Screening of maize (zea mays) varieties for maize weevil (sitophilus zeamais) resistance in swaziland




Дата канвертавання28.04.2016
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SCREENING OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) VARIETIES FOR MAIZE WEEVIL (SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS) RESISTANCE IN SWAZILAND

Y. T. Maina1* and C. G. Dlamini



ABSTRACT

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important staple food for the people of Swaziland. Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) is a major primary field-to-store pest of maize. Information is lacking on the resistance of maize varieties to weevil attacks in Swaziland. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the susceptibility and relative resistance of maize varieties to S. zeamais infestation. The experiment was carried out in the Entomology laboratory of Crop Production Department, University of Swaziland, in 2007/2008 cropping season. A completely randomised design, with 16 treatments, was replicated three times. Fifty grammes each of 16 maize varieties were weighed into 200 mL jars. Five pairs of newly emerged S. zeamais were introduced into each jar. Female weevils were allowed to lay eggs for four weeks, after which all insects were removed. Data on physical characteristic of seed, F1 adult progeny, percentage seed damage and severity of damage were collected. Results showed that the number of adults progeny emerged, percentage seed damage and severity of seed damage varied significantly (P < 0.05) among maize varieties. SC 521, SC 405 or NPGRC 390 was infested significantly (P < 0.05) more by S. zeamais than Singwane lesisemkhatsini, Flint or Lidvuba. NPGRC 390 sustained the highest (17.5 %) level of seed damage; the lowest level of seed damage (2.7%) was recorded in Lidvuba. Severity of damage was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in Lidvuba than in NPGRC 41, 8 Lines, Singwane lesisemkhatsini, NPGRC 483 or NPGRC 393. It is concluded that Lidvuba and 8 lines were the least susceptible varieties to S. zeamais infestation. It is recommended that the use of the least susceptible varieties of maize to S. zeamais infestation (Lidvuba and 8 lines) could be a major step in any attempt to reduce infestation of maize grains by S. zeamais in storage.


11 Corresponding author’s current address: Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Email: ytmaina@yahoo.com


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