigial

  • Posterior molars < 1 inch in length


Family Mustelidae – weasels

Martes pennanti (fisher)

  • 38 teeth

  • Long body (~2 ft); long, bushy tail (~1 ft)

  • P 4/4

  • Black fur, some white tips


Martes americana (American marten)

  • P 4/4

  • Smaller skull compared to fisher (largest marten skull still smaller than smallest fisher skull) – tympanic bulla

  • Long & shiny fur

  • Cream-colored patch on throat/chest

  • Cat-like ears, semi-retractable claws (long & sharp)


Mustela vison (mink)

  • 34 teeth

  • Inflated tympanic bulla

  • Dumb bell-shaped 3rd upper molar

  • Flattened skull

  • No black tip on tail

  • Brown belly, white throat spots

Lontra canadensis (river otter)

  • Flat tympanic bulla

  • No triangular molars

  • Last upper molar = square

  • Globular braincase

  • Webbed feet


Taxidea taxus (badger)


Mustela frenata (long-tailed weasel)

  • Long rostrum

  • 34 teeth

  • Spear-shaped postorbital processes

  • Black tip on tail

  • White to yellow belly

  • Long tail (<6 in)


Mustela erminea (short-tailed weasel)

  • Long rostrum

  • Spear-shaped postorbital processes

  • Black tip on tail

  • White to yellow belly

  • tail 2-4 in


Mustela nivalis (least weasel)

  • Smallest weasel

  • No black tip on tail

  • White to yellow belly

  • Short (~1in) tail

Family Mephitidae – skunks (separated from Mustelidae based on genetics)
Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk)

  • 34 teeth

  • Flat tympanic bulla

  • High arched skull


Family Procyonidae – procyonids = cacomistle, coatis, raccoons
Procyon lotor (raccoon)

  • 40 teeth (10 in a row)

  • Bunodont molars

  • Arched skull

  • Sagittal crest on older individuals


Family Felidae – cats
Lynx rufus (bobcat)

  • Short face

  • Long canines

  • Huge carnassials

  • Upper M1 = tiny

  • Spotted fur

  • Bobbed tail

  • P 2/2


Lynx canadensis (Canada lynx)

  • Short face

  • Long canines

  • Huge carnassials

  • Upper M1 = tiny

  • P 2/2

  • Ear tuffs

  • Long limbs and large feet

  • Bobbed tail with black tip


Comparing Lynx rufus (left) and Lynx canadensis (right) basilar parts of skull. Note the difference in the shapes of the presphenoid bones and the placement of the anterior condyloid foramina.




Puma concolor (cougar)

  • Uniform tawny fur

  • Long tail

  • Tiny upper M1

  • Large skull

  • Short face

  • P 3/2



Comparing number of premolars between Felis (P 3/2)and Lynx (P 2/2). Note that bobcat is now Lynx rufus instead of Felis rufus






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