Seasonal fluctuation of the oriental wasp Vespa orientalis l. (Hymenoptera : Vespidae) and efficiency of sticky traps as a tool for its control




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Seasonal fluctuation of the oriental wasp Vespa orientalis l. (Hymenoptera : Vespidae)

and efficiency of sticky traps as a tool for its control
Hussain A. E., El-Kordy M.W., Shehata I. A.A.,El- Refaay M. M. Department Of Plant Protection, Faculty Of Agriculture,Al-Azhar University

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract
Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis L., (Vespidae) causes a great damage to apiaries, where it attacks larvae and adult of the bees also it attacks the honey, our research carried out in apiary of faculty of agriculture Al Azhar university at Mosturod location, Kaliobia governorate during 2002 – 2006 seasons, to study the population dynamic of this pest by using sticky traps and the effect of the coloured sticky traps on the wasps catching number. Oriental wasps appear in the first week of April and decreased gradually to the minimum levels during June and July. Then the activity of wasps increased gradually from the second week of August to the fourth week of September. The maximum total numbers of wasps recorded in October, September and November, after that these numbers decreased gradually at the first week of December

The pink sticky traps proved to be the most attracting followed by orange and the white ones. On the other hand, black color proved to be the least one. The mean numbers of captured hornets by these sticky traps were 43.33, 30.66, 17.33, 11.66 wasps / trap /day respectively. Opposite trend was recorded for the mean numbers of captured honey bees by these coloured sticky traps.




Key words: Oriental Wasps, Seasonal fluctuation, capturing, Sticky traps


INTRODUCTION

The oriental wasp, Vespa orientalis L. is considered one of the most important insect pests affecting honey bee industry in Egypt. Furthermore, it attacks many fruit trees Ibrahim, and Mazeed, 1967.



The wasp attacks bee colonies resulted in destroying the colonies and reducing their productivity (Matheson et al 1989 and Sihag, 1992 a).

The population activity of the hornet varied greatly according to prevailing weather factors and the time of the day (Sihag, 1992 b and Yousef Khalil et al 2000).

In Egypt many authors (Sharkawi, 1964 Ibrahim, et al 1967. Yousif Khalil, et al 2000. Khater, et al 2001) mentioned that the activity of oriental wasps is very low in winter, spring and early summer and gradually increased to reach the peak of abundance in the autumn particularly during October. The number of wasps starts to fall off gradually during the second half of November and disappeared in the middle of December.

Different types of traps either baited or not baited for capturing oriental wasps were used by Ibrahim and Mazeed 1967; they tested seven types of traps that currently used in Egypt.

They found that the wooden trap recommended by Ministry of Agriculture in Egypt with honey baits was the most efficient one followed by the ordinary tin-can trap.

Ahmed, 1999. Recorded that “Using Ministry of Agriculture trap exhibited a higher fitness for the high season of hornet population than the hanged trap” (Abou- Elezz trap). And used sweep-net as control method to catch the hornets

Therefore the present work was carried out to study the seasonal fluctuations in numbers and activity of the wasps in Mosturod location, Kalubia governorate

Materials and methods

The present investigation was carried out in a private apiary to reach the peak of abundance in the autumn particularly apiary yard located at faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar univ. at Mosturod location, Kalubia governorate during 2002 and 2006 seasons. Color sticky traps (Yousif Khalil et al 2000) were used in the present work.


1- Seasonal abundance of the oriental wasps (Vespa orientalis L.):

(This experiment was conducted from March to December 2002)


The population density of oriental hornets attacking the colonies of honey bees were determined by collecting hornets by sweep-net described by (Borrer and Delong, (1970) and total number of captured wasps were counted every week. Weekly mean temperatures and relative humidity (R.H) at Mosturod region table (1) were obtained from Agricultural Meteorology Magazine, Agricultural Ministry, Giza, Egypt.
2- Preparing the sticky traps:
Glass sheets of 30X40X0.5 cm. with smooth surfaces were coated with thin film of the sticky material TEMPO (non poisonous glue for trapping rats) thereafter; the glass sheet was placed upon outer cover of a bee hive, where the filmed surface was upward. A sheet of paper (of different colours) of the area width and length was installed under the treated glass sheet to reflect the desired color of the trap. (Yousif-Khalil et al 2001).

The sticky traps were put upon the outer cover of a working hives. The total number of rapped wasps were counted once/week during the period extended from August – November



3- Evaluating the effect of trap colour:
Twelve sticky traps were prepared with paper sheets the coloured paper sheets were black, white, orange and pink colours were placed under the treated glass sheet to reflect these tested colours. Three sticky traps were used for each colour. Two dying oriental wasps were stickled in the center of each trap to act as wasp as well as, worker bees were counted once/week during the period from August to November 2006.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out for the obtained data according to the method of (Waller and Duncan, 1969) . The correlation coefficient values between the number of captured wasps and both of temperature and relative humidity were calculated.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION



1- Seasonal abundance of the oriental wasps (Vespa orientalis L.):

Regarding to the seasonal abundance of the oriental wasps (Vespa orientalis L.) the data presented in Table (1) and Fig. (1) indicated that the wasps started to appear by small numbers in Mosturod location during the first week of April but in scarce number (13 wasps/ week) then increased gradually to give the first peak at the end of April. Thereafter, the weekly numbers of captured wasps in the traps decreased gradually till first week of July where the lowest number (11 wasps /week) (earlier summer). Gradual increase in numbers were recorded in summer season from the second week of August (104 wasps/ week) to reach the maximum level in the fourth week of September (1010 wasps/week) to give the second peak. Weekly total numbers of oriental wasps reached to the high values during the autumn season particularly in the second week of October (762 wasps/ week) and the second week of November (471 wasps/ week),the numbers fluctuated during October and November. A sharp decline took place during the first week of December and the wasps decreased gradually in number till the fourth week of December. The highest monthly total numbers of the wasps recorded in October (2665 wasps) followed by (2126 wasps) in September and (1526 wasps) in November.



The obtained results seem to confirm the findings of (Ibrahim, et al 1967), (Mellor, 1928), (Sharkawi, 1964), ( Gomaa. et al 2006)

, Sharkawi and Ibrahim and Mazeed at Giza, Egypt where they stated that the population density of the oriental wasp Vespa orientalis L. was very low during spring and early summer then gradually increased to reach the peak of abundance in September, October and early November.

In Upper Egypt Ahmed1999 recorded that the population density of the oriental wasp in three sites Abu-Tisht, Quena and Isna started in spring from March and reach the highest numbers in September and October.



Another studies on the population density of wasps at Zagazig and El-Mullak districts in Egypt, Khater et al. 2001 found that Vespa orientalis L. started to appear in both Zagazig and El-Mullak districts during March but in scarce numbers. Gradual increases occurred during the June and recorded the highest numbers during the first period of September then decreased gradually to completely disappear at the end of December.
Table (1): population fluctuation of Vespa orientalus L.,weekly mean temperature and weekly mean RH% at Mosturod location, Kalubia governorate during the period from April to December 2002


Month

 

wasps mean number

Mean temp.

mean RH%

Apri

Frist week

13

21.1

58

Second week

29

20.27

62.67

Third week

58

22.23

61.67

Fourth week

110

20.33

60.5

Mean

52.5

20.9825

60.71

May

Frist week

79

25.4

55.67

Second week

58

23.17

57

Third week

41

25.4

54.67

Fourth week

35

27.65

56.25

Mean

53.5

25.405

55.8975

June

Frist week

30

28.53

55.67

Second week

27

28.47

54

Third week

22

29.37

57

Fourth week

24

28.73

58.75

Mean

25.8

28.775

56.355

July

Frist week

11

27.9

59.33

Second week

18

29.6

62.67

Third week

30

29.6

59.33

Fourth week

38

31.35

59.75

Mean

24.3

29.6125

60.27

Aug.

Frist week

60

30.1

66

Second week

104

29.03

63.33

Third week

162

30.53

66

Fourth week

177

30.9

64.75

Mean

125.8

30.14

65.02

Sept.

Frist week

401

28.63

50.67

Second week

290

31.6

44

Third week

425

29.5

48.67

Fourth week

1010

31.48

50

Mean

532

30.3025

48.335

Oct.

Frist week

553

24.37

48

Second week

762

21.8

47.67

Third week

650

21.27

47

Fourth week

700

22.9

46.75

Mean

666.3

22.585

47.355

Nov.

Frist week

450

23.6

44.33

Second week

471

22.23

38.67

Third week

300

21.47

39

Fourth week

305

20.13

42.75

Mean

381.5

21.8575

41.1875

Dec.

Frist week

72

19.43

37.33

Second week

35

18.9

40.33

Third week

19

18.97

39.67

Fourth week

9

18.08

36.25

Mean

33.8

18.845

38.395




Fig (1): seasonal fluctuation of the oriental hornet population in Mosturod

Correlation coefficient between weekly number of wasps and both of temperature and relative humidity.
Table (1) and (2) reveals that there is insignificant negative correlation between the weekly numbers of oriental wasps and daily mean temperature during 2002. As respect to the correlation between the weekly numbers of oriental wasps and RH% means ,it is clear that there is negative correlation between the weekly numbers of wasps and daily mean RH% which significant during 2002.

Khater et al. (2001) found a positive significant correlation between the monthly oriental wasps caught and the mean of daily temperature. Also he stated a slight negative correlation between the mean numbers of wasps and RH % was detected.
Also, Ibrahim and Mazeed (1967) observed that the degree of temperature affects the activities of the oriental wasps where warm nights lead to the mortality of all the trapped wasps. In contrast, warm nights lead to great activities of the wasps during the following day as indicated by the large numbers caught in the traps.

Table ( 2 ) Correlation coefficient between weekly number of wasps and both of temperature and relative humidity.



X variable

Y variable

Correlation(r)

Slope (b)

Population

temp.

- 0.046558

- 6.38599

Population

R.H.%

- 0.6828802

- 0.016541


2- Trap colour and number of captured wasps:

Data tabulated in Table 3 , indicated that the tested colour could be divided into two groups according to their attraction to the oriental wasp; the first group contains the higher attractant colours, that included Pink and Orange colours and the second less attractant group which included Black and White colours. Pink sticky trap proved to be the most attracting, as it captured 32.49 wasps per trap/week. The lowest mean number was recoded by White sticky trap which came in the second class (12.16 wasps/trap/week), followed by Black trap (7.2 wasps per trap/week)


Table 3: Effect of sticky trap colour on the number of captured Vespa orientalis L during August, September, October and November 2006.

L.S.D.0.05 between the mean number of wasps captured by different colour sticky traps were 3.2205509076
3 - Trap colour and number of captured Bees:

From data tabulated in Table 4, It is obvious that the lowest mean number was caught by Pink sticky traps, recording 3.6 bees/trap/week .The Orange sticky traps caught slightly higher mean number 6.77 bees/trap/week). On the other hand, the Black sticky trap captured the highest mean number of bees 15.01 bees/trap/week), followed by white traps.

From foregoing data, it could be concluded that the highest number of caught wasps achieved by the black sticky trap while the lowest number of captured bees achieved by the pink sticky trap.

Meanwhile, banaszak et al (1994) reported that the white colour traps caught 4-7 times more bees than yellow and blue ones. This phenomenon could be attributed to the more intensive wasp odor arised from the higher number of sticked wasps (0no et al 1995) that perhaps repels bees.

Table4: Effect of sticky trap colour on the number of captured Apis mellifera during August, September, October and November 2006.

L.S.D.0.05 between the mean number of Bees captured by different colour sticky traps were 3.0622438954

REFERENCES



Ahmed, N.S.M.(1999). Studies on oriental hornet Vespa orientalis FAB. (Vespidae, Hymenoptera) as a predator of honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Apidae, Hymenoptera) in Upper Egypt. Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, pp: 167.

Banaszak , J; T. Cierzniak and R. Szymanski (1994). Influence of colour moericke traps on number and diversity of collected bees ( Apoidea , Hymenoptera ) katedra Biologii Ochrony Srodowiska , wyzsza Szkola pedag . Ul, Chodkiewieza , 51:85-667 Bydgoszez .Poland (AA863-95)

Borrer, D.J and Delong, D.H. (1970). An introducotin to the study of Insects zrded .Hoit .Rinehart and Winston,N.Y., 812 pp

Gomaa. A.M. and Abd El-Wahab.T.E. (2006). Seasonal Abundance and the Efficiency of Yeast Liquid Culture (Candida tropicalis) as Bait for Capturing the Oriental Wasps (Vespa orientalis L.) Under Egyptian Environment. J. Applied Sciennces Research, 2(11): 1042-1046,

Ibrahim, M.M. and M.M. Mazeed.(1967). Studies on the oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis, Agric. Res. Rev.180-163:45

Khater, A.M., I.M.A. Ebada and S.I. Yousif-Khalil.( 2001)The seasonal activity of oriental wasps, Vespa orientalis L. populations attacking honey bee colonies. Arab Univ. J. Agric. Sci., Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, 9: 447-455.

Matheson, A.; K. Clapperton; H. Moller and P. Alspach (1989). The impairment of wasps on New Zealand beekeeping-the 1986/1987 waps survey. New Zealand Beekeeper No.203: 2831 (AA 1286-90).



Mellor, I.E.M. (1928). The oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis Fab.). Plant Prot. Sect., Minist. Agric., Cairo, Leaflet, pp: 1-6.

Ono , M.; T. Igarashi ; E. Ohno and M.Sasak (1995) . Unusual thermal defence by a honeybee against mass attack by hornets . nature (London) , 377 (6547) 334-336 (AA 1283-96).

Sharkawi, S.G., (1964) The morphological, biological, ecological and control studies of Vespa orientalis. Hymenoptera: Vespidae) M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty, Agric. Cairo Univ. pp: 208.

Sihag , R.C. (1992 a). The yellow banded brown wasp. Vespa orientalis L. 1- A predator and colony robber of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ) in Haryana ( India ). Korean J. Apic., 7(1): 32-34 (AA 673-96 ) .

Sihag , R.C. (1992 b). The yellow banded brown wasp. Vespa orientalis L. 2- Population density, bee capture efficiency and predation rate on honeybee. Apis mellifera L. Korean J. Apic., 7(1): 35-38 (AA 674/96 ).

Waller, R.A. and D.P. Duncan, (1969). A bays rule for symmetric multiple comparison problem. Amer. Stat. Assoc. J. December: 1485-1503.

Yousif-Khalil, S.I.; I.M.A. Ebadah and A.M. Khater (2000) .Preliminary investigation on the efficiency of developed sticky trap in controlling Vespa orientalis attacking honey bee colonies . Egypt. J. Appl. Sci, 15(3): 282-294.

Yousif-Khalil, S.I.; I.M.A. Ebadah and A.M. Khater (2001) Thee fficiency of a developed sticky trap for mass trapping Vespa orientalis L. Arab Univ. J. Agric. Sci., Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, 9(1) : 457 – 469 ,

التذبذب الموسمى لدبور البلح وكفاءة المصائد اللاصقه كوسيلة لمكافحته
عبدربه عيد حسين – محمد وجدى الكردى – ابراهيم عبدالرازق عبدالله - محمد مندوه اسماعيل الرفاعى

قسم وقاية النبات – كلية الزراعه – جامعة الازهر – القاهره - مصر


الدبور الاحمر يسبب ضررا عظيما فى المناحل حيث يهاجم اليرقات والنحل البالغ كما يتغذى على العسل وقد تم اجراء هذا البحث فى منحل كلية الزراعه – جامعة الازهر – مسطرد – القاهره - محافظة القليوبيه خلال عامى 2002 – 2006 لدراسة التذبذبات الموسميه لهذه الحشرة وكفاءة المصائد اللاصقة فى مكافحتها

وقد ظهرت الحشره فى الاسبوع الاول من شهر ابريل وازداد التعداد تدريجيا خلال هذا الشهرثم انخفض التعداد تدريجيا حتى وصل الى ادنى مستوياته فى شهرى يونيو ويوليو ثم ازداد نشاط الدبور بشكل تدريجى اعتبارا من الاسبوع الثانى من اغسطس الى نهاية سبتمبر واعلى اجمالى لاعداد الدبور سجل فى شهر اكتوبر يليه فى سبتمبر ثم فى نوفمبروانخفضت اعداد الدبور تدريجيا اعتبارا من اول ديسمبر



وقد اثبت اللون الوردى للمصائد اللاصقه انه الاكثر جاذبيه للدبور يليه اللون البرتقالى ثم الابيض بينما كان اللون الاسود هو الاقل جاذبيه للدبور ومتوسط الاعداد التى تم اصطيادها بتلك المصائد هى ( 43,33 ، 30,66 ،17,66 ، 11,66 دبور/ مصيده / يوم ) على التوالى وقد لوحظ ان اتجاه تاثير تلك المصائد فى جذب النحل كان عكس تاثيرها فى جذب الدبور.





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