Siphonostomatoida




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Maxillopoda - Copepoda

SIPHONOSTOMATOIDA

JU-SHEY HO

Department of Biological Sciences

California State University, Long Beach

Order Siphonostomatoida Latreille, 1829

Family Caligidae Burmeister, 1835

Genus Anuretes Heller, 1865



Anuretes heckelii (Kroyer, 1863)

Synonymy: Dojiri, 1983: 118.

Description and diagnosis: Dojiri, 1983: 118.

References: Wilson, 1905: 647, figs. 316-321; Dojiri, 1983: 118, figs. 37-41.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the wall of the branchial cavities of Caranx hippos, Chaetodipterus faber, Ephippus gigas, Lobotes surinamensis, Scomberomorus maculatus, and Vomer setapinnis .

Genus Caligodes Heller, 1865



Caligodes lacinatus (Kroyer, 1863)

Synonymy: Dojiri, 1983: 136.

Description and diagnosis: Cressey & Collette, 1970: 378; Dojiri, 1983: 136.

References: Cressey & Collette, 1970: 378, figs. 133-145; Dojiri, 1983: 136, figs. 45-48.

Geographic distribution: Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Brazil (off northern coast).

Comments: Parasitic on the wall of the branchial cavities of Ablennes hians, Lhotskia gavialoides, Platybelone argalus, Sphyraena argentata, Strongylura leiura, S. strongylura, Tylosurus acus, T. choram, and T. crocodilus.

Genus Caligus Müller, 1785



Caligus balistae Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861

Synonymy: Cressey, 1991: 3.

Description and diagnosis: Cressey, 1991: 3.

References: Cressey, 1991: 3, figs. 30-37.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the body surface and the wall of the branchial cavities of Aluterus scripta, Canthidermis sobaco, C. maculatus, Coryphaena hippuirus, and Monacanthus hispidus.

Caligus bonito Wilson, 1905

Synonymy: Kabata, 1979: 173; Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 26.

Description and diagnosis: Kabata, 1979: 173.

References: Carvalho, 1951: 136; Kabata, 1979: 173, figs. 469-480; Cressey & Cressey, 1980, figs. 48A-E, 49A-F, 50A-E; Knoff et al., 1994: 49.

Geographic distribution: Warm waters of Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Brazil (RJ, SP).

Comments: Parasitic on the body surface and the wall of the branchial cavities of Cratinus agassizi, Cybium sp., Euthynnus affinis, E. alletteratus, E. lineatus, E. pelamis, Gymnosarda unicolor, Katsuwonus pelamis, Lutjanus griseus, L. novemfasciatus, Mugil cephalus, M. platensis, Pomatomus saltrix, Oligoplites saurus, Scomberomorus cavalla, S. maculatus, S. regalis, Sarda australis, S. chilensis, S. orientalis, S. velox, and Thunnus thynnus.
Caligus chorinemi Kroyer, 1863

Synonymy: Cressey, 1991: 6.

Description and diagnosis: Cressey, 1991: 3.

References: Cressey, 1991: 3, figs. 198-205.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the body surface and the wall of branchial cavities of Caranx carangus, C. hippos, Carangoides bartholomaei, and C. crysos.
Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861

Synonymy: Kabata, 1979: 176.

Description and diagnosis: Kabata, 1979: 176; Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 23.

References: Kabata, 1979: 176, figs. 519-530; Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 23, figs. 40A-F, 41A-B.

Geographic distribution: Warm waters of Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the body surface and the wall of branchial cavities of Acanthocybium solandri, Auxis sp., Caranx hippos, Coryphaena hippurus, C. pelagica, Euthynnus alletteratus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Rachycentron canadus, Sarda sp., Seriola dorsalis, Thunnus alalunga, T. albacares, T. atlanticus, and T. obesus.
Caligus haemulonis Kroyer, 1863

Description and diagnosis: Cressey, 1991: 8.

References: Luque & Takemoto, 1996: 535, figs. 16-32.

Geographic distribution: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and Brazil (RJ).

Comments: Parasitic on Orthopristis ruber and Haemulon steindachneri.
Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905

Description and diagnosis: Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 27.

References: Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 27, figs. 51A-F, 52A-E, 53A-B; Cressey, 1991: 10, figs. 123-126.

Geographic distribution: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and warm waters of Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the body surface and the wall of branchial cavities of Scomber japonicus, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, S. cavalla, and S. maculatus.

Caligus oligoplitisi Carvalho, 1956

Description and diagnosis: Carvalho, 1956: 15.

References: Carvalho, 1956: 15, figs. 1-15.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (SP).

Comments: Parasitic on the body surface and the wall of the branchial cavity of Oligoplitis saliens.

Caligus productus Dana, 1852

Synonymy: Kabata, 1979: 184; Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 24.

Description and diagnosis: Kabata, 1979: 184.

References: Kabata, 1979: 184, figs. 592-603; Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 24, figs. 42A-E, 43A-E, 44A-E.

Geographic distribution: Warm waters of Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the body surface and the wall of the branchial cavities of Acanthocybium solandri, Euthynnus affinis, E. alletteratus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Sarda chilensis, S. orientalis, S. sarda, Scomberomorus cavalla, S. regalis. S. tritor, Thunnus alalunga, T. albacares, T. atlanticus, and T. thynnus.

Caligus sepetibensis Luque & Takemoto, 1996

Description and diagnosis: Luque & Takemoto, 1996: 531.

References: Luque & Takemoto, 1996: 531, figs. 2-15.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (RJ).

Comments: Parasitic on Orthopristis ruber and Haemulon steindachneri.

Caligus trachynoti Heller, 1865

Description and diagnosis: Heller, 1865: 169.

References: Heller, 1865: 169, pl. 15, fig. 1a.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on Trachynotus sp.

Genus Lepeophtheirus Nordmann, 1832



Lepeophtheirus monacanthus Heller, 1865

Description and diagnosis: Heller, 1865: 183.

References: Heller, 1865: 183, pl. 16, figs. 3a-c; Wilson, 1908: 600, pl. 51, figs. 38-43.

Geographic distribution: Warm waters of Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the body surface and the wall of the branchial cavities of Arius heudeloti, Bagre marina, Felichthys marinus, Galeichthys felis, Hexanemathichthys felis, and Pimelodus maculatus.

Family Euryphoridae Wilson, 1905

Genus Alebion Kroyer, 1863

Alebion carchariae Kroyer, 1863

Synonymy: Cressey, 1972: 3.

Description and diagnosis: Cressey, 1972: 3.

References: Carvalho, 1940: 275, pl. 20, figs. 1-4; 1951: 137; Cressey, 1972: 3, figs. 1-28.

Geographic distribution: Atlantic and Indian oceans. Brazil (SP).

Comments: Parasitic on the wall of the oral-branchial cavities of Carcharinus commersonii, C. limbatus, C. maculipinnis, C. obscurus, Coryphaena equisetis, Sphyrna diplana, and S. tudes.

Genus Euryphorus Milne Edwards, 1840



Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853)

Synonymy: Kabata, 1979: 203.

Description and diagnosis: Kabata, 1979: 203; Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 36.

References: Kabata, 1979: 203, figs. 741-766; Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 36, figs. 75A-G, 76A-E, 77A-G.

Geographic distribution: Warm waters of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the wall of the oral-branchial cavities of Allothunnus fallai, Thunnus alalunga, T. albacares, T. atlanticus, T. maccoyii, T. obessus, and T. thynnus.

Genus Tuxophorus Wilson, 1908



Tuxophorus caligodes Wilson, 1908

Synonymy: Pillai, 1985: 473.

Description and diagnosis: Pillai, 1985: 473.

References: Knoff et al., 1994: 50.

Geographic distribution: Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Brazil (RJ).

Comments: Parasitic on Mugil platanus.

Family Lernaeopodidae Milne Edwards, 1840

Genus Brachiella Cuvier, 1830

Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830

Synonymy: Kabata, 1979: 385.

Description and diagnosis: Kabata, 1979: 385.

References: Kabata, 1979: 385, figs. 1733-1756; Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 45, fig. 95a.

Geographic distribution: Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Brazil (SC).

Comments: Parasitic on the fins of Acanthocybium solandri, Argyrosomus regium, Pomatomus saltarix, Sciaena aquila, Scomberomorus cavalla, S. regalis, Thunnus albacares, T. obesus, and T. thynnus.

Genus Clavellotis Castro & Baeza, 1984



Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863)

Synonymy: Catro & Baeza, 1984: 688.

Description and diagnosis: Catro & Baeza, 1984: 688.

References: Luque & Takemoto, 1996: 543, figs. 47-52.

Geographic distribution: South Atlantic and Northeastern Pacific. Brazil (RJ).

Comments: Parasitic on Haemulon steindachneri.

Genus Neobrachiella Kabata, 1979



Neobrachiella exilis (Shiino, 1956)

Synonymy: Catro & Baeza, 1986: 245.

Description and diagnosis: Catro & Baeza, 1986: 245.

References: Knoff et al., 1994: 50, figs. 11-12.

Geographic distribution: Japan, Southeastern Pacific, and Brazil (RJ).

Comments: Parasitic on Mugil platanus.
Neobrachiella lizae (Kroyer, 1863)

Synonymy: Wilson, 1915: 660.

Description and diagnosis: Wilson, 1915: 660.

References: Knoff et al., 1994: 50, figs. 23-25.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Southeastern Pacific. Brazil (RJ).

Comments: Parasitic on Mugil platanus.

Genus Thysanote Kroyer, 1863



Thysanote lobiventris (Heller, 1865)

Synonymy: Yamaguti, 1963: 263.

Description and diagnosis: Heller, 1865: 241.

References: Heller, 1865: 263, pl. 34, fig. 3; Yamaguti, 1963: 263, pl. 288, fig. 3.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the wall of oral-branchial cavities of Rhypticus saponaceus.

Family Lernanthropidae Kabata, 1979

Genus Lernanthropus Blainville, 1822

Lernanthropus nobilis Heller, 1865

Description and diagnosis: Heller, 1865: 225.

References: Heller, 1865: 225, pl. 22, fig. 2a; Yamaguti, 1963: 150, pl. 167, fig. 1.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the gill filaments of Temnodon saltator.
Lernanthropus pagodus Kroyer, 1863

Description and diagnosis: Kroyer, 1863: 282.

References: Kroyer, 1863: 282, pl. 8, fig. 2a-f; Yamaguti, 1963: 150, pl. 163, fig. 3.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the gill filaments of Eques balteatus.
Lernanthropus pupa Burmeister, 1833

Description and diagnosis: Burmeister, 1833: 303.

References: Burmeister, 1833: 303, pl. 24, figs. 7-11; Bere, 1936: 599, pl. 9, figs. 216-232.

Geographic distribution: Gulf of Mexico and warm waters of Western Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the gill filaments of Chaetodipterus faber, Lobotes surinamensis, and Platax sp.

Lernanthropus rathbuni Wilson, 1922

Description and diagnosis: Wilson, 1922: 39.

References: Luque & Takemoto, 1996: 539, figs. 33-46.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Brazil (RJ).

Comments: Parasitic on Orthopristis ruber and Haemulon steindachneri.

Family Naobranchidae Yamaguti, 1939

Genus Naobranchia Hesse, 1863

Naobranchia stibara Leigh-Sharpe, 1926

Description and diagnosis: Leigh-Sharpe, 1926: 59.

References: Leigh-Sharpe, 1926: 59, figs. 1-3.

Geographic distribution: Warm waters of Western Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the gill filaments of Chilomycterus spinosus.

Family Pandaridae Milne Edwards, 1840

Genus Pandarus Leach, 1816

Pandarus sinuatus Say, 1817

Synonymy: Cressey, 1967: 16.

Description and diagnosis: Cressey, 1967: 16.

References: Wilson, 1907: 417, figs. 172-193; Carvalho, 1940: 283, pl. 23, figs. 37-42; 1951: 139; Cressey, 1967: 16, figs. 67-68.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (SP).

Comments: Parasitic on the body surface of Carcharias littoralis, Carcharinus leucas, C. limbatus, C. obscurus, Carcharodon carcharias, Lamna cornubica, Negaprion brevirostris, Reniceps tibura, Scoliodon terranovae, Sphyrna tiburo, and Squalus canis.

Pandarus smithii Rathbun, 1886

Synonymy: Cressey, 1967: 11.

Description and diagnosis: Cressey, 1967: 11.

References: Carvalho, 1940: 284, pl. 24, figs. 43-51; 1951: 140; Cressey, 1967: 11, figs. 34-45.

Geographic distribution: Warm waters of Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Brazil (SP).

Comments: Parasitic on the body surface of Alopias vulpinus, Carcharinus azureus, C. galapagensis, C. limbatus, C. malpeloensis, Carcharodon carcharias, Hypoprion signatus, Eulamia floridajus, E. obscurus, Isurus oxyrhynchus, and Sphyrna zygaena.

Genus Perissopus Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861



Perissopus dentatus Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861

Synonymy: Cressey, 1967: 35.

Description and diagnosis: Cressey, 1967: 35.

References: Carvalho, 1940: 277, pl. 21, figs. 5-19; 1945: pl. 4, fig. 27; 1951: 138; Cressey, 1967: 35, figs. 162-189.

Geographic distribution: Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Brazil (SP).

Comments: Parasitic on the body surface of Carcharhinus leucas, C. maculipinnis, C. milberti, Eulamia limbata, Mustelus asterias, M. mustelus, and Sphyrna tibulo.

Family Pennellidae Burmeister, 1835

Genus Lernaeenicus Le Sueur, 1824

Lernaeenicus longiventris Wilson, 1917

Description and diagnosis: Wilson, 1917: 66.

References: Wilson, 1917: 66, pl. 7, figs. 62-70; Carvalho, 1951: 141; 1953: 181, figs. 1-2; 1957: 241, pl. 1, figs. 1-5; Knoff & Boeger, 1994: 313, figs. 1-14.

Geographic distribution: Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Brazil (SP).

Comments: Parasitic by inserting into the flesh of Caranx crysos, C. hippos, Coryphaena equisetis, C. hippurus, Cybium maculatum, Diagramma mediterraneum, Mugil cephalus, M. platanus, Pagrus sp., Palinurichthys perciformis, Phycis floridanus, Pogonias cromis, Pomatomus saltatrix, Rachycentron canadus, Scomberomorus maculatus, and Xenomelaniris brasiliensis.

Genus Peniculus Nordmann, 1832



Peniculus haemuloni Alexander, 1983

Description and diagnosis: Alexander, 1983: 381.

References: Alexander, 1983: 381, figs. 1-2.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (SP).

Comments: Parasitic on the fins of Haemulon steindachneri.

Genus Pennella Oken, 1816



Pennella filosa (Linnaeus, 1758)

Synonymy: Kabata, 1979: 313.

Description and diagnosis: Kabata, 1979: 313.

References: Carvalho, 1951: 142; Kabata, 1979: 313, figs. 1432-1439; Benz & Hogans, 1993: 128, figs. 1A-B, 2A-I.

Geographic distribution: Atlantic Ocean. Brazil (SP).

Comments: Parasitic by inserting into the flesh of Hyporhamphus unifasciatus, Lepidocybium flavobrunneum, Mola mola, Progonichthys rondeleti, Tetrapturus albidus, Thunnus alaunga, T. thynnus, and Xiphias glaudius.

Family Pseudocycnidae Wilson, 1922

Genus Pseudocycnoides Yamaguti, 1963

Pseudocycnoides buccata (Wilson, 1922)

Synonymy: Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 43.

Description and diagnosis: Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 43.

References: Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 32, figs. 92A-F, 93A-F, 94A-D.

Geographic distribution: Eastern Pacific and Western Atlantic. Brazil.

Comments: Parasitic on the gill filaments of Scomberomorus brasiliensis, S. cavalla, S. concolor, S. maculatus, and S. regalis.

Genus Pseudocycnus Heller, 1865



Pseudocycnus appendiculatus Heller, 1865

Synonymy: Kabata, 1979: 268; Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 41.

Description and diagnosis: Kabata, 1979: 268; Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 41.

References: Kabata, 1979: 268, figs. 1309-1329; Cressey & Cressey, 1980: 41, figs. 85A-F, 86A-D, 87A-F; Carvalho, 1950: 99; 1951: 141.

Geographic distribution: Warm waters of Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Brazil (SP).

Comments: Parasitic on the gill filaments of Coryphaena sp., Euthynnus affinis, E. alletteratus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Parathunnus sibi, Sarda chiliensis, S. sarda, Thunnus albacares, T. alalunga, T.obesus, T. thynnus, and T. tonggol.

Family Asterocheridae Giesbrecht, 1899

Genus Monocheres Stock, 1966

Monocheres cagarrensis Johnsson & Bustamante, 1997

Synonymy: Johnsson & Bustamante, 1997: 895.

Description and diagnosis: Johnsson & Bustamante, 1997: 895.

References: Johnsson & Bustamante, 1997: 895, figs. 1-2.

Geographic distribution: Brazil (RJ).

Comments: Associated with sponges.
Note: The following species described by Dana (1858) are considered species inquerenda Caligus gracilis, Lepeophtheinus bagri, Calistes trigonis, and Lepidopus armatus. These species were recorded from Rio de Janeiro.

References

Alexander, P.D. 1983. Peniculus haemuloni, a new species of copepod (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) parasitic on Haemulon steindachneri from Ubatuba, Brazil. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 45: 381-385.

Bere, R. 1936. Parasitic copepods from Gulf of Mexico fish. American Midland Naturalist 17(3): 577-625.

Benz, G.W. & Hogans, W.E. 1993. Pennella filosa (L., 1758) (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) from the escolar Lepidocybium flavobrunneum (Smith, 1849) in the north-west Atlantic. Systematic Parasitology 26: 127-131.

Burmeister, H. 1833. Beschreibung einiger neuen oder weniger bekannten Schmarotzerkrebse, nebst allgemeinen Betrachtungen ber die Gruppe, welcher sie angehören. Nova Acta Verhandlungen der K. Leopoldinish-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher 17: 269-336.

Carvalho, J.P. 1940. Notas sôbre alguns Caligoida, com a descrição de Pandarus marcusi sp. nov. Boletim da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras, Universidade de São Paulo 19(4): 271-289.

Carvalho, J.P. 1945. Copépodos de Caiobá e Baía de Guaratúba. Arquivos do Museu Paranaese 4(3): 83-116.

Carvalho, J.P. 1950. Occorência de Pseudocycnus appendiculatus Heller. Copépodo de família Pseudocycnidae, em águas do litoral Paulista. Boletim do Instituto Paulista de Oceanografia 1(2): 99-102.

Carvalho, J.P. 1951. Notas sôbre alguns copépodos parasitos de peixes marítimos da costa do estado de São Paulo. Boletim do Instituto Paulista de Oceanografia 2(2): 135-144.

Carvalho, J.P. 1953. Notas sôbre Lernaeenicus longiventris Wilson e sua occorência em Xinomelaniris brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard). Boletim do Instituto Paulista de Oceanografia 4(1/2): 181-190.

Carvalho, J.P. 1956. Caligus oligoplitisi sp. nov., copépodo parasito del "Zapatero" Oligoplitis saliens (Block). Neotropica 2(7): 15-19.

Carvalho, J.P. 1957. Sôbre estádios larvares de Lernaeenicus longiventris Wilson (Crustacea - Copepoda). Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico 8(1/2): 241-253.

Castro, R.R. & Baeza, H. 1984. Clavellotis, new genus (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae), and redescription of Clavellotis dilatata. Journal of Crustacean Biology 4(4): 688-694.

Castro, R.R. & Baeza, H. 1986. Some species of Neobrachiella Kabata, 1979 (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae), parasitic of Chilean fishes, with description of Neobrachiella paralichthyos sp. nov. from Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner). Crustaceana 51(3): 245-254.

Cressey, R.F. 1967. Revision of the family Pandaridae (Copepoda: Caligoida). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 121: 1-133.

Cressey, R.F. 1972. Revision of the genus Alegion (Copepoda: Caligoida). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 123: 1-29.

Cressey, R.F. 1991. Parasitic copepods from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, III: Caligus. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 497: 1-53.

Cressey, R.F. & Collette, B.B. 1970. Copepods and needlefishes: A study in host-parasite relationships. Fishery Bulletin 68(3): 347-432.

Cressey, R.F. & Cressey, H.B. 1980. Parasitic copepods of mackerel- and tuna-like fishes (Scombridae) of the world. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 311: 1-186.

Dana, J.D. 1858. Crustacean. United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842; Under the Command of Charles Wilkes 13(20): 691-1618.

Dojiri, M. 1983. Revision of the genera of the Caligidae (Siphonostomatoida), copepods predominantly parasitic on marine fishes. Ph.D. Thesis, Boston University, 721 pp.

Heller, C. 1865. Crustaceen. Reise Österreich um die Erde in den Jahren 1957, 1958, 1959. Reise der Österreichischen Fregate Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 2: 1-280.

Johnsson, R. & Bustamante, A.O. 1997. Monocheres cagarrensis sp. nov. (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) from Brazil. Crustaceana 70(8): 894-900.

Kabata, Z. 1979. Parasitic Copepoda of British Fishes. Ray Society, London, 468 pp.

Knoff, M. & Boeger, W.A. 1994. Expanded description of the female of Lernaeenicus longiventris Wilson, 1917, (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Penellidae) based on specimens from Mugil platanus Günther, 1880 (Perciformes, Mugilidae) of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 89(3): 313-317.

Knoff, M., Luque, J.L. & Takemoto, R.M. 1994. Parasitic copepods on Mugil platanus Günther (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 3(1): 45-56.

Kroyer, H. 1863. Bidrag til Kundskab om Snylterkrebsene. Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift 3(2): 75-426.

Leigh-Sharpe, W.H. 1926. Naobranchia stibara n. sp., a parasitic copepod of Chilomycterus spinosus. Parasitology 18(1): 59-61.

Luque, J.L. & Takemoto, R.M. 1996. Parasitic copepods on Orthopristis ruber and Haemulon steindachneri (Osteichthyes: Haemulidae) from the Brazilian littoral, with the description of a new species of Caligus (Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 56(3): 529-546.

Pillai, K.P. 1985. Fauna of India: Parasitic copepods of marine fishes. Zoological Survey of India: 1-900.

Wilson, C.B. 1905. North American parasitic copepods belonging to the family Caligidae. Part I. The Caliginae. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 28: 479-672.

Wilson, C.B. 1907. North American parasitic copepods belonging to the family Caligidae. Part 3 and 4: A revision of the Pandarinae and the Cecropinae. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 33: 323-490.

Wilson, C.B. 1908. North American parasitic copepods: A list of those found upon the fishes of the Pacific coast, with descriptions of new genera and species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 35: 431-481.

Wilson, C.B. 1917. North American parasitic copepods belonging to the family Lernaeidae, with a revision of the entire family. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 53: 1-150.

Wilson, C.B. 1922. North American parasitic copepods belonging to the family Dichelesthiidae. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 60: 1-98.



Yamaguti, S. 1963. Parasitic Copepoda and Branchiura of fishes. Interscience Publishers, New York, 1104 pp.


 HO, J.-S., 1998. Maxillopoda - Copepoda. Siphonostomatoida. In: YOUNG, P.S. (ed.). Catalogue of Crustacea of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Museu Nacional. p. 251-260. (Série Livros n. 6).



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