Robert C. Lacy Curriculum vitae Robert C. Lacy




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Robert C. Lacy    Curriculum vitae


Robert C. Lacy
Conservation, Education, & Training Office phone: (708) 688-8432

Chicago Zoological Society email: Robert.Lacy@czs.org

Brookfield, Illinois 60513 USA http://www.vortex10.org
Home office:

192 Ocean View Road Phone and FAX: (207)434-2710

Jonesboro, Maine, USA email: rlacy@ix.netcom.com
Education

B.A., summa cum laude, Biology, Wesleyan University 1977

Secondary school teaching certification for general science and biology

M.A., Biology, Wesleyan University 1977

Thesis: Evolutionary strategies for temperature regulation in Mus musculus: A

quantitative genetic approach

Ph.D., Evolutionary Biology (minors: Genetics, Ecology), Cornell University, August1982

Thesis: Population biology of mycophagous Drosophilidae in the eastern U.S.


Positions Held

1985 to present Senior Conservation Scientist, Chicago Zoological Society

2003 to 2011 Chairman, IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) Conservation

Breeding Specialist Group

1992 to 1993 Chairman, Dept. of Conservation Biology, Chicago Zoological Society

1982 to 1985 Assistant Professor of Biology, Franklin & Marshall College


Academic Appointments/Graduate Advisory Committees/Postdoctoral Advisees

1985 to present Chicago Zoological Society, Department of Conservation Biology

(Supervised 4 post-doctoral research associates.)

1991 to present University of Chicago, Lecturer, Committee on Evolutionary Biology

(Served on PhD advisory committees for 7 students.)

1999 to present University of Illinois, Chicago, Adjunct Professor, Department of Biology

(Served on PhD advisory committees for 4 students.)

various External committee member for graduate students at University of Illinois-

Urbana, Univ of Maryland, Univ of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Macquarie Univ, Univ of New South Wales, Monash Univ, South Dakota State Univ, Univ Missouri-St Louis, Univ Montana, Purdue Univ
Current Research Interests

Interaction among genetic, demographic, and environmental causes of extinction

Modeling the dynamics of linked systems affecting wildlife – including population biology,

epidemiology, wildlife harvest, habitat fragmentation, and changes in human populations

Genetic management of captive populations

Inbreeding and outbreeding depression


Teaching Experience

Franklin and Marshall College

Genetics, Vertebrate Biology, Biosocial and Environmental Problems

University of Chicago

Conservation Biology graduate seminar

Chicago Zoological Society

Lectures on evolution and conservation

Professional schools of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association

Population Management (demography and genetics sections)

Advanced Training Program in the Conservation of Biodiversity

Program coordination, lectures, and mentor for biologists from tropical countries

Escola Superior de Conservação Ambiental e Sustentabilidade (ESCAS, Brazil)

Introduction to Conservation Decision-making

Numerous other workshops on genetic analysis and population management taught to wildlife biologists, zoo managers, and conservation biologists


Professional Societies

Association of Zoos and Aquariums

American Genetic Association

Society for Conservation Biology

Society for the Study of Evolution
Professional Service

Journal advisory boards: Zoo Biology, Conservation Genetics, International Zoo Yearbook

Prioritization Task Force, IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC)

Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, IUCN SSC (Chair, 2003-2011)

Recent activities include advising US Fish and Wildlife Service, state wildlife agencies, wildlife agencies of other nations (Australia, Canada, Spain, Brazil, Kenya, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Chile, Ecuador, South Africa) and international conservation organizations on the management of Florida panther, whooping crane, Sumatran rhinoceros, lion tamarins, lion-tailed macaque, black rhinoceros, Iberian lynx, Humboldt penguin, African penguin, grizzly bear, lowland tapir, and many other species.

Member of IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, and its Great Ape Scientific Advisory Panel

Member of AZA Small Population Management Advisory Group

Member of AZA Animal Data Information Systems Committee

Member of AZA Field Conservation Committee

Conservation Fellow, St Louis Zoo WildCare Institute



Honors and Grants

Peirce Award for Excellence in the Sciences, Wesleyan University, 1977

Phi Beta Kappa, 1976

Sigma Xi, 1978

Predoctoral Fellowship. NSF, 1977   1980.

Doctoral Dissertation   Research in Population Biology. NSF, 1979   1981, $4845.

Faculty research grants. Franklin & Marshall College, 1982   1985.

Studies of inbreeding depression in Peromyscus mice. Institute of Museum Services

(IMS), 1985   1987, $22,775.

Electrophoretic analysis of zoo populations. IMS, 1986 - 1988, $24,995.

Studies of outbreeding depression in Peromyscus mice. IMS, 1987 - 1989, $25,000.

Electrophoretic analyses of endangered species. IMS, 1988 - 1990, $25,000.

Outstanding Service Awards, American Zoo and Aquarium Association, 1988, 1989, 2001, 2011

Chromosomal analysis of endangered species. IMS, 1989 - 1991, $101,347.

Predictability of inbreeding depression in insular and mainland populations. NSF, 1991-1994,

$182,683.

Population Management 2000 software development. AZA Conservation Endowment Fund,

1999, $20,540.

Biocomplexity: Models and meta-networks for interdisciplinary research in biodiversity risk

assessment. NSF, 2000-2002, $98,000 (with P Nyhus, F Westley, P Miller, and G Ness)

An experimental test of the effects of breeding strategies used in AZA conservation programs.

AZA Conservation Endowment Fund, 2001, $42,926.

Experimental tests of the effects of captive breeding of wildlife. IMLS, 2002-2005, $75,000.

Pedigree reconstruction to sustain populations. IMLS, 2005-2007, $200,293 (with J. Dubach)

Meta-models as an approach to understanding biocomplexity. Private donor to Chicago

Zoological Society, 2006-2010, $100,000.

President’s Award, Chicago Zoological Society, 2007.

IUCN Species Survival Commission Chair’s Citation of Excellence Award, 2008.

Linking behavioral types and animal "job performance" with population management in zoos.

2009 IMLS National Leadership Planning Grant, $22,535 (with J. Watters and D. Powell)

Incorporating mate choice into breeding recommendations. 2009 IMLS National Leadership

Planning Grant, $48,997 (with C. Asa and K. Traylor-Holzer)

Paper selected by Conservation Biology for 25th anniversary special electronic issue of the most

influential contributions in conservation genetics.

RCN: Using metamodels to enable transdisciplinary research for the study of dynamic biological

systems under global change. NSF, 2012-2017, $490,905 (with H R Akcakaya, Stony Brook University).

George Rabb Award for Conservation Innovation, IUCN Species Survival Commission, 2012

Ulysses S Seal Award for Innovation in Conservation, IUCN Conservation Breeding Specialist

Group, 2012
Presentations and international workshop participation in 2008

University of Wisconsin

Metamodels for exploring biodiversity workshop. Chicago Zoological Society

SSC Chairs meeting, Al Ain, UAE

India’s Conservation Breeding Initiative, New Delhi

CBSG Steering Committee meetings, Switzerland and Australia

International Species Information System (ISIS) Board meetings, Switzerland and Australia

CBSG Annual Meeting, Australia

World Assoc. of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) Annual Conference, Australia

European Association of Zoos and Aquariums Annual Conference, Belgium

Species Survival Committee (SSC) Steering Committee, Al Ain, UAE, and Barcelona, Spain

IUCN SSC Species Conservation Planning Task Force, Oxford, UK

IUCN World Conservation Congress, Barcelona, Spain

1st National Congress for the Preservation of Aruban Wildlife


Presentations and international workshop participation in 2009

Gateways in Conservation 2009. Wildlife Conservation Society (keynote speaker)

Zoo and Aquariums Committing to Conservation, Houston (presenter)

Metamodels for exploring biodiversity workshop. Chicago Zoological Society (organizer)

CBSG Strategic Committee meetings, UAE and USA (organizer)

International Species Information System (ISIS) Board meeting, UAE

CBSG Annual Meeting, USA (organizer)

St Louis Zoo Research Strategic Planning (participant)

World Assoc. of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) Annual Conference, USA (presenter)

Mate choice in breeding programs, St Louis, USA (organizer)

Association of Zoos and Aquariums Annual Conference, USA (presenter)

IUCN SSC Species Conservation Planning Task Force, Bristol, UK (organizer)

ConGen Data Analysis Course, Flathead Lake Biological Station, Univ. of Montana (presenter)

Advanced techniques in population modeling, IUCN SSC CBSG (presenter)


Presentations and international workshop participation in 2010

Symposium on Threatened Species of the World. Presentation on “Metamodels for the integration of multiple sources of information into species risk assessments.” Caracas.

IUCN Species Survival Committee (SSC) Steering Committee, Choroní, Venezuela.

Association of Zoo and Aquarium Docents, annual conference, Chicago (invited presenter).

Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas, Nazaré Paulista, Brazil (seminar speaker).

CBSG Strategic Committee, Cologne, Germany (organizer)

CBSG Annual Meeting, Germany (organizer)

World Assoc. of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) Annual Conference, Germany (presenter)

Tools for Species Conservation Strategic Planning, CBSG, Abruzzo, Italy.
Presentations and international workshop participation in 2011

CBSG Strategic Committee, Gland, Switzerland (convener)

CBSG Annual Meeting, Prague (organizer)

World Assoc. of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) Annual Conference, Prague (presenter)

Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Annual Conference, session organizer

Workshop on “Future of international studbooks”, WAZA, Gland, Switzerland

Workshop on “Defining species for conservation breeding programs”, St Louis (organizer)

Workshop on “Prioritization methods in species conservation”, Caracas

University of Maine

Colby College

Akron Zoo Foundation
Presentations and international workshop participation in 2012

Workshop on population management, European Assoc of Zoos and Aquariums, Copenhagen

CBSG Strategic Committee, Melbourne, Australia

CBSG Annual Meeting, Melbourne, Australia (presenter)

Workshop on “Use of gamete banks in breeding programs”, St Louis (co-organizer)

Research Coordination Network: Metamodels for transdisciplinary research, Steering Committee

PHVA for Yellow-Shouldered Blackbird (3 workshops), Puerto Rico (co-organizer)

Workshop on metamodels to assess biocontrol of rabbits, S Australia Biosecurity, Adelaide

Workshop on reintroduction of bison to Illinois, Nature Conservancy (presenter)

Advanced short-course on pedigree analysis and management, Brookfield, IL (instructor)

Workshop on integrating spatial models of animal movements into PVA, Colby College

Purdue University


Presentations and international workshop participation in 2013

Workshop on using Vortex software for PVA, Chicago Zoological Society

Dallas Zoo Foundation

International Congress on Conservation Biology (presenter, and co-author on 3 other papers)

Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø (several presentations while a visiting researcher)

International Conference on Behaviour, Physiology and Genetics of Wildlife, Berlin (plenary speaker, and contributed paper)

European Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Edinburgh (presentation)


Publications (most are available for downloading from www.vortex10.org/lacypubs.html )

Lacy, R.C., C.B. Lynch and G.R. Lynch. 1978. Developmental and adult acclimation

effects of ambient temperature on temperature regulation of mice selected for high and low levels of nest building. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 123:185 192.

Lacy, R.C. 1978. Dynamics of t alleles in Mus musculus populations: Review and

speculation. The Biologist 60:41 67.

Lacy, R.C. 1979. The adaptiveness of a rare male mating advantage under heterosis.

Behavior Genetics 9:51 54.

Lacy, R.C. and C.B. Lynch. 1979. Quantitative genetic analysis of temperature regulation in



Mus musculus. I. Partitioning of variance. Genetics 91:743 753.

Lacy, R.C. 1980. The evolution of eusociality in termites: A haplodiploid analogy?

American Naturalist 116:449 451.

Lacy, R.C. 1981. Taxonomic and distributional notes on some fungus feeding North

American Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae). Entomological News 92:59 63.

Lacy, R.C. 1982. Niche breadth and abundance as determinants of genetic variation in

populations of mycophagous drosophilid flies (Diptera:Drosophilidae). Evolution 36:1265 1275.

Lacy, R.C. 1983. Structure of genetic variation within and between populations of

mycophagous Drosophila. Genetics 104:81 94.

Lacy, R.C. and P.W. Sherman. 1983. Kin recognition by phenotype matching. American

Naturalist 121:489 512.

Lacy, R.C. 1984. Ecological and genetic responses to mycophagy in Drosophilidae (Diptera).

Pages 286-301 in Q. Wheeler and M. Blackwell (eds.), Fungus/Insect Relationships: Perspectives in Ecology and Evolution. Columbia University Press, New York.

Lacy, R.C. 1984. Predictability, toxicity, and trophic niche breadth in fungus feeding

Drosophilidae (Diptera). Ecological Entomology 9:43 54.

Lacy, R.C. 1984. The evolution of termite eusociality: Reply to Leinaas. American

Naturalist 123:876 878.

Hayssen, V. and R.C. Lacy. 1985. Basal metabolic rates in mammals: Taxonomic

differences in the allometry of BMR and body mass. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 81A:741 754.

Hayssen, V., R.C. Lacy and P.J. Parker. 1985. Metatherian reproduction: Transitional or

transcending? American Naturalist 126:617 632.

Lacy, R.C. 1985. Evidence that group selection counters the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

Evolutionary Theory 7:173-177.

Lacy, R.C. 1985. Some genetic considerations for the management of captive populations

suggested by computer simulations. AAZPA 1985 Annual Proceedings, 627-630.

Lacy, R.C. and C.E. Bock. 1986. The correlation of range size and local abundance of some

North American birds. Ecology 67:258-260.

Lacy, R.C. 1987. Loss of genetic diversity from managed populations: Interacting effects

of drift, mutation, immigration, selection, and population subdivision. Conservation Biology 1:143-158.

Lacy, R.C. 1987. Further genetic and demographic analyses of small rhino populations.

Pachyderm (Newsletter of the African Elephant and Rhino Specialist Group) No. 9, pp. 16-19.

Lacy, R.C. 1988. A report on population genetics in conservation. Conservation Biology

2:245-247.

Lacy, R.C. 1988. Genetic variability in captive stocks: Assessing past loss, present status,

and future outlook. AAZPA 1988 Annual Proceedings 113-121.

Lacy, R.C., M.L. Foster, and the Primate Department Staff. 1988. Determination of pedigrees

and taxa of primates by protein electrophoresis. International Zoo Yearbook 27:159-168.

Lacy, R.C. 1988. Conservation genetics at Brookfield Zoo and the Brookfield-Melbourne

genetics research programme. Bulletin of Zoo Management 26:27-29.

Lacy, R.C. and T.W. Clark. 1989. Genetic variability in black footed ferret populations: Past,

present, and future. Pages 83-103 in U.S. Seal, E.T. Thorne, M.A. Bogan, and S.H. Anderson (eds.), Conservation Biology and the Black-Footed Ferret. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Lacy, R.C. 1989. How many pairs are needed on the ark? Bison 4:24-28.

Lacy, R.C. 1989. Analysis of founder representation in pedigrees: Founder equivalents and

founder genome equivalents. Zoo Biology 8:111-124.

Lacy, R.C, Flesness, N.R., and Seal, U.S. 1989. Puerto Rican parrot population viability

analysis. Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Seal, U.S. and R.C. Lacy. 1989. Florida panther population viability analysis. Report to the

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Paine, F.L., J.D. Miller, G. Crawshaw, B. Johnson, R. Lacy, C.F. Smith III, and P.J. Tolson.

1990. Status of the Puerto Rican crested toad. International Zoo Yearbook 28:53-58.

Maguire, L.A. and R.C. Lacy. 1990. Allocating scarce resources for conservation of endangered

subspecies: Partitioning zoo space for tigers. Conservation Biology 4:157-166.

Brewer, B.A., R.C. Lacy, M.L. Foster, and G. Alaks. 1990. Inbreeding depression in

insular and central populations of Peromyscus mice. Journal of Heredity 81:257-266.

Maguire, L.A., R.C. Lacy, R.J. Begg, and T.W. Clark. 1990. An analysis of alternative

strategies for recovering the eastern barred bandicoot in Victoria. Pages 147-164 in T.W. Clark and J.H. Seebeck (eds.), The Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois.

Lacy, R.C. and T.W. Clark. 1990. Population viability assessment of the eastern barred

bandicoot in Victoria. Pages 131-146 in T.W. Clark and J.H. Seebeck (eds.), The Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Chicago Zoological Society.

George, G.G., J. Dixon, G. Challis, and R.C. Lacy. 1990. Taxonomy and palaeontology

of the eastern barred bandicoot. Pages 33-46 in T.W. Clark and J.H. Seebeck (eds.), The Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Chicago Zoological Society.

Seal, U.S. and R.C. Lacy. 1990. Florida Key Deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium)

population viability assessment. Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Lindenmayer, D.B., V.C. Thomas, R.C. Lacy, and T.W. Clark. 1991. Population Viability

Analysis (PVA): The concept and its applications, with a case study of Leadbeater's Possum, Gymnobelideus leadbeateri McCoy. Report to the Forest and Timber Inquiry (Resource Assessment Commission), Consultancy Series No. FTC91/18, Canberra, Australia. 170 pp.

Clark, T.W., G.N. Backhouse, and R.C. Lacy. 1991. The population viability assessment

workshop: A tool for threatened species management. Endangered Species Update 8:1-5.

Clark, T.W., G.N. Backhouse, and R.C. Lacy. 1991. Report of a workshop on population

viability assessment as a tool for threatened species management and conservation. Australian Zoologist 27:28-35.

Lacy, R.C. 1991. Zoos and the surplus problem: An alternative solution. Zoo Biology

10:293-297.

Johnston, L.A. and R.C. Lacy. 1991. Utilization of sperm banks to maintain genetic diversity in

captive populations of wild cattle. Pages 107-118 in D.L. Armstrong and T.S. Groves (eds.), Wild Cattle Symposium Proceedings. Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, Nebraska.

Seal, U.S., R.C. Lacy, K. Medley, R. Seal, and T.J. Foose. 1991. Tana River Primate

Reserve Conservation Assessment Workshop Report. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Mirande, C., R. Lacy, and U. Seal. 1991. Whooping crane (Grus americana) conservation

viability assessment workshop report. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Foose, T.J., R.C. Lacy, R. Brett, and U.S. Seal. 1991. Kenya black rhinoceros metapopulation

workshop report. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Lacy, R.C. 1992. The effects of inbreeding on isolated populations: Are minimum viable

population sizes predictable? Pages 277-296 in P.L. Fiedler and S.K. Jain (eds.), Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Lacy, R.C. and T. Kreeger. 1992. VORTEX Users Manual. A stochastic simulation of the

extinction process. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Seal, U.S., R.C. Lacy, et al. 1992. Genetic management strategies and population viability

of the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi). Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Ellis, S., K. Hughes, C. Kuehler, R. Lacy, and U. Seal. 1992. `Alala, Akohekohe, and

Palila Population and Habitat Viability Assessment Reports. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Ellis, S., C. Kuehler, R. Lacy, K. Hughes, and U. Seal. 1992. Hawai`ian forest birds

conservation assessment and management plan. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Lacy, R.C. 1993. Impacts of inbreeding in natural and captive populations of vertebrates:

Implications for conservation. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 36:480-496.

Lacy, R.C. 1993. VORTEX: A computer simulation model for Population Viability

Analysis. Wildlife Research 20:45-65.

Lacy, R.C. 1993. GENES: A computer program for the analysis of pedigrees and genetic

management of populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois.

Lacy, R.C. and T.W. Clark. 1993. Simulation modeling of American marten populations:

Vulnerability to extinction. Great Basin Naturalist 53:282-292.

Lacy, R.C., A.M. Petric, and M. Warneke. 1993. Inbreeding and outbreeding depression in

captive populations of wild species. Pages 352-374 in N.W. Thornhill (ed.), The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding. University of Chicago Press.

Lindenmayer, D.B., R.C. Lacy, V.C. Thomas, and T.W. Clark. 1993. Predictions of the impacts

of changes in population size and environmental variability on Leadbeater's Possum, Gymnobelideus leadbeateri McCoy (Marsupialia: Petauridae) using Population Viability Analysis: an application of the computer program VORTEX. Wildlife Research 20:67-86.

Lindenmayer, D.B., T.W. Clark, R.C. Lacy, and V.C. Thomas. 1993. Population viability

analysis as a tool in wildlife conservation policy: With reference to Australia. Environmental Management 17:745-758.

Lindenmayer, D.B. and R.C. Lacy. 1993. Using a computer simulation package for PVA to

model the dynamics of sub-divided populations: An example using hypothetical meta-populations of the mountain brushtail possum. International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Proceedings. 2:615-620.

Lacy, R.C. 1993/1994. What is Population (and Habitat) Viability Analysis? Primate

Conservation 14/15:27-33.

Lacy, R.C. 1994. Review of Hartl, G.B. and Markowski, J. (eds.) Ecological genetics in

mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 75:1090-1093.

Jiménez, J.A., K.A. Hughes, G. Alaks, L. Graham, and R.C. Lacy. 1994. An experimental

study of inbreeding depression in a natural habitat. Science 266:271-273.

Lacy, R.C. 1994. Managing genetic diversity in captive populations of animals. Pages 63-89

in M.L. Bowles and C.J. Whelan (eds.), Restoration and Recovery of Endangered Plants and Animals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Lacy, R.C. 1995. A sibling is as valuable as an offspring: Reply to Xia. American Naturalist

145:480-482.

Lindenmayer, D.B. and R.C. Lacy. 1995. Metapopulation viability of Leadbeater's Possum,

Gymnobelideus leadbeateri, in fragmented old-growth forests. Ecological Applications 5:164-182.

Lindenmayer, D.B. and R.C. Lacy. 1995. Metapopulation viability of arboreal marsupials in

fragmented old-growth forests: comparison among species. Ecological Applications 5:183-199.

Lacy, R.C., J.D. Ballou, F. Princée, A. Starfield, and E. Thompson. 1995. Pedigree

analysis. Pages 57-75 in J.D. Ballou, M. Gilpin, and T.J. Foose (eds.), Population Management for Survival & Recovery. Analytical Methods and Strategies in Small Population Conservation. Columbia University Press, New York.

Ballou, J.D. and R.C. Lacy. 1995. Identifying genetically important individuals for

management of genetic diversity in pedigreed populations. Pages 76-111 in J.D. Ballou, M. Gilpin, and T.J. Foose (eds.), Population Management for Survival & Recovery. Analytical Methods and Strategies in Small Population Conservation. Columbia University Press, New York.

Johnston, L.A. and R.C. Lacy. 1995. Genome resource banking for species conservation:

Selection of sperm donors. Cryobiology 32:68-77.

Lacy, R.C. 1995. Culling surplus animals for population management. Pages 187-194 in

B.G. Norton, M. Hutchins, E.F. Stevens, and T.L. Maple (eds.) Ethics on the ark: Zoos, animal welfare, and wildlife conservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Lindenmayer, D.B. and R.C. Lacy. 1995. A simulation study of the impacts of population


subdivision on the mountain brushtail possum, Trichosurus caninus Ogilby (Phalangeridae: Marsupialia), in south eastern Australia. I. Demographic stability and population persistence. Biological Conservation 73:119-129.

Lacy, R.C. and D.B. Lindenmayer. 1995. A simulation study of the impacts of population

subdivision on the mountain brushtail possum, Trichosurus caninus Ogilby (Phalangeridae: Marsupialia), in south eastern Australia. II. Loss of genetic variation within and between subpopulations. Biological Conservation 73:131-142.

Lindenmayer, D.B., M.A. Burgman, H.R. Akçakaya, R.C. Lacy, and H.P. Possingham.

1995. A review of the generic computer programs ALEX, RAMAS/space and VORTEX for modelling the viability of wildlife metapopulations. Ecological Modelling 82:161-174.

Lacy, R.C. 1995. Clarification of genetic terms and their use in the management of captive

populations. Zoo Biology 14:565-577.

Lacy, R.C. 1995. Conservation geneticists make their case. (Book review.) Ecology

76:1684-1685.

Lacy, R.C., K.A. Hughes, and P.S. Miller. 1995. VORTEX Version 7 users manual. A

stochastic simulation of the simulation process. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Altmann, J., S.C. Alberts, S.A. Haines, J. Dubach, P. Muruthi, T. Coote, E. Geffen, D.J.

Cheesman, R.S. Mututua, S.N. Saiyalel, R.K. Wayne, R.C. Lacy, and M.W. Bruford. 1996. Behavior predicts genetic structure in a wild primate group. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 93:5797-5801.

Lacy, R. 1996. Further population modelling of northern white rhinoceros under various

management scenarios. Appendix 3 in T.J. Foose (ed.). Summary ­– Northern White Rhinoceros Conservation Strategy Workshop. International Rhino Foundation, Cumberland, Ohio.

Lacy, R.C. and B.E. Horner. 1996. Effects of inbreeding on skeletal development of Rattus



villosissimus. Journal of Heredity 87:277-287.

Lacy, R.C., G. Alaks, and A. Walsh. 1996. Hierarchical analysis of inbreeding depression in



Peromyscus polionotus. Evolution 50:2187-2200.

Hedrick, P.W., R.C. Lacy, F.W. Allendorf, and M.E. Soulé. 1996. Directions in

conservation biology: Comments on Caughley. Conservation Biology 10:1312-1320.

Lacy, R.C. 1996. Review of J.C. Avise and J.L. Hamrick (eds.). Conservation Genetics: Case

histories from nature. Quarterly Review of Biology 71:566.

Lacy, R.C. 1997. Importance of genetic variation to the viability of mammalian populations.

Journal of Mammalogy 78:320­ 335.

Lacy, R.C. and B.E. Horner. 1997. Effects of inbreeding on reproduction and sex ratio of Rattus



villosissimus. Journal of Mammalogy 78:877-887.

Ballou, J.D., R.C. Lacy, D. Kleiman, A. Rylands, and S. Ellis. 1998. Leontopithecus II.

The second Population and Habitat Viability Assessment for Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus). IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.

Lindenmayer, D.B., R.C. Lacy, and K.L. Viggers. 1998. Modelling survival and capture

probabilities of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus caninus) in the forests of south-eastern Australia using trap­ recapture data. Journal of Zoology 245:1­ 13.

Lacy, R.C. and J.D. Ballou. 1998. Effectiveness of selection in reducing the genetic load in

populations of Peromyscus polionotus during generations of inbreeding. Evolution 52:900­ 909.

Miller, P.S. and R.C. Lacy. 1999. VORTEX Version 8 users manual. A stochastic simulation of

the simulation process. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Brook, B.W., J.R. Cannon, R.C. Lacy, C. Mirande, and R. Frankham. 1999. Comparison of the

population viability analysis packages GAPPS, INMAT, RAMAS and VORTEX for the whooping crane (Grus americana). Animal Conservation 2:23­ 31.

Araya, B., D. Garland, G. Espinoza, A. Sanhuesa, A. Simeone, A. Teare, C. Zavalaga, R. Lacy,

and S. Ellis. (eds.) 1999. Taller Análisis de la Viabilidad del Hábitat y de la Población del Pinguino Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti). Informe final. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.

Cooper, J., D. Oschadleus, L. Shannon, M. Thornton, P. Whittington, R. Lacy, and S. Ellis (eds.)

1999. African Penguin Population and Habitat Viability Assessment. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.

Lindenmayer, D.B., R.C. Lacy, H. Tyndale-Biscoe, A.C. Taylor, K.L. Viggers, and M.L. Pope.

1999. Integrating demographic and genetic studies of the Greater Glider Petauroides volans in fragmented forests: predicting movement patterns and rates for future testing. Pacific Conservation Biology 5:2-8.

Ellis, S., R.C. Lacy, S. Kennedy-Stoskopf, D.E. Wildt, J. Shillcox, O. Byers, and U.S. Seal.

1999. Florida panther population and habitat viability assessment and genetics workshop report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.

Lindenmayer, D.B., R.C. Lacy, and M.L. Pope. 2000. Testing a simulation model for Population

Viability Analysis. Ecological Applications 10:580-597.

Lacy, R.C. 2000. Management of limited animal populations. Pages 75-93 in D. Duffield and T.

Robeck (eds.). Bottlenose dolphin reproduction workshop. Report. AZA Marine Mammal Taxon Advisory Group, Silver Spring, MD.

Pergams, O.R.W., R.C. Lacy, and M.V. Ashley. 2000. Conservation and management of

Anacapa Island Deer Mice. Conservation Biology 14:819-832.

Penn, A.M., W.B. Sherwin, G. Gordon, D. Lunney, A. Melzer, and R.C. Lacy. 2000.

Demographic forecasting in koala conservation. Conservation Biology 14:629-638.

Lacy, R.C. 2000. Should we select genetic alleles in our conservation breeding programs? Zoo

Biology 19:279-282.

Land, E.D., and R.C. Lacy. 2000. Introgression level achieved through Florida Panther genetic

restoration. Endangered Species Update 17:100-105.

Lacy, R.C. 2000. Considering threats to the viability of small populations. Ecological Bulletins

48:39-51.

Lacy, R.C. 2000. Structure of the VORTEX simulation model for population viability analysis.

Ecological Bulletins 48:191-203.

Pollak, J. P., R. C. Lacy and J. D. Ballou. 2000. Population Management 2000, version 1.175.

Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, IL.

Lacy, R.C., and J.D. Ballou. 2001. Population Management 2000 User’s Manual. Chicago

Zoological Society, Brookfield, IL.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and R.C. Lacy. 2002. Small mammals, habitat patches and PVA models: a

field test of model predictive ability. Biological Conservation 103:247-265.

Lacy, R.C., and P.S. Miller. 2002. Incorporating human populations and activities into

population viability analysis. Pages 490-510 in S.R. Beissinger and D.R. McCullough (eds.), Population Viability Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Maehr, D.S., R.C. Lacy, E.D. Land, O.L. Bass, and T.S. Hoctor. 2002. Evolution of Population


Viability Assessments for the Florida panther: A multiperspective approach. Pages 284-311 in S.R. Beissinger and D.R. McCullough (eds.), Population Viability Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Hosack, D.A., P.S. Miller, J.J. Hervert, and R.C. Lacy. 2002. A population viability analysis for

the endangered Sonoran pronghorn, Antilocapra americana sonoriensis. Mammalia 66:207-229.

Nyhus, P.J., F.R. Westley, R.C. Lacy, and P.S. Miller. 2002. A role for natural resource social

science in biodiversity risk assessment. Society and Natural Resources 15:923-932.


Jones, K.L., T.C. Glenn, R.C. Lacy, J.R. Pierce, N. Unruh, C.M. Mirande, F. Chavez-Ramirez.

2002. Refining the whooping crane studbook by incorporating microsatellite DNA and leg banding analyses. Conservation Biology 16:789-799


Maehr, D.S., and R. C. Lacy. 2002. Avoiding the lurking pitfalls in Florida panther recovery.

Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:971-978.

Ryan, K.K., R.C. Lacy, and S.W. Margulis. 2002. Impacts of inbreeding on components of

reproductive success. Pages 82-96 in: W. V. Holt, A. R. Pickard, J. C. Rodger, and D. E. Wildt, eds. Reproductive Science and Integrated Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.


Ryan, K.K., and R.C. Lacy. 2003. Monogamous male mice bias behaviour towards females

according to very small differences in kinship. Animal Behaviour 65: 379-384.


Lindenmayer, D. B., H. P. Possingham, R. C. Lacy, M. A. McCarthy and M. L. Pope. 2003.

How accurate are population models? Lessons from landscape-scale tests in a fragmented system. Ecology Letters 6:41-47.

Miller, P.S., and R.C. Lacy. 2003. VORTEX: A Stochastic Simulation of the Extinction Process.

Version 9 User’s Manual. Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN), Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Miller, P.S., and R.C. Lacy. 2003. Integrating the human dimension into endangered species risk

assessment. Pages 41-63 in: F.R. Westley and P.S. Miller, eds. Experiments in Consilience: Integrating Social and Scientific Responses to Save Endangered Species. Island Press, Washington, DC.


Miller, P.S., and R.C. Lacy. 2003. Metamodels as a tool for risk assessment. Pages 333-351 in:

F.R. Westley and P.S. Miller, eds. Experiments in Consilience: Integrating Social and Scientific Responses to Save Endangered Species. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Westley, F., P.S. Miller, and R.C. Lacy. 2003. Far from land: Further explorations in

consilience. Pages 352-361 in: F.R. Westley and P.S. Miller, eds. Experiments in Consilience: Integrating Social and Scientific Responses to Save Endangered Species. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Singleton, I., S. Wich, S. Husson, S. Stephens, S. Utami Atmoko, M. Leighton, N. Rosen, K.

Traylor-Holzer, R. Lacy, and O. Byers (eds.). 2004. Orangutan Population and Habitat Viability Assessment: Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.

Lacy, R.C., and A. Vargas. 2004. Informe sobre la gestión genética y demográfica del programa

de cría para la conservación del lince ibérico: escenarios, conclusiones y recomendaciones. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Madrid, Spain.

Heinsohn, R., R. C. Lacy, D. B. Lindenmayer, H. Marsh, D. Kwan, and I.R. Lawler. 2004.

Unsustainable harvest of dugongs in Torres Strait and Cape York (Australia) waters: two case studies using population viability analysis. Animal Conservation 7:417-425.


Lacy, R.C., M. Borbat, and J.P. Pollak. 2005. VORTEX: A Stochastic Simulation of the


Extinction Process. Version 9.57. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois, USA.

Margulis, S.W., M. Nabong, G. Alaks, A. Walsh, and R.C. Lacy. 2005. Effects of early

experience on subsequent parental behaviour and reproductive success in oldfield mice, Peromyscus polionotus. Animal Behaviour 69:627-634.

Traylor-Holzer, K., R. Lacy, D. Reed, and O. Byers (eds.). 2005. Alabama Beach Mouse

Population and Habitat Viability Assessment: Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.

Mendelson, J.R. III, et al. (50 co-authors, including R.C. Lacy). 2006. Confronting amphibian

declines and extinctions. Science 313:48.

Mendelson, J.R. III, et al. (18 co-authors, including R.C. Lacy). 2006. Responding to amphibian

loss. Response. Science 314:1541-1542.

Matamoros, Y., H. Vargas, R. C. Lacy, O. Byers, E. Travis, G. Montoya. (Editores). 2006. Taller

para Anàlisisde Viabilidad de Poblaciòny Hàbitatpara el Pingüino de Galápagos. Informe Final. Parque Nacional Galápagos, Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz, Galápagos, Ecuador. 8-11 de febrero, 2005.

Zippel, K., R. Lacy, and O. Byers (eds.) 2006. CBSG/WAZA Amphibian Ex Situ Conservation



Planning Workshop Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.

Vargas, F.H., R.C. Lacy, P.J. Johnson, A. Steinfurth, R.J.M. Crawford, P.D. Boersma, and D.W.

MacDonald. 2007. Modelling the effect of El Niño on the persistence of small populations: The Galápagos penguin as a case study. Biological Conservation 137:138-148.

Miller, P.S., F.R. Westley, A.P. Byers, and R.C. Lacy. 2007. An experiment in managing the

human animal: The PHVA process and its role in conservation decision-making. Pages 173-188 in T.S. Stoinski, H.D. Steklis, and P.T. Mehlman. Conservation in the 21st century: Gorillas as a case study. Springer, New York.

Nyhus, P.J., R. Lacy, F.R. Westley, P.S. Miller, H. Vredenburg, P. Paquet, and J. Pollak. 2007.

Tackling biocomplexity and meta-models for species risk assessment. Ecology & Society 12: 31 [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol12/iss1/art31/

Lacy, R.C. 2007. Understanding inbreeding depression: 20 years of experiments with



Peromyscus mice. Pages 327-329 in F.W. Allendorf and G. Luikart. Conservation and the Genetics of Populations. Wiley-Blackwell, New York.

Pergams, O.R.W. and R.C. Lacy. 2008. Rapid morphological and genetic change in Chicago-area



Peromyscus. Molecular Ecology 17:450-463.

Dasmahapatra, K.K., R.C. Lacy, and W. Amos. 2008. Estimating levels of inbreeding using

AFLP markers. Heredity 100:286-295.

Wich, S.A., E. Meijaard, A.J. Marshall, S. Husson, M. Ancrenaz, R.C. Lacy, C.P. van Schaik,

J. Sugardjito, T. Simorangkir, K. Traylor-Holzer, M. Doughty, J. Supriatna, R. Dennis, M. Gumal, C.D. Knott, and I. Singleton. 2008. Distribution and conservation status of the orang-utan (Pongo spp.) on Borneo and Sumatra: How many remain? Oryx 42:329-339.

Rudnick, J.A., and R.C. Lacy. 2008. The impact of assumptions about founder relationships on

the effectiveness of captive breeding strategies. Conservation Genetics 9:1439-1450.

Lacy, R.C. 2008. Conservation breeding – a global view. Pages 381-398 in B.R. Sharma, N.

Akhtar, B.K. Gupta (eds.). India’s Conservation Breeding Initiative, Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi.

Lacy, R.C. 2008. Conservation breeding – challenges and protocols. Pages 263-289 in B.R.

Sharma, N. Akhtar, B.K. Gupta (eds.). India’s Conservation Breeding Initiative, Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi.

IUCN/SSC. 2008. Strategic Planning for Species Conservation: A Handbook. Version 1.0.

Gland, Switzerland: IUCN Species Survival Commission. 104pp. (R Lacy was one of the writers and co-editors, and chaired the task force that developed the handbook.)

Lacy, R.C. 2009. Stopping evolution: Genetic management of captive populations. Pages 58-81

in: G. Amato, R. DeSalle, O.A. Ryder, and H.C. Rosenbaum. Conservation genetics in the age of genomics. Columbia University Press, New York.

Lacy, R.C. and R. Wells. 2009. Population Viability Analysis (PVA). Pages 25-29 in R.R.

Reeves, and R.L. Brownell, Jr., eds. Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin assessment workshop report: Solomon Islands case study of Tursiops aduncus. Occasional Paper of the Species Survival Commission, No. 40, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 53 pp.

Marshall, A.J., R. Lacy, M. Ancrenaz, O. Byers, S.J. Husson, M. Leighton, E. Meijaard, N.

Rosen, I. Singleton, S. Stephens, K. Traylor-Holzer, S.S.U. Atmoko, C.P. van Schaik, and S.A. Wich. 2009. Orangutan population biology, life history, and conservation. Pages 311-326 in: S.A. Wich, S.S.I. Atmoko, T.M. Setia, and C.P. van Schaik, eds. Orangutans. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Ivy, J.A., A, Miller, R.C. Lacy, and J. A. DeWoody. 2009. Methods and prospects for using

molecular data in captive breeding programs: an empirical example using parma wallabies (Macropus parma). Journal of Heredity 100:441-454.

Leus, K., and R.C. Lacy. 2009. Genetic and demographic management of conservation

breeding programs oriented towards reintroduction. Pages 74-84 in: A. Vargas, C. Breitenmoser, and U. Breitenmoser (eds.) Iberian Lynx Ex Situ Conservation: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Fundación Biodiversidad / IUCN Cat Specialist Group, Madrid.

Ivy, J.A., and R.C. Lacy. 2010. Using molecular methods to improve the genetic management of

captive breeding programs for threatened species. Pages 267-295 in: J.A. DeWoody, J.W. Bickham, C.H. Michler, K.M. Nicols, O.E. Rhodes, and K.E. Woeste, eds. Molecular Approaches in Natural Resource Conservation and Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Malo, A.F., F. Martinez-Pastor, G. Alaks, J. Dubach, and R.C. Lacy. 2010. Effects of genetic

captive-breeding protocols on sperm quality and fertility in the white-footed mouse. Biology of Reproduction 83:540-548.

Ballou, J.D., R.C. Lacy, and J.P. Pollak. 2010. PMx: software for demographic and genetic

analysis and management of pedigreed populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois, USA.

Lacy, R.C. 2011. Re-thinking ex situ vs. in situ species conservation. Pages 25-29 in: G. Dick,

ed. Biodiversity is Life. Proceedings of the 65th Annual Conference of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. WAZA, Gland, Switzerland.

Asa, C.S., K. Traylor-Holzer, and R.C. Lacy. 2011. Can conservation-breeding programmes be

improved by incorporating mate choice? International Zoo Yearbook 45:203-212.

Leus, K., K. Traylor-Holzer, and R.C. Lacy. 2011. Genetic and demographic population

management in zoos and aquariums: recent developments, future challenges and opportunities for scientific research. International Zoo Yearbook 45:213-225.

Asa, C.S., K. Traylor-Holzer, and R.C. Lacy. 2011. Mate choice as a potential tool to increase

population sustainability. WAZA Magazine 12: 23-25.

Baker, A.M., R.C. Lacy, K. Leus, and K. Traylor-Holzer. 2011. Intensive management of

populations for conservation. WAZA Magazine 12: 40-43.

Frankham, R., J.D. Ballou, M.D. Eldridge, R.C. Lacy, K. Ralls, M.R. Dudash, and C.R. Fenster.

2011. Predicting the probability of outbreeding depression: critical information for managing fragmented populations. Conservation Biology 25:465-475.

Jamieson, I.G., and R.C. Lacy. 2012. Managing genetic issues in reintroduction biology. Pages

441-475 in: J.G. Ewen, D.P. Armstrong, K.A. Parker, & P.J. Seddon, eds. Reintroduction Biology: Integrating Science and Management. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.

Lacy, R.C., J.D. Ballou, & J.P. Pollak. 2012. PMx: Software package for demographic and

genetic analysis and management of pedigreed populations. Methods in Ecology & Evolution 3:433-437.

Bradshaw, C.J.A., C.R. McMahon, P.S. Miller, R.C. Lacy, M.J. Watts, M.L. Verant, J.P. Pollak,

D.A. Fordham, T.A.A. Prowse, and B.W. Brook. 2012. Novel coupling of individual-based epidemiological and demographic models predicts realistic dynamics of tuberculosis in alien buffalo. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:268-277.

Ivy, J.A., and R.C. Lacy. 2012. A comparison of strategies for selecting breeding pairs to

maximize genetic diversity retention in managed populations. Journal of Heredity 103:186-196.

Lacy, R.C. 2012. Extending pedigree­ analysis for uncertain parentage and diverse breeding

systems. Journal of Heredity 103:197-205.

Lacy, R.C., and C. A. Beuchat. 2012. Managing the genetic health of the Basenji. The Basenji

May/June 2012:10-13.

Desbiez, A., K. Traylor-Holzer, R. Lacy, et al. 2012. Population Viability Analysis of jaguar

populations in Brazil. In: Jaguar in Brazil. CATnews (Special Issue) 7:35-37.

Frankham, R., J.D. Ballou, M.R. Dudash, M.D.B. Eldridge, C.B. Fenster, R.C. Lacy, J.R.

Mendelson III, I.J. Porton, K. Ralls, and O.A. Ryder. 2012. Implications of different species concepts for conserving biodiversity. Biological Conservation 153:25-31.

Lacy, R.C., J.P. Pollak, P.S. Miller, L. Hungerford, and P. Bright. 2012. Outbreak version2.0.

IUCN SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Apple Valley, MN, USA.

Lacy, R.C. 2013. Understanding inbreeding depression: 25 years of experiments with



Peromyscus mice. Pages 491-492 in F.W. Allendorf, G. Luikart, and S.N. Aiken. Conservation and the genetics of populations. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford, UK.

Byers, O., and R.C. Lacy. From captive to conservation: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding

Specialist Group and the evolving role of zoos. G. McGregor-Reid, ed. (in press).

Lacy, R.C. 2013. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations. Zoo Biology 32:19-26.

Lacy, R.C. and G. Alaks. 2013. Effects of inbreeding on skeletal size and fluctuating asymmetry

of Peromyscus polionotus mice. Zoo Biology 32:125-133.

Prowse, T.A.A., C.N. Johnson, R.C. Lacy, C.J.A. Bradshaw, J.P. Pollak, M.J. Watts, and B.W.

Brook. 2013. No need for disease: testing extinction hypotheses for the thylacine using multi-species metamodels. Journal of Animal Ecology 82:355-364.

Meile, R., R.C. Lacy, F.H. Vargas, and P.G. Parker. 2013. Modeling the potential effects of

Plasmodium infection on the Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Auk 130 (in press).

Lacy, R.C., K. Traylor-Holzer, and J.D. Ballou. 2013. Managing for true sustainability of species.

WAZA Magazine 14:10-14.

Lacy, R.C., G. Alaks, and A. Walsh. 2013. Evolution of Peromyscus leucopus mice in response

to a captive environment. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72452. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072452.

Carroll, C., R.J. Frederickson, and R.C. Lacy. Connectivity criteria in endangered species

recovery: The Mexican Wolf as a case study. (in press)

Ueda, Y., R.C. Lacy, G. Alaks, J. Chen, S. Kajigaya, and N.S. Young. Molecular cloning and

comparison of ribosomal protein, large P0 (RPLP0) of Peromyscus leucopus. (submitted)

Lacy, R.C., P.S. Miller, P.J. Nyhus, J.P Pollak, B.E. Raboy, and S. Zeigler. Metamodels for

transdisciplinary analysis of population dynamics. (submitted)

Malo, A.F., N. Wielebnowski, G. Alaks, A. Bellem, J. Bryant, and R.C. Lacy. Baseline

corticosterone levels are positively associated with fitness. (in prep.)

Shoemaker, K., M. Verant, B. Brook, T. Liveri, P. Miller, R.C. Lacy, and H.R. Akcakaya.

Modeling the recovery of the endangered black-footed ferret in a dynamic predator-prey-disease system. (submitted)

Software developed and distributed for professional use


PartInbr: A program providing calculation of inbreeding coefficients and partial inbreeding

coefficients partitioned into the components contributed by each founder.


PM2000: Software for demographic and genetic analysis and management of pedigreed


populations. (Developed jointly with J. Ballou and J.P. Pollak). Used to guide management of captive populations of 100s of species globally.

PMx: Software for demographic and genetic analysis and management of populations.

(Developed jointly with J. Ballou and J.P. Pollak).


Vortex: Simulation of interacting genetic, demographic, and environmental causes of

extinction in small, isolated populations interconnected by occasional migration. Used by conservation and wildlife biologists to assist in the analysis and management of wild populations of 100s of species in more than 70 countries.



MMMacro: A dll library providing a macro script interpreter for use within system models.

(MMMacroEntry provides a stand-alone program for writing and testing macro scripts.)


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