State school physical education




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STATE SCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION
June 2013
Physical Education has developed since the 19th Century. Outline two objectives of teaching military drill in schools in the early 20th century (1902-4) (2)
Since the 19th Century, the provision for physical activity in state schools has regularly changed. What changes occurred in Physical Education in state schools following the World War II, and prior to the National Curriculum, to encourage a more movement based approach? (4)
January 2012
The provision of physical activity in the UK schools has changed over time. What were the characteristics of physical education in state schools in the post World war 2 period before the introduction of the National Curriculum (4)
A. Moving and Growing/Planning the Programme

B. Varied content/gymnastic/dance/ games skills;

C. Element of play;

D. Better facilities /equipment/apparatus;

E. Recognition of different ages;

F. Link between mind and body/physical & mental benefits;

G. Use of group work;

H. Decentralised lesson/more freedom for teachers/(PE) teachers trained/ qualified;

I. Teacher relate to individuals/ interaction/less command style/more discovery/child-centered/Freedom of Movement;

J. More enjoyable/fun;


June 2011
There have been many developments in state school Physical Education since 1990. Identify the similarities and differences between the state school (1904 -1918) Syllabuses of Physical Training and the current “National Curriculum for Physical Education” (5)
Similarities –

A. Both centralised/directed/told what to teach;

B. Both concerned with health promotion;

C. Both compulsory;

D. Both preparation for life after school;

Differences –

Early syllabus:

E. Limited curriculum breadth/choice;

F. Little/no differentiation between sexes/ages;

G. Command style/drilled/freestanding/ Swedish gymnastics;

H. Obedience training/accepting orders;

I. Preparation for role in factory/army;

J. No concern for individual/class response/ unison;

K. No interaction between pupils; Current NCPE

L. Greater variety of activities

M. Different key stages for different ages;

N. Child centred/individual development;

O. Develops independent thinking/problem-solving/different roles/observation and analysis;

P. Preparation for leisure/lifelong learning/ future recreation;
January 2011
Using your knowledge of the “moving and growing” programme, describe the similarities and differences between the programme and the concept of play (4)
Similarities

A. Intrinsic/fun/enjoyment

B. Learning through movement

C. Interaction with other children/social development

D. Problem solving/creative/decision making/cognitive development

E. Negotiation with others/ communication.
Differences in picture

F. Freedom of movement/free space

G. Teacher guiding the task/adult authority/children told what to do

H. Formal educational objective

I. Less choice/less spontaneous/ compulsory lesson (accept reverse);

J. Kit/uniform/apparatus.
January 2007
1 (b) Using Figure 1 and your knowledge of the programme ‘Moving & Growing’, outline the similarities and differences between this programme and the concept of Play. (4 marks)
Similarities

1. Intrinsic/fun/enjoyment

2. Learning through movement

3. Interaction with other children

4. Problem solving/creative/decision

making/cognitive development

5. Negotiation with

others/communication/social

development

6. Freedom of movement/free space



Differences

7. Teacher guiding the task/adult

authority/children told what to do

8. Formal educational objective

9. Less choice/less spontaneous/

compulsory/lesson (accept reverse)

10. Kit/uniform

1 (ii) Military drill was one of the first forms of physical activity to be included in

state schools. What were the aims and characteristics of military drill?

(5 marks)
Characteristics

1. Free standing/no equipment/large numbers/small space;

2. Standing in regimented rows/unison/class response;

3. Taught by NCOs;

4. Adult exercises for children/took no account for children.s needs;

5. Static/no creativity/no skill development;

6. Marching/weapon familiarity;

7. Mixed ages/sexes.

8. Instructional/didactic/no inter-action/command style

Aims

9. To develop fitness/health

10. Preparation for work/war

11. Familiarity with weapons

12. Obedience/discipline
January 2006
2(e) Discuss whether the current National Curriculum for Physical Education improves the health of children to a greater degree than the early Syllabuses of Physical Training (1904–1933). (5 marks)


FOR (NATIONAL CURRICULUM)

AGAINST (NATIONAL CURRICULUM)

1. Strong focus on raising awareness of healthy lifestyle/knowledge of body

used to devise PE programmes/Health Related Education/cognitive development

2. More range/choice of activities

3. Better equipment /facilities=

(enables fitness/health development)

4. Links made with community sport

clubs=later life

5. Fitness can extend beyond just

school life

6. Fitness related activities/weight

training/aerobics


7. Focus on skills not just fitness

8. Observation/analysis = less actual

physical activity?

9. Schools struggle to give

appropriate/enough time on timetable

(Syllabuses)

10. Therapeutic effects/physical

training/sole focus on body

11. Static drill therefore not good for health

12. But became more active (must justify drill for/against)



Similarities:

13. Both compulsory/centralised;

14. Both have aims to develop health/fitness 5 marks

June 2005
2 (c) Historically, social class was an important factor in determining participation in physical activity.

(i) Why did working class women traditionally have the least opportunities to participate in physical recreation? (3 marks)


(c) (i) 3 marks for 3 of:

1. Less leisure time;

2. Due to work and domestic role;

3. Less money/less disposable income/less money for private membership of clubs;

4. Stereotype/sport not for women/sport for males/damage to women.s health;

5. Less availability of private facilities;

6. Had to wait for public provision of facilities. 3 marks
(ii) Why was military drill considered suitable for working class children in state schools at the beginning of the 20th century? (4 marks)
(ii) 4 marks for 4 of:

1. (Command obey style of teaching) developed obedience/discipline;

2 Working class expected to know their place in society/unquestioning;

3. Military style exercises suitable for preparation for war/familiarity with weapons/for work;

4. Fitness/health. Working class in poor physical health;

5. Would make them better troops/more productive workers;

6. Catered for large numbers/all ages in a small space/cheap as no equipment needed;

7. Working class considered as not needing recreation activities as had little leisure time. 4 marks



January 2005
3 The United Kingdom has experienced a number of wars, which have affected the philosophy and provision of physical activity in schools and society.

(a) As a consequence of the Boer War the Model Course (1902–1904) was introduced into state elementary schools.

What were the objectives and characteristics of the Model Course? (4 marks)

4 marks for 4 of: Sub max 3 per section
Objectives

1. Improve fitness of working class

2. Improve military preparedness/familiarity with weapons

3. Improve discipline/obedience/for work/war

Sub max 3 per section
Characteristics

4. Military drill/regimented straight lines

5. Exercises taken from War Office/adult exercises for children/didactic/no

freedom for teachers or children

6. Static/freestanding/no apparatus/dummy weapons

7. Instruction given by NCOs/drill sergeants

8. Uniform class response/command style

4 marks

(b) Syllabuses of Physical Training replaced the Model Course.

What were the main differences between the early syllabuses (1904–1909) and the final syllabus in 1933 in terms of content and delivery? (4 marks)



CONTENT

DELIVERY

1. More variety/recognition of

gymnastic and games skills

2. Element of play

3. Better facilities such as playing fields

and gymnasiums

4. Recognition of ages (under 11 & over

11)

5. Link between mind and body


6. Introduction of group work

7. Decentralised lesson

8. Teacher beginning to relate to individual / individual response

9.More freedom for teachers / teachers trained

(c) Explain how and why recreational opportunities for women improved following the First World War (1914–1918). (3 marks)


(c) 3 marks for 3 of:

1. Beginning to shed the traditional domestic role/removing of stereotypes;

2. Took on jobs during the war/gained respect;

3. More sports becoming acceptable for women;

4. Increasing leisure provision in society/more facilities/clubs;

5. More freedom generally /gained the vote/more independence/fashion/labour saving gadgets;

6. More high profile competitions beginning to highlight the potential of women;

7. Media coverage = role models=stimulated participation. 3 marks



June 2004
1 Rather than play team games, children in Elementary State Schools carried out military drill.

(iii) How did military drill prepare the working classes for their role in society? (3 marks)


(iii) 3 marks for 3 of:

1. Improve health/fitness/did not improve fitness/hard physical exercise;

2. Learned to take orders/obedience/discipline;

3. Familiarity with weapons/staves and sticks;

4. Not needed to think or use initiative/working in unison;

5. Employees need to obey employer;

6. Military role as a soldier/foot troops/preparation for work role. 3 marks
4 (b) During the 20th century, key changes occurred in the content and style of teaching of physical education programmes in state schools.

(i) Describe the content and teaching style of the programme Moving and Growing [1952]. (4 marks)




CONTENT

TEACHING STYLE

1. Free movement;

2. Dance/educational

gymnastics;

3. Expressive/creative;

4. Apparatus;

5. Active/energetic/use

of space;

6. Educational focus.


7. Heuristic/guidance/discovery/

observational role/less didactic /

problem solving;

8. Interaction between teacher and

pupil;

9. Work with individuals rather than

class response/decentralised

style/group work;

10. Teachers devise own work.


(ii) How did this reflect the changing attitude towards children? (2 marks)


(ii) 2 marks for 2 of:

1. Become more child centered;

2. Children.s physical/intellectual/social/emotional needs taken into account;

3. More of an educational focus rather than instruction/individual development;

4. Children encouraged to be creative/expressive/decision making/thinking;

5. More .fun. focus. 2 marks

January 2004
4 (d) There have been many developments in state school Physical Education since 1900. Identify the similarities and differences in terms of objectives and delivery between early state school (1904–1918) PT syllabuses and the current National Curriculum for Physical Education. (6 marks)

(d) Similarities Sub max 4 marks

1 Both centralised/guidelines from central authority/government;

2 Both concerned with health promotion;

3 Both compulsory part of curriculum;

4 Both preparing for life after school.

Differences Sub max 4 marks

June 2003
1 (b) During the late 19th century, participation in physical activity within schools was very much determined by social class.

With reference to physical activities experienced, contrast the ways in which the upper/middle and working classes were prepared for life after school. (5 marks)


(b) Public schools (upper/middle class) (max 3 from this section)

1 Opportunities for team games/suitable egs;

2 To develop Muscular Christianity/Athleticism;

3 To instil values for life/activity for its own sake/fair play/team work/loyalty;

4 To develop specific sport skills for further participation in games;

5 To be played during the extensive amounts of leisure time likely to be available;

6 Development of leadership skills/preparation for leadership roles/suitable eg’s;

7 Character training.

Elementary schools (working class) (max 3 from this section)

8 Provided with drill/therapeutic gymnastics;

9 To develop basic fitness/health;

10 To develop obedience/not to question authority/social control;

11 For preparation for workforce/military service;

12 Limited amount of leisure time likely to be available. (5 marks)



January 2003
1 (c) The physical activities offered by state elementary schools changed during the first half of the 20th century. Describe and explain these changes. (7 marks)
(c) No specific dates required, but developments must be chronologically correct.

Description – Sub max 4 marks

1 (1870) initially (free standing military) drill for boys only;

2 Taught by NCOs;

3 Girls included later/compulsory for all children;

4 (1890) Swedish drill/gymnastics included;

5 Teachers began to take over the exercise sessions;

6 (1902) focus more on military drill/Swedish drill replaced;

7 Taught from a syllabus/centralised approach;

8 (1904) Reinstatement of Swedish system/therapeutic approach;

9 Recognition of the different ages/sex of children;

10 (1909) Further therapeutic approach/incorporation of games/Danish rhythmic swinging

11 (1919/post WW1) Recognition of recreational/reduction in formality;

12 (1933) Introduction of group work/first steps towards decentralisation;

13 (1944/post WW2) Child centred approach/emphasis on skill learning/dance/use of apparatus/facilities/school gyms;

14 (1952/1954) Moving & Growing/planning the programme freedom of movement/individualised/decentralised approach.

Explanation – Sub max 4 marks

(1870-1902)

15 Improve fitness/health;

16 Preparation for military service/work/labour/effect of Boer War;

17 Instil/develop discipline/accept role in society;

18 Easy to administer/teach/deliver;

19 Cheap/required little space.

(1904-1919)

20 Improve health and physique/physical development/knowledge of exercise/European influences;

21 Medical basis/form of preventative medicine/rehabilitation of WW1soldiers/recuperation;

22 Increase enjoyment/fun;

23 Allow more scope for teacher to use own initiative;

24 Control passed to Education Board;

25 Impact of female PE teachers;

(1933-1952)

26 Encourage interaction between pupils/pupil teacher;

27 Develop creativity/initiative among pupils/discovery style;

28 Further scope for teacher initiative/creativity;

29 Further development of specialist PE teacher training/Wing/Loughborough/Carnegie;

30 Influence of Dance Movement educationalists/Labern.

7 marks
June 2002
2 (e) What factors caused the increase in physical recreation in Britain during the inter-war period (1918 to 1939)? (4 marks)

4 The Butler Education Act (1944) was introduced in order to help build a better future for children. In terms of Physical Education, it represented a shift in emphasis from “posture” to “movement”.

(a) What were the main features of the “movement” approach to Physical Education in state schools of the 1940s and 1950s? (3 marks)



January 2002
3 The nature and extent of a person’s participation in sport or physical activity may be influenced by their social class.

(a) In the late 1800s public schools focused on and developed team sports, whilst elementary schools incorporated exercises based on military drill into the curriculum.

(i) Comment on the differences between the two types of school in terms of the provision for and delivery of physical activity. (3 marks)

(ii) What personal characteristics were the two types of school trying to develop?



(3 marks)

(b) During the late 1800s the working classes gained more opportunities to become involved in team sports. Using examples, explain how this was achieved. (3 marks)



(c) During the period 1860 to 1900 many sports became more developed and organised. What social, economic and/or political changes helped to bring this about? (3 marks)


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