Study site Latitude Habitat type




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Study site

Latitude

Habitat type

Caterpillars

Spiders

Reference

Years

Study period

























Latitude 50 to 60ºN






















Gotland, Sweden

57

Deciduous

90.7

5.9

Przybylo & Merilä 2000

2 years

1994-1995

Moscow, Russia

55

Mixed

66.8

27.5

Inozemtsev 1962







Arnhem, The Netherlands

52

Deciduous

62.0

10.0

Grieco 2002

2 years

1998-1999

Germany

52

Deciduous

78.4

20.2

Bösenberg 1964







Germany

52

Deciduous

85.5

8.9

Pfeifer & Keil 1959







Germany

52

Mixed

65.8

24.3

Dorbunsch 1981







Oxford, England

51

Coniferous

46.0

24.5

Gibb & Betts 1963

5 years

1952-1956

Oxford, England

51

Deciduous

19.01

6.3

Betts 1955

1 year

1951

Oxford, England

51

Deciduous

84.4

9.7

Minot 1981

2 years

1978-1979

Oxford, England

51

Deciduous

75.0

16.0

Wilkin et al. 2009

1 year

2006

Cardiff, Wales

51

Urban

42.6

4.8

Cowie & Hinsley 1988

2 years

1982-1983

Antwerp, Belgium

51

Deciduous

85.0




Nour et al. 1998

2 years

1994-1995

Latitude 40 to 50ºN






















Budapest, Hungary

47

Deciduous

75.4

16.1

Törok 1985

3 years

1978-1980

Budapest, Hungary

47

Deciduous

69.6

20.2

Törok & Toth 1999

3 years

1984, 1986-1987

Ventoux, France

43

Deciduous

57.7

19.3

Blondel et al. 1991

1 year




Rouvière, France

43

Deciduous

59.5

26.5

Blondel et al. 2002

1 year




Pirio, Corsica (France)

42

Deciduous

49.5

17.0

Bánbura et al. 2004

4 years

1994-1997

Muro, Corsica (France)

42

Deciduous

82.4




Tremblay et al. 2005

3 years

2000-2002

Pirio, Corsica (France)

42

Evergreen

50.5

33.4

Bánbura et al. 1994

2 years

1987, 1989

Pirio, Corsica (France)

42

Evergreen

73.6




Tremblay et al. 2005

3 years

2000-2002

Calvi, Corsica (France)

42

Evergreen

17.2

33.2

Blondel et al. 1991

1 year




Latitude 30 to 40ºN






















Ankara, Turkey

39

Coniferous

22.9

9.3

Kiziroglu 1982

1 year

1981

Toledo, Spain

39

Deciduous

64.8

8.1

This study

2 years

2008-2009

Toledo, Spain

39

Semievergreen

51.4

15.5

García-Navas, unpubl. data

1 year

2009

Agrigento, Sicily (Italy)

38

Coniferous

34.5

16.1

Massa et al. 2004

4 years

1997-1999, 2001

Agrigento, Sicily (Italy)

38

Deciduous

74.8

6.9

Massa et al. 2004

4 years

1997-1999, 2001

El-Kala, Algeria

36

Evergreen

64.1

18.7

Ziane et al. 2006

2 years

2002-2003

El-Kala, Algeria

36

Semievergreen

90.1

4.6

Ziane et al. 2006

2 years

2002-2003

El-Kala, Algeria

36

Semievergreen

72.0

11.0

Chabi 1998

1 year

1994

Mamora, Morocco

34

Coniferous

54.4

18.1

Baouab et al. 1986

2 years

1982-1983

Ras El Mas, Morocco

34

Semievergreen

76.3

6.6

Baouab et al. 1986

2 years

1982-1983

























1Data reported in this study (Betts 1955) comes from one nest late in the season (13rd-26th June), which explains the low proportion of caterpillars

ESM Table 1. Diet (% of caterpillars and spiders given to nestlings) of the blue tit in different study areas.

References


Bańbura J, Blondel J, de Wilde-Lambrechts H, Galan MJ & Maistre M (1994) Nestling diet variation in an insular Mediterranean population of blue tits Parus caeruleus: effects of years, territories and individuals. Oecologia 100:413-420.

Bańbura J, Perret P, Blondel J, Thomas DW, Cartan-Son M, Lambrechts MM (2004) Effects of Protocalliphora parasites on nestling food composition in Corsican Blue Tits Parus caeruleus: consequences for nestling performance. Acta Ornithol 39:93-103.

Betts MM (1955) The food of titmice in oak woodland. J Anim Ecol 24:282-323.

Blondel J, Dervieux A, Maistre M, Perret P (1991) Feeding ecology and life history variation of the blue tit in Mediterranean deciduous and sclerophyllous habitats. Oecologia 88:9-14.

Blondel J, Perret P, Anstett M-C, Thébaud C (2002) Evolution of sexual size dimorphism in birds: test of hypotheses using blue tits in contrasted Mediterranean habitats. J Evol Biol 15:440-450.

Bösenberg K (1964) Vergleichende Fertstellung zur Nestlingsnahrung von Trauerschnapper (Ficedula hypoleuca (Pall.)), Kohlmeise (Parus major L.) und Blaumeise (Parus caeruleus L.) in verschiedenen Waldbiotopen. Beitr. Vogelk. 9:249-262.

Chabi Y (1998) Biologie de la reproduction des mésanges dans les chênaies du nord est de l'Algérie. Thèse de Doctorat d'Etat. Université Badji Mokhtar, Annaba, Algérie.

Cowie RJ, Hinsley SA (1988) Feeding ecology of Great Tits Parus major and Blue Tits Parus caeruleus, breeding in suburban gardens. J Anim Ecol 57:611-626.

Dorbunsch, M (1981) Die Ernährung einiger Kleinvogelarten in Kiefernjungbestockungen. Beitr. Vogelk. 27:73-99.

Gibb JA, Betts MM (1963) Food and food supply of nestling tits in Breckland Pine. J Anim Ecol 32:489-533.

Grieco F (2002) Foraging and its consequences in the breeding season of the Blue Tit (Parus caeruleus). PhD thesis, University of Utrecht. Ponsen & Looijen BV, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Inozemtsev AA (1962) Notes on the ecology of tits in the Moscow region. In: Materialy po faune i ekologii zhivotnykh. Naumova, S.P. (ed.). Pp. 169-199. Moskva.

Kiziroglu I (1982) Brutbiologische Untersuchungen an vier Meisenarten (Parus) in der Umgebung von Ankara. J Ornithol 123:409-423.

Massa B, Lo Valvo F, Margagliotta B, Lo Valvo M (2004) Adaptive plasticity of blue tits (Parus caeruleus) and great tits (Parus major) breeding in natural and semi-natural insular habitats. Italian J Zool 71:209-217.

Minot EO (1981) Effects of interspecific competition for food in breeding blue and great tits. J Anim Ecol 50:375-385

Nour N, Currie D, Matthysen E, Van Damme R, Dhondt AA (1998) Effects of habitat fragmentation on provisioning rates, diet and breeding success in two species of tit (great tit and blue tit). Oecologia 114:522-530.

Pfeifer S, Keil W (1959) Siebenjahrige Untersuchungen zur Ernahrungsbiologie nestjunger Singvogel. Luscinia 32:13-18

Przybylo R, Merilä J (2000) Intersexual niche differentiation in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus). Biol J Linn Soc 69:233-244.

Török J (1985) The diet niche relationships of the Great Tit (Parus major) and Blue Tit (Parus caeruleus) nestlings in an oak forest. Opusc Zool Budapest 19-20:99-114.

Törok J, Tóth L (1999) Asymmetric competition between two tit species: a reciprocal removal experiment. J Anim Ecol 68:338-345.

Tremblay I, Thomas D, Blondel J, Perret P, Lambrechts MM (2005) The effect of habitat quality on foraging patterns, provisioning rate and nestling growth in Corsican Blue Tits Parus caeruleus. Ibis 147:17-24.

Wilkin TA, King LE, Sheldon BC (2009) Habitat quality, nestling diet, and provisioning behaviour in great tits Parus major. J Avian Biol 40:135-145.

Ziane N, Chabi Y, Lambrechts MM (2006) Breeding performance of Blue Tits Cyanistes caeruleus ultramarinus in relation to habitat richness of oak forest patches in north-eastern Algeria. Acta Ornithol 41:163-169.

Title:

The importance of a main dish: nestling diet and foraging behaviour in Mediterranean blue tits in relation to prey phenology
Authors:

Vicente García-Navas1,* and Juan José Sanz1,2


Addresses:

1 Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, Facultad de Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo, Spain

2 Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
Correspondence:

Vicente García-Navas. Área de Zoología, Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, Facultad de Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Carlos III s/n E-45071, Toledo, Spain. E-mail: vicente.garcianavas@uclm.es






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