Social Studies 10 European History




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d. Indians are divided and hate their Aztec rulers

e. smallpox

f. eventual reinforcements from Spain

5. Cortes founds the Spanish colony of New Spain after conquering the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan in 1521

C. Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incas of Peru (1532)

1. the Incan ruler was Atahualpa

2. 1533, Pizarro controlled all Incan capital of Cuzco

D. Spaniards Explored Widely

1. Hernando de Soto claimed Florida and the Mississippi River for Spain

2. Francisco Coronado explored the Rio Grande

3. Pedro de Valdivia and Ines Suarez founded the city of Santiago and conquered much of Chile

E. Colonists Enslaved the Indians

1. viceroy- the king’s representative in a Spanish colony; nobleman from Spain

2. encomienda- large estate granted to Spanish settlers on which Indians were worked

II. Spain was a Catholic Bulwark

A. Intro: Philip II ruled an empire consisting of Spain, its American colonies, the duchy of Milan, the kingdom of Naples, Franche-Couté, and the 17 provinces of the Netherlands

1. immense wealth from gold (750,000 pounds by 1600) and silver (16,000 tons by 1600) translated into having a superb army in the 1500s, “When Spain moves, the whole world trembles.”

2. Philip II (1556-98)- a staunch supporter of Catholicism

3. Philip II seized Portugal and its colonies in 1580 when the Portuguese king w/o an heir

4. The Escorial- Philip II’s palace of north of Madrid; also included a monastery; 84 miles of corridors

B. Spain Battled for Catholicism

1. Ottoman Turkish navy is crushed at the Battle of Lepanto by Spanish-Venetian ships (1571)

a. Philip II’s half-brother, Don John of Austria, was the Christian navy’s commander

2. 1588- defeat of the Spanish armada

a. Philip II’s greatest Protestant enemy was England under Elizabeth I, she openly assisted the Dutch rebels w/ money and troops; also urged English sea captains to raid Spanish treasure ships for gold

b. Elizabeth I’s English navy wins over 130 Spanish ships and 31,000 men; England remains Protestant

C. Spain’s “Golden Age” of Great Art and Literature

1. El Greco- painted saints w/ long limbs and intense colors

2. Velasquez- painted Spanish royal families

3. Miguel de Cervantes- wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha, a satire of chivalric values

a. first modern European novel

D. Spanish Economy Weakened

1. weak kings followed Philip II

2. by 1650, Spain had a tremendous debt to foreign creditors for imported supplies

3. inflation

a. gold and silver values dropped

b. guilds of the Middle Ages still dominated manufacturing - this led to a shortage of quality consumer goods and the need for high-priced imports from the Netherlands, England, and France

4. no large middle-class; most Jews and Moors were expelled in 1492

III. The Netherlands Won Independence from Spain

A. the Dutch Revolted Against Spanish Rule

1. Philip II had inherited the Netherlands from his father, HRE Charles V

2. Catholic, mercantile, and feudal Spain had very little in common w/ Protestant, capitalist Netherlands

3. Philip II sent his sister Margaret to govern the Low Countries (Netherlands) in 1559

4. “Sea Beggars” (angry Calvinists), violently protesting Margaret’s rule, destroyed many Catholic Churches in the Netherlands (1566)

5. Philip II sent 20,000 troops under the Spanish Duke of Alva to destroy Protestantism in the Netherlands

a. thousands of executions of suspected heretics

6. Prince William of Orange (a.k.a. William the Silent) led the revolt against Spain - he opened the floodgates of Alkmoar and elsewhere, using the seawater to drive out the Spanish

7. after a 10-year long war b/w Catholics (Spanish), and Protestants (Dutch); in 1579, the Dutch gained control of the northern part of the Netherlands (7 provinces)

8. 1581- the United Provinces of the Netherlands is declared by the province of Holland and 6 other provinces

9. for the time being, the southern part of the Netherlands (now Belguim) remained under Spanish control

10. the United Provinces of the Netherlands becomes a rare place of religious toleration for Jews and eventually for people of all faiths

B. The Dutch Established a Republic

1. each province had a governor called a stodtholder

2. each of the 7 provinces sent a representative to a weak central legislature, the States General

C. The Dutch Built a Trading Empire

1. the Dutch took the lead in developing capitalism in the 1600s

a. capitalism- economic system in which individuals invest capital in the hope of making a profit

b. Dutch ships (privateers) carried commodities all over; 10,000 ships by 1600- larger than any other nation

c. the Dutch replaced Italians as Europe’s bankers as Atlantic Trade became more important than old Mediterranean Sea routes

i. Amsterdam Exchange Bank- safest, soundest bank in Europe in 1600s

2. The Dutch East India Co.

a. 1602- resulted from Amsterdam’s richest merchants pooling their money together; its well-armed fleet helped the company to displace the Portuguese from the East Indies, Ceylon, and the Cape of Good Hope w/i 20 years, and to get the profitable spice trade for itself

b. any Dutch citizen could buy or sell shares in this profitable company

3. the Dutch system of trade, profit, and investment (soon to be followed by Britain and France) became known as the Commercial Revolution

a. the Commercial Revolution marked the beginnings of capitalism

D. Dutch Artists Developed a New Style

1. Amsterdam became the “Florence” of the 1600s due to its wealth from banking and trade

2. Rembrandt van Rijin (1609-69)

a. “Night Watch”- group portrait; mastery of light and shadow

3. Franz Hale- painted less somber works than Rembrandt; for example, he showed great merrymaking in 1 picture of a tavern scene

4. Jan Vermeer- painted everyday tasks done by Dutch people at home

5. Dutch art, unlike the art of Michaelengelo or Velasquez, emphasized the group and hard work, not the individual. Dutch art is characterized by group portraits of families, civic leaders, and military units, reflecting the Netherland’s civic spirit and prosperity


England and Great Britain


Chapter 18
Intro: Henry VIII had 3 children

Catherine of Aragon à daughter, Mary Tudor

Anne Boleyn, daughter Elizabeth; married in 1533, beheaded in 1536

Jane Seymour à Son, Edward VI

Edward VI (1547-53)- followed in his father’s policy of strengthening the Protestant religion in England

Mary Tudor (1553-58)- was married to Philip II of Spain; ruled briefly tried to reinstate Catholicism in England; known as “Bloody Mary” because of inquisitions. People disliked her for her violent acts and her marriage to a foreign king

Elizabeth I (1558-1603)- came to the throne at age 25, she had been a Protestant ruler Edward and a Catholic under Mary; she chose to start a state religion, that Catholics and Protestants could accept

I. Elizabeth I Faced Many Challenges (1558-1603)

A. Ascended the throne after her half-sister, Mary Tudor, died in 1158

B. Religious Issues Divided England à Elizabeth I gets Parliament to pass 2 acts to strengthen the Church of England

1. 1559- Act of Uniformity- people must attend Church of England services or pay a fine

a. to appease the Protestants, priests were allowed to marry and say mass in English and Latin

b. to appease the Catholics, Church would retain all the trappings and priests would wear robes and vestments

c. Note: it would take the Pope 10 years to excommunicate Elizabeth b/c of her policy of moderation

2. 1559- Act of Supremacy, Elizabeth would govern both the Church and the State

C. Mary Queen of Scots, plotted to overthrow Elizabeth

1. Intro: Mary was a granddaughter of Henry VII, and therefore had a legitimate claim to the throne. She was Queen of Scotland and cousin to Elizabeth. She received support from Spain, France, Italy, and the Pope to overthrow Elizabeth and restore Catholicism to England

2. Mary did not receive the support of the Scottish people who were converting to Presbyterianism under John Knox. She is forced to seek safety in England after a Scottish Presbyterian revolt in 1567.

3. Mary was beheaded in 1587 for plotting to kill Elizabeth and take the throne for herself

D. Philip II of Spain threatened England

1. English “Sea Dogs” were encouraged by Elizabeth to attack Spanish treasure fleets coming from America

a. Sir Francis Drake- the greatest “sea dog”; circumnavigated the globe; attacked Cadiz and Logoes (1587)

2. The invincible Spanish Armada (1588)

a. Elizabeth’s refusal to marry Philip, her sponsoring of the ‘Sea Dogs’, her support of the Dutch Protestants in their revolt against Catholic Spain, and her execution of the Catholic Mary provoked Philip into declaring war on England

b. Spanish fleet: 130 ships and 31,000 men

c. the English victory is due to “fire ships”, speed, superior cannons, and storms at sea; destroy half the Spanish fleet

E. Elizabeth’s Financial Woes

1. small income; House of Commons balked at new taxes

F. Joint-Stock Company: organization in which individual investors buy shares of ownership (or stock) and collect proportional shares of any profit earned

1. Sir Thomas Smyth planned to settle Virginia, but didn’t due to conflict w/ Spain in late 1500s

2. 1600s- British East India Company

a. spice trade was very profitable

G. Parliament vs. Elizabeth I

1. Puritans were an active minority in the House of Commons that called upon Elizabeth to strip the Church of England of its “Catholic” rituals and lavish ornamentation inside the Churches


II. The Elizabethan Golden Age

A. London became England’s economic, political, and artistic center

1. many criminals

a. petty thievery

b. 200 Capital crimes listed

c. debtor’s punishment- imprisonment

2. William Shakespeare’s Drama and Poetry

a. symbolizes the Golden Age of English literature; perhaps the best writer ever

b. had a great understanding of human nature

c. wrote 38 plays: Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet

3. James Burbage built London’s 1st playhouse (1576) “The Theatre”

4. Globe Theater built by Burbage’s 2 sons, was the scene of the great plays of Shakespeare

a. 1/10 of London’s population attended some play each week

b. groundling- a theater-goer who paid a penny to sit or stand in the ground to watch a play


III. England’s Civil War

A. Elizabeth dies w/o an heir

1. Elizabeth I (Tudor) never married and died (March, 1603) w/o an heir, thus ending the Tudor Dynasty

2. Elizabeth’s Scottish cousin, James Stuart becomes king James I (1603-1625) of England, starting the Stuart dynasty

3. James I loudly voiced his belief in the Divine Right of Kings (kings were chosen by God and are only answerable to God) - this angered Parliament

4. 1611- King James Bible is published; elegant, powerful translation by English-speaking Protestants

5. King James will make a wise, but unpopular, political alliance w/ Spain

B. The English Founded American Colonies

1. Jamestown (1607) - 1st English settlement in the Americas (Virginia)

2. Plymouth (1620)- founded in Massachusetts by Puritans

C. England Reached the Brink of War

1. Charles I (1625-1649) became the 2nd Stuart king after James I (his father) dies; he was also a firm believer in divine right and had many clashes w/ Parliament

2. when Parliament refused to grant Charles money for a war w/ Spain in 1626, Charles dissolved it, and demanded loans from nobles and his knights, or face Court of Star Chamber

3. 1628- Petition of Right

a. a document signed by Charles I in exchange for money needed to continue wars

b. it limited the king’s power

i. no imprisonment w/o cause

ii. no new loans or taxes w/o Parliament’s consent

iii. no quartering of soldiers in private homes w/o owner’s consent

iv. no martial law in peacetime

c. a year later, Charles dissolved Parliament again

4. from 1629-1640, Charles ruled w/o Parliament, laying unpopular fines and fees on the people (didn’t revolt b/c of the relative prosperity)

5. Charles I chose William Laud, a lover of ceremonies, as Archbishop of Canterbury, head of the Church of England; Puritans were very offended

a. 1639- land tried to force the Scottish Presbyterians to follow the Church of England

b. 1640- the Scots raised an army and threatened to invade England; Charles now must call Parliament (Short) back to raise money

c. throughout 1641, Long Parliament passed laws to limit the king’s power

i. Parliament called for the dismissal of key ministers, including Laud

ii. end Court of Star Chamber

iii. demanded that Parliament meet at least once every 3 years

d. revolts in London force the king to flee to the north

D. Cavaliers and Roundheads Fought a Civil War

1. Cavaliers (Royalists)- supporters of Charles I were mostly English nobles and high church officials

2. Roundheads- Puritan townspeople who supported Parliament; mostly merchants

a. had the great resources of Parliament; needed a leader

3. Oliver Cromwell

a. became General of the Roundheads, 1644

b. the New Model Army- strict discipline and good leadership made it an effective fighting machine

4. Effects of the War

a. at 1st, most people were unaffected by war; in the end, many villages and crops were destroyed; 100,000 battle casualties

b. on both sides, people had become more radical in their ideas

5. 1646, Charles I- defeated and a prisoner in Scotland

a. Cromwell’s New Model Army refuses Parliament’s order to disband; some members of Parliament then join the king

b. 1648, Cromwell defeats Parliament supporters and captures King Charles I, then expels 143 M.P.s from Parliament (Pride’s Purge)

6. 1/30/1649- Charles I (Stuart) publicly executed for treason by Cromwell and the Puritans

E. Cromwell Ruled as Military Dictator

1. 1653, Cromwell’s soldiers expel remaining M.P.s from Parliament building- set up a constitution (1st written Constitution of a modern European nation w/ Cromwell as Lord Protector; established a republic (commonwealth)

2. Puritans closed theaters and stopped sporting events; all entertainment becomes illegal; many people dislike the Puritan dictatorship

F. Conquest of Ireland

1. Ireland had fallen under English rule during Henry VIII’s reign, and was a constant problem for Elizabeth, James, and Charles

2. 1649, after the execution of Charles, the Irish rose to revolt

a. August 1649, Cromwell invades w/ a protestant army

b. English seize town of Dragheb, massacre of 9,000 inhabitants; special satisfaction in killing priests

c. many more massacres; land and crops destroyed

d. 616,000 Irish die from plague and famine b/w 1641-1655

G. Summary of Cromwell’s Life

1. comes to power as a dictator, by Pride’s Purge (although he wanted a republic)

2. wrote 2 constitutions, but Parliament didn’t accept them, so he dissolved it

3. Irish and Scottish rebellions crushed

4. Dutch War and Navigation Act of 1651; buys merchant’s support, but force was used

5. 1658, Cromwell dies; briefly succeeded by his son, Richard


IV. Parliament Won Political Power

A. Charles II Restored the Monarchy

1. 1659, Army General George Monds recalled Protestant

2. The Restoration

a. Parliament asks Prince Charles Stuart to return from exile to become king

b. Charles II (1660-1685)-“Merry Monarch”; restored much of the merrymaking to England; Theater, sporting events, etc.

i. John Milton, a Puritan, wrote propaganda for Cromwell; his greatest poem was Paradise Lost, an epic poem about the “fall” of man, tries to explain suffering and pain

3. Charles II was a moderate ruler; he never tried to restore the Divine Right of kings

4. Habeus Corpus- 1679, law which says that all prisoners must be brought to trial or set free if no evidence indicating guilt; an important guarantee of personal freedom. Prevented false arrest and imprisonment

5. beginning in 1670, Secret Treaty of Dover; King Louis XIV of France paid a lump sum of money each year to Charles in exchange for a promise from Charles that he would eventually become a Catholic, but his openly Catholic brother and heir was. Charles in 1673 issues a Declaration of Indulgences, suspending laws against Parliament and dissenters; Parliament responds w/ the Test Act 91673) banned all Catholics and dissenters from civil service or military office

B. Political Parties develop

1. James II (1685-88) becomes king of England; claims to rule by ‘divine right’

2. Political Parties

a. Whigs (assassins in Scottish)- opponents of James II; want a weak king and a strong Parliament

b. Torries (Irish bandits)- supporters of James II; wanted a strong king, and direct lineage

C. James II Lost His Throne

1. James II lost much Torrie support by appointing Catholics to high office, violating the Test Act of the Restoration of Parliament

2. 3 reasons James II was opposed:

a. 1687, Declaration of Indulgences; all govt. posts open to Catholics

b. stationed 13,000 troops outside London (many feared revival of Catholicism as the state religion)

c. 1688- James II’s second wife has a son à fear Catholic dynasty

3. Whigs and Torries join forces; invite Protestant daughter Mary to take over the throne to save Protestantism (she was William of Netherland’s wife)

4. 1688, Glorious Revolution; William’s army faces no opposition; General John Churchill deserts James II (who flees to France); William and Mary take the throne

D. The English Won a Bill of Rights

1. 1689, William and Mary accept many limits on royal power and recognize Parliament as the leading partner in ruling England

2. Bill of Rights- the king was forbidden to raise an army, levy taxes w/o the consent of Parliament, no suspending of Parliament’s laws, etc. (see p. 405). This marked the transfer of power from the king to Parliament. It also established the Council of Ministers, the forerunner of the Cabinet

a. Toleration Act- freed dissenters from penalty

E. Political Ideas Grew From Conflict

1. after the beheading of Charles I, Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan; man is evil and must be curbed by a powerful govt.; an absolute monarchy was best

2. after the Glorious Revolution, John Locke, wrote Treatises on Government; man is reasonable and has the right to rebel against any govt. which fails to protect 3 basic human rights: life, liberty, and the property; govt. was a contract in which the rulers promised to safeguard people’s natural rights (combo of feudalism and democracy)


Chapter 20
IV. Britain Developed New Forms of Leadership

A. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 gave England a constitutional monarchy; in 1707, the kingdom of Scotland and England unite, creating the Great Britain w/ the most progressive govt. in Europe w/ the King and Parliament developing new ways of working together

B. Britain was a limited Democracy

1. the cabinet was a committee that acted in the monarch’s name, but represented the majority party in the House of Commons (Parliament)

2. King William needed Parliament’s support so he tried to connect the cabinet ministers to the majority party of Parliament, so it could be highly effective

C. The Rise of the Prime Ministers

1. leader of the majority party in Parliament; directs govt. and heads the cabinet

2. the position emerges after the last Stuart monarch, Queen Anne, died in 1714

3. the German prince of Hanover, George I, was next in line for the throne, and he and later his son, George II, came to rely heavily on the Prime Minister

4. Sir Robert Walpole, Great Britain’s 1st P.M., served George I and II from 1721-41, as 1st Lord of the Treasury. He came to dominate the cabinet, king, and Parliament, and he was the unofficial ruler of G.B., and is considered 1st modern P.M., although he never uses the title

D. Limited Democracy

1. only 5% of the population could vote (men owning 40 shillings worth of land) for members of the House of Commons

E. Britain Built a Worldwide Empire

1. mercantilism in G.B. wanted, needed, and encouraged colonies

2. 1763, conclusion of 7 Year’s War, G.B. was the strongest colonial and naval power in Europe w/ colonies in North America + Asia

a. most important colonies in America were in the Caribbean (produced sugar cane)

b. North America provided furs and timber

3. Navigation Acts of 1660 and 1663

a. American colonies had to sell to Britain, and could not buy from other nations w/o high tariffs

b. British enforcement of the Acts was almost impossible b/c of clever smuggling

4. Stamp Act (1765)

a. King George III imposed the Stamp Act to pay for 7 Years’ War

b. tax on official stamp on wills, deeds, and other legal documents

c. “No taxation w/o representation” was colonists’ response to what they believed were unfair taxes

Unit 2.2

Germany and Austria


Chapter 17
V. Religious Wars Split Germany

A. The Settlement b/w Lutherans and Catholics in Germany in 1555, the Peace of Augsburg, was not lasting

1. Calvinism not accepted as an option

2. prince decided religion of area à people had no say

3. increasing tension b/w Catholic and Lutheran princes

a. Lutherans joined together into a Protestant Union- 1608

b. Catholic Princes founded the Catholic League- 1609

B. Germans Fought the 30 Years’ War (1618-1648)

1. King Ferdinand II becomes king of Bohemia

a. he is Austrian, not Czech like the people

b. he is a Catholic; people à Lutheran

c. he is a Hapsburg à nephew of Charles V and cousin of Philip II, disliked by people of Bohemia

2. 1618- Protestant mobs riot in Prague

a. Ferdinand II sends an army the crush the riot

b. Ferdinand becomes HRE in 1619 (success of efforts to reinstate Catholicism in Bohemia seen as a threat to Lutheran princes)

c. some German Protestant princes send their armies against the emperor; aid from France and Richelieu

3. 2 Major Phases

a. Hapsburgs’ Triumph

i. Hapsburg armies from Austria and Spain beat troops hired by the German Protestant princes

ii. leaders of Czech uprising were killed

iii. Denmark’s Christian IV joins w/ the Protestants in 1625, helping the Protestant side

iv. Czech soldier and adventurer, Albrecht von Wallenstein, committed many atrocities (mercenary of Ferdinand II)

v. by 1629, he drives the Danes out of the Germany

b. Hapsburgs’ Defeats

i. Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus, drives Hapsburg armies out of North Germany from 1630-1632 until killed in battle

ii. Richelieu fearful of Hapsburg power, sent French troops to join Swedish, and German Protestants in Germany in 1635; this turned the tide of battle against the Hapsburgs for good

4. Results of the 30 Years’ Wars: Germany was ravaged

a. population declined from 20 million to 13.5 million, many died from hunger and disease

b. the economy was destroyed

c. Germany lost what little unity it once had

d. Hapsburgs - both Spanish and Austrian - declined

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