Site Reference




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Site

Reference

No. of 14C dates

Date range of core (cal. B.P.)

Evidence

Date of earliest evidence

Notes

Altar Lough,

Co. Donegal



Fossitt (1994)

5

0–15,000

Fraxinus and Taxus from ca. 8,000 B.P. with decline in Corylus. Second strong woodland decline at 6,300 B.P. (mostly Corylus). Urtica present from 6,100 B.P.; Plantago lanceolata from 5,800 B.P

ca. 6,300 B.P. (post 6,485±110 B.P.; 5225–5627 cal. B.C.)

AP decline evident at ca. 8,000 B.P. as for other sites in Fossitt (1994)

Ballynagilly,

Co. Tyrone



Pilcher and Smith (1979)

17

0–10,500

Melampyrum dominant in early part of diagram; present from 7,000 B.P., abundant from 5,920±60 B.P. – UB-255. Reduction in tree pollen (mostly Betula) at ca. 5,800 B.P.

ca. 5,900 B.P. (ca. 4600–4900 cal. B.C.)

 

Clowanstown,

Co. Meath



Gearey et al. (2010)

11

2,500–12,000

Plantago rises with Alnus; very unusual tree pollen curve pre-Corylus rise. Includes all major arboreal taxa including Alnus and Fraxinus

Gearey suggests Alnus not established until 4350 cal. B.C. with P. lanceolata

 

Derragh Lough,

Co. Longford



Selby et al. (2005)

9

1,000–10,500

Declines in several tree and shrub taxa (Ulmus, Corylus, Pinus). P. lanceolata present in immediate aftermath. Nymphaea pollen at 5–10% TLP

ca. 5637 cal. B.C. and following

Seven of the nine dates post-date A.D. 567 with the remaining two of Mesolithic age

Lough Catherine,

Co. Tyrone



Hirons and Edwards (1986)

4

0–7,300

Fraxinus and Ilex both early (Fraxinus present throughout). Ilex limit prior to 5,190±95 B.P. – UB2389. Fraxinus present significantly earlier (to sometime post 6140±130 B.P. but absent immediately pre-Elm Decline

Limit of Ilex 4257–3775 cal. B.C. – late Mesolithic to early Neolithic, but pre-dated by both Fraxinus and Plantago presence

 

Lough Maumeen, Connemara,

Co. Galway



Huang (2002)

7

0–11,000

Forest fire and minerogenic erosion phase from 7700–7350 cal. B.C. with 'initial clearance phase' at 3800–3500 cal. B.C. (early Neolithic). Constant Fraxinus curve from 4300–4050 cal. B.C. with Filipendula and alder rise. Declines in Pinus and Corylus

ca. 5000 B.C. (prior to 4542– 4219 cal. B.C.)

Earliest events reinterpreted by Ghilardi and O'Connell (2013) as related to the 8.2ka climatic event (e.g. Alley et al. 1997).

Lough Mullaghlahan,

Co. Donegal



Fossitt (1994)

6

0–15,000

Fraxinus increases with other trees declining. Increased Calluna, Hedera, Taxus and Ilex from ca. 6,000 B.P.; Urtica and Plantago from 5,500 B.P.

ca. 6,000 B.P. (ca. 4800–5000 cal. B.C.)

AP decline evident at ca. 8,000 B.P. as for other sites in Fossitt (1994)

Lough Nabraddan,

Co. Donegal



Fossitt (1994)

5

0–15,200

Decline in Corylus with increase in Fraxinus and Alnus from 7,000 B.P. Initial Plantago presence also at this depth with significant rise in charcoal from here (present from 8,000 B.P.)

After 8750–4582 cal. B.C. (note large 2-σ error range, but pre-Alnus)

Suggestions of disturbance evident at ca. 8,000 B.P. as for other sites in Fossitt (1994)

Mount Gabriel,

Co. Cork


Mighall et al. (2008)

6

0–15,000

Initial disturbance ca. 8,365 B.P. with some arboreal taxa declining (e.g. Quercus; Pinus; Ulmus) and increase in Gelasinospora indicating dry conditions. Peak in microcharcoal; some Melampyrum and herbaceous taxa (e.g. Trifolium). Second disturbance at ca. 7,715 B.P. with major Corylus decline, Melampyrum present; Poaceae and Pteridium increase. Further indications at 7,030±70 B.P. with Vicia and Filipendula peaks to >5% TLP. Consistent Plantago curve from 6,098±51 B.P. (5209–4864 cal. B.C.)

ca. 8,365 B.P. (7600–7200 cal. B.C.); ca. 7,715 B.P. (ca. 6650–6450 cal. B.C.; 7,030±70 B.P. (6021–5750 cal. B.C.); 6,098±51 B.P. (5209–4864 cal. B.C.)

 



Site

Reference

No. of 14C dates

Date range of core (cal. B.P.)

Evidence

Date of earliest evidence

Notes

Molly's Lough,

Co. Clare



Lamb and Thompson (2005)

4

0–14,000

Abrupt reduction in arboreal taxa, particularly Ulmus, Quercus and Corylus. Corresponding increase in herbaceous taxa (e.g. Plantago; Brassicaceae). Precedes limit for Fraxinus, Taxus and Ilex

ca. 5,800 B.P. (ca. 4800 cal. B.C.)

 

An Loch Mór,

Inis Oírr,

Aran Islands


Molloy and O'Connell (2004)

33

0–11,600

Significant presence of P. lanceolata (ca. 5% TLP) pre-Elm Decline. Ilex present from ca. 4100 cal. B.C.; Fraxinus and Taxus present throughout pre-Elm Decline Zone B3 (4500–3650 cal. B.C.)

P. lanceolata from ca. 4500 cal. B.C.; Ilex increasing from ca. 4100 cal. B.C.

Early and abundant presence of P. lanceolata Interpreted by authors as most likely the result of ‘unfavourable edaphic conditions' (p. 51) although human action cannot be entirely ruled out.

Newferry,

Co. Antrim



Smith (1984)

7

5,300–9,000

Decline in some arboreal taxa (e.g. Quercus; Corylus) with presence of Fraxinus, Taxus and Populus with herbaceous taxa present in Woodman's Zone 7 of Monolith IV (ca. 5950–6050 B.C.)

The 14C dates obtained for this zone are as follows: 6,975±120 B.P. (UB-885); 7,190±110 B.P. (UB-517); 6,995±60 B.P. (UB-516); 6,980±115 B.P. (UB-887); 6,915±60 B.P. (UB-886); 7,485±115 B.P. (UB-497) and 8,895±125 B.P. (UB-636). Total range therefore 8294–7615 cal. B.C. to 5975–5674 cal. B.C.

Seven dates relating to Woodman's (1977) stratigraphic Zone 7

Newland's Cross,

Co. Dublin



Preece et al. (1986)

3

5,000–11,200

Pollen of relatively little interest, but clearance suggested by mollusca and charcoal. Reduction in Discus rotundatus (shade tolerant) and increase in Succinea oblonga (non-shade tolerant) suggest opening of canopy

After 8750–4582 cal. B.C. (note large 2-σ error range, but pre-Alnus)

 

Slieve Gallion,

Co. Tyrone



Pilcher (1973)

12

0–11,000

Reduction in some arboreal taxa from ca. 5,870±65 B.P. UB-276 (esp. Corylus). Expansion of Melampyrum to >5% TLP.

4854–4550 cal. B.C.

 

Sluggan Bog,

Co. Antrim



Smith and Goddard (1991)

23

0–14,500

Plantago and Fraxinus arrive; Alnus increases significantly, Pinus and Corylus decline at 6,760±90 B.P. – UB-221A. Some signs of burning (e.g. burned pine stumps). Little response in other herbs

5839–5515 cal. B.C.

 

Weir's Lough,

Co. Tyrone



Hirons and Edwards (1986)

5

0–7,600

Some Fraxinus pre-Elm Decline with 3 x cereal type. Increased Pteridium. Fraxinus and Ilex both pre 5,295±85 B.P. – UB-2488. Rumex, Plantago, Brassicaceae. 3 x cereal grains earlier than this (ca. 5,740 B.P.)

Sometime prior to 4273–3967 cal. B.C. Late Mesolithic to earliest Neolithic

 


Details of pollen profiles that show evidence for disturbance possibly attributable to Mesolithic activity used in construction of Fig. 4; dates expressed in cal. B.C, cal. B.P, and (uncal.) B.P.


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