Review of the reptilia of the triassic




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We see thus that the reptile fauna of the Jurassic, which is almost proverbial for its wealth and variety, had its origins completely in the Triassic; now new order is added to distinguish the Jurassic from the Triassic, but large orders became extinct probably just before the beginning of the Liassic. But the Jurassic brings the remainder received from the Triassic to a new climax, particularly in numbers. I believe that it is sufficiently justified to say that no period of the history of the Earth has possessed such a varied and richly developed fauna (reptile fauna) as the Triassic. Only the Tertiary can compete, in terms of the development of vertebrates, in the field of mammals. But the Reptilia played the role earlier which the mammals have largely taken over later on.


FIGURE CAPTIONS
Fig. 1. Stereosternum tumidum COPE. Permian? Sao Paolo, Brazil. Right pes. F, fibula; T, tibia. After ZITTEL (COPE). Nat. size.
Fig. 2. Telerpeton elginense MANTELL. After HUXLEY. a, skull; b, ilium, ischium, pubis; c, scapula with coracoid and procoracoid. Nat. size.
Fig. 3. Eryops megacephalus COPE. After BROILI. 1/3 nat. size. Ilium, ischium, pubis with acetabulum.
Fig. 4. Proterosaurus-like reptile from the Middle Bunter Sandstone of Bernberg. (Avg. 1/2 nat. size.) Original in the Geol. Museum at Halle am Saale. a, 6 cervical vertebrae and cervical ribs (* to compare with Fig. 5); b, dorsal vertebrae in lateral view, one articular facet and its profile, and cross-section of an upper arch (?sacral vertebra); c, rib; d, abdominal ribs from different regions; e, scapula (?); f, pubis (?) with obturator incisure; g, femur with nutrient foramen.
Fig. 5. 4th cervical vertebra of Proterosaurus speneri. Keupferschiefer of Thuringia. (After SEELEY.) Nat. size (for comparison with the cervical vertebra in Fig. 4a*).
Fig. 6. “Ichthyosaurus”. Caudal vertebra. From the Wellenkalk of Querfurt, Harz. Nat. size. Original in Geol. Museum at Halle am Saale. Anterior, lateral, and dorsal views.
Fig. 7. Episternum of a, Ichthyosaurus atavus QU. Wellenkalk of Altbengatett near Calw. Tübingen collection. b, Mixosaurus cornalianus BASS. sp. Raibl Beds of Besano. Mus. Civ. Milan. (Drawing very kindly sent by Prof. REPOSSI.) c, Ichthyosaurus quadrissiscus QU. Upper Lias, Holzmaden. Tübingen collection. a-c nat. size.
Fig. 8. “Ichthyosaurus”. Dorsal vertebra. Schaumkalk of Freiburg am Unstrut. Nat. size. In anterior view, dorsal view, and cross-section. Original in the Geolog. Museum at Halle am Saale.
Fig. 9. Cynognathus crateronotus SEELEY. Palate (after SEELEY).
Fig. 10. Palate of Nothosaurus (Cymatosaurus latissimus) after KOKEN. Nat. size. Lower Muschelkalk.
Fig. 11. Palate of Deuterosaurus. Reduced from SEELEY. 1/2 nat. size.
Fig. 12. a, shoulder girdle of Pareiasaurus baini (after FÜRBRINGER and SEELEY). Cl, clavicle; Clth, cleithrum (= epiclavicle or mesoscapula SEELEY); Est, episternum; F. gl., glenoid fossa for humerus; F. spc., supracoracoid foramen; I. csc., coracoscapular incisure; Prc., procoracoid; Sc., scapula. b, shoulder girdle of Eryops from COPE and BROILI. cl, clavicle; epist, episternum; cor, coracoid; clei, cleithrum. c, episternum and clavicle of Mastodonsaurus after E. FRAAS. cl, clavicle; est, episternum.
Fig. 13. Ilium of Pareiasaurus after SEELEY.
Fig. 14. Femur of Propappus (after SEELEY). Underside.
Fig. 15. Femur of Eryops megacephalus COPE. 1/3 nat. size. Permian, Texas. Original in the Palaeont. Museum, Munich.
Fig. 16. Occiput of Placodus gigas.
Fig. 17. Occiput of Dicynodon after SEELEY. Fm, foramen magnum; Bo, basioccipital; Bs, basisphenoid; Pt, pterygoid; Q, quadrate; Sq, squamosal; Oo, opisthotic; So, supraoccipital; Jp, interparietal; Pa, parietal.
Fig. 18. Palate of Placodus gigas M. (from a model). JM, intermaxilla; M, maxilla; N, nasal opening; Pal, palatine; Pt, pterygoid; Tr, ectopterygoid; J, jugal; QJ, quadratojugal; Q, quadrate. 1/2 nat. size.
Fig. 19. Palate of Rhopalodon (after SEELEY). 1.2 nat. size.
Fig. 20. Eunotosaurus africanus SEELEY. d, dorsal side; v, ventral side; p, pubis.
Fig. 21. Actinodon fressardi GAUDRY. Nat. size after GAUDRY. Left femur in dorsal view.
Fig. 22. Deuterosaurus (after SEELEY). 1/2 nat. size. Femur, proximal end. C.f., femoral head.
Fig. 23. “Dinosaurus” EICHW. Nat. size. After SEELEY. Femur from underside.
Fig. 24. Cervical ribs of Discosaurus after CREDNER. Nat. size.
Fig. 25. Tibia from two sides. Schaumkalk of Freiburg am Unstrut. Nat. size. Original in Haale am Saale University Collection.
Fig. 26. Tibia of Sclerocephalus after CREDNER. Nat. size.
Fig. 27. Fibula from two sides. Schaumkalk of Freiburg am Unstrut. Nat. size. Original in Haale am Saale University Collection.
Fig. 28. Fibula of Sclerocephalus after CREDNER. 1/2 nat. size.
Fig. 29. Femur of Crurosaurus problematicus from two sides. 2/3 nat. size. Schaumkalk of Freiburg am Unstrut. Original in Haale am Saale University Collection.
Fig. 30. Reconstruction of the palate of Sclerosaurus armatus M. 2/3 nat. size.
Fig. 31. Procolophon after SEELEY. Nat. size. a, palate and shoulder girdle; b, skull in dorsal view (squamosal spine!).
Fig. 32. Vertebral column of Procolophon after SEELEY. Nat. size.
Fig. 33. Reconstruction of Sclerosaurus armatus M. 1/2 nat. size. The ribs and limbs of the left side are omitted to simplify the figure.
Fig. 34. Astragalocalcaneum of Pareiasaurus. From the Suchona, North Russia. 2/3 nat. size. Orig. in Warsaw University Collection.
Fig. 35. Anomosaurus sp. Schaumkalk of Freiburg am Unstrut, 2/3 nat. size. Original in the Geological Museum at Haale am Saale (see hyposphene a, b, c).
Fig. 36. Dorsal centrum of Pareiasaurus (after R. OWEN). 1/2 nat. size. Profile of the articular faces dotted.
Fig. 37. Dicynodon pardiceps. South Africa (after R. OWEN). 1/2 nat. size. a, in anterior view; b, longitudinal section.
Fig. 38. Embolophorus from the Catalogue of the Brit. Mus. (LYDEKKER). Permian, Texas (hyposphene!). Nat. size. ptz,. postzygapophysis; pt., transverse process.
Fig. 39. Inostrancevia annae AMALITZKY ms. From Suchona, N. Russia. Dorsal vertebra, from right (hyposphene!). 2/3 nat. size. Original, Warsaw University Collection.
Fig. 40. Nothosaurus. Dorsal vertebra from behind. 1/2 nat. size. Upper Muschelkalk from Bayreuth. Trace of hyposphene. Original in Geological Museum, Tübingen.
Fig. 41. Ctenosaurus koeneni HUENE. ca. 1/8 nat/ size. Middle Bunter Sandstone of Rheinhausen near Göttingen. Original in the Geological Museum at Göttingen.
Fig. 42. a, dorsal vertebra of Dimetrodon from the right. Permian, Texas. Profile of the articular surfaces dotted. 2/3 nat. size. Original in the Palaeontological Museum, München. b, dorsal vertebra of Naosaurus from the right. Permian, Texas. Profile of articular surfaces dotted. 2/3 nat. size. Original in Palaeont. Mus., München.
Fig. 43. a, Nothosaurus marchicus KOKEN. Nat. size. Lower Muschelkalk, Rüdersdorf (after KOKEN); b, Rhopalodon. 1/2 nat. size (after SEELEY). P and Pa, parietal; S, temporal fossa; Op, opisthotic; Pt, pterygoid; Ip, interparietal; Sq, squamosal; So, supraoccipital; Exo, exoccipital; Bo, basioccipital; Qu, quadrate; BS, basisphenoid; Fm, foramen magnum; m, jugal; tr, ectopterygoid.
Fig. 44. a, Nothosaurus (?mirabilis). Sacral vertebrae in posterior view. 2/3 nat. size. Upper Muschelkalk. Orig. in private collection of STRUNZ in Bayreuth. b, reconstruction of the first sacral vertebra of Dicynodon. 1/2 nat. size, after R. OWEN (Ill. Cat., pl. 36, fig. 1). S. Africa.
Fig. 45. Pelvis of Cynognathus crateronotus SEELEY (after SEELEY). obt f, obturator foramen; p, pubis; isch, ischium; ac, acetabulum.
Fig. 46. Dicynodon orientalis LYD. after LYDEKKER. a, posterior view; b, anterior view. India.
Fig. 47. Nothosaurus. Femur from the ventral (posterior) side (after H. v. MEYER). 1/2 nat. size. Upper Muschelkalk. (For comparison with Dicynodon orientalis, cf. Fig. 46a).
Fig. 48. Nothosaurus (after H. v. MEYER). 1/4 nat. size. Upper Muschelkalk. Est, episternum; Cl, clavicle.
Fig. 49. Pareiasaurus baini SEELEY (after SEELEY). 1/8 nat. size. South Africa. Est, episternum; Cl, clavicle.
Fig. 50. Sacral vertebral in anterior view. Nat. size. Upper Muschelkalk, Bayreuth. Original in Geol. Museum, Tübingen (cf. pl. 6, fig. 6).
Fig. 51. Plesiosaurus. Dorsal vertebra. 1/3 nat. size. Zanclodon Bed of Schönthal near Liestal. Original in the Museum at Basel. a, dorsal view; b, left lateral view.
Fig. 52. Plesiosaurus. Caudal vertebra in anterior view. 2/3 nat. size. Zanclodon Bed of Schönthal near Liestal. Orig. in Basel Museum.
Fig. 53. Plesiosaurus. Distal end of a humerus. 1/2 nat. size. Rhaetic Keuper of Little Hagen, near Göttingen. Original in Geological Museum, Göttingen.
Fig. 54. Doliovertebra fritschi v. M. Sacrum. a, right lateral view; b, posterior view; c, ventral view. 2/3 nat. size. Schaumkalk of Freyburg am Unstrut. Orig. in Geological museum at Halle am Saale.
Fig. 55. Euclastes. Occiput, after ZITTEL.
Fig. 56. Dicynodon. South Africa. Occiput, after R. OWEN.
Fig. 57. Pareiasaurus. Skull in posterior view. Reduced after SEELEY. B.o., basioccipital.
Fig. 58. Dicynodon. Skull in ventral view. Restored, reduced after SEELEY.
Fig. 59. Euclastes. Palate, after ZITTEL. pm, premaxilla; m, maxilla; v, vomer; pal, palatine; tr, ectopterygoid; pt, pterygoid; j, jugal.
Fig. 60. Arctosaurus osborni ADAMS. Nat. size, after ADAMS. Triassic of Bathurst Island, Arctic North America. A, right lateral view; B, dorsal view; C, posterior view; D, anterior view.
Fig. 61. Stagonolepis robertsoni AG. 1/2 nat. size, after HUXLEY. Reconstruction of part of the palate. N, inner and outer nasal openings.
Fig. 62. Stagonolepis. After HUXLEY. 1 and 2, first and second sacral vertebrae, ventral view. Elgin. 1/2 nat. size.
Fig. 63. Stagonolepis. Caudal vertebrae, after HUXLEY. Elgin. 1/2 nat. size.
Fig. 64. Erpetosuchus. Interclavicle, after E. T. NEWTON. Elgin. Nat. size.
Fig. 65. Stagonolepis. Interclavicle. After HUXLEY. Elgin. 1/2 nat. size.
Fig. 66. Stegonolepis. Humerus after HUXLEY. 1/2 nat. size. Elgin. a, proximal end of left humerus in anterior view; b, distal end of left humerus in anterior view.
Fig. 67. Stagonolepis. Ulna, proximal end. Elgin. 1/2 nat. size. Original in Jermyn Street Museum, London.
Fig. 68. Aetosaurus. Right side of pelvis. Nat. size. Il, ilium from no. 22; Is + P, ischium and pubis from no. 6 of the Aetosaurus group in the Royal Natural History Cabinet, Stuttgart. Stubensandstein of Neslach.
Fig. 69. Ornithosuchus. Nat. size. After E. T. NEWTON. Elgin. Il, Is, P, right ilium, ischium, and pubis in natural connection.
Fig. 70. Belodon. After H. v. MEYER. 1/3 nat. size. Il, ilium; Is, ischium; P, pubis is twisted, thus is seen from behind. Stubensandstein, Stuttgart.
Fig. 71. Thecodontosaurus. 1/2 nat. size. Middle Keuper of Bristol. Right ilium. Original in the Museum at Bristol.
Fig. 72. Stagonolepis. Il, ilium; Is, ischium. 1/2 nat. size. After HUXLEY. Elgin.
Fig. 73. Stagonolepis. Pubis. 1/2 nat. size. Elgin. a, distal end of right pubis after HUXLEY; b, proximal end of left pubis (?); c, cross-section at the dotted place in b. Original in the Jermyn Street Museum.
Fig. 74. Belodon arenaceus E. FRAAS sp. Schilfsandstein, Feierbache Haide. 1/2 nat. size. Original in the Royal Natural History Cabinet, Stuttgart.
Fig. 75. Rileya bristolensis HUENE. Humerus. Nat. size. Middle Keuper, Bristol. Original in the Bristol Museum.
Fig. 76. Rileya bristolensis n. g., n. sp. Two centra. Nat. size. Middle Keuper of Bristol. Original in the Yale Museum, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A.
Fig. 77. Caudal vertebrae. Schaumkalk of Wolfsburg in the North Harz. 2/3 nat. size. a, right lateral view; b, posterior view; c, anterior view; d, ventral view. Original in the Geological Museum at Halle in Saale.
Fig.78. Labyrinthodon scutulatus R. OWEN (copy). From the English Upper Keuper. Nat. size. y enlarged.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I



Sclerosaurus armatus H. v. MEYER. Nat. size. Retouched photograph of the plaster cast. Bunter Sandstone of Riehen near Basel.

Sp. Quadr., quadrate spine

S.V. I-III, sacral vertebrae I-III

The other abbreviations are self-explanatory. Posterior view. The armor plates lie on and beside the dorsal vertebrae. The original (negative) is found in the Natural History Museum at Basel.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE II

Sclerosaurus armatus H. v. MEYER. Nat. size. Unretouched photograph of the plaster cast. Bunter Sandstone of Riehen near Basel.

The abbreviations are self-explanatory. Abdominal view. The original (negative) is found in the Natural History Museum at Basel.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE III

Sclerosaurus armatus H. v. MEYER’s original. Photograph at nat. size. Upper Bunter Sandstone of Warmbach near Rheinfelden (near Basel).

Fig. 1. Dorsal armor seen from the inside. The cranial side lies on the left, the caudal side on the right. Both femora visible from the underside, also fragments of the pelvis.

Fig. 2. Dorsal vertebrae seen from above with ribs or fragments of the pelvis. The cranial side lies on the right, the caudal side on the left.

The piece in Fig. 1 is removed from the piece in Fig. 2. Both belong to the same individual. Original in the Geological Museum at Freyburg im Breisgau.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV

Fig. 1. Ventral armor plate (?) of a crocodile (?). Nat. size. Upper Muschelkalk, Steinbiedersdorf, Lorraine. (Toothed edge!) Original in the geological area collection at Strassburg.

Fig. 2. Tooth of Plesiosaurus (?) sp. Nat. size. Uppermost Keuper, Zanclodon-bed. Schönthal near Liestal. Original in the Museum at Basel.

Fig. 3. Anomosaurus sp. Nat. size. Lumbar vertebra in posterior view. Upper Muschelkalk. Laineck near Bayreuth. Original in the Geological Museum at Tübingen.

Fig. 4. Anomosaurus sp. Nat. size. Dorsal vertebra in posterior view. Upper Muschelkalk. Neckarvaihingen. Original in the Geological Museum at Tübingen.

Fig. 5. Sclerosaurus armatus H. v. MEYER. Nat. size. Bunter Sandstone of Riehen near Basel. Photograph of the plaster cast. Riight half of skull in ventral view. Original (negative) in the Museum at Basel.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE V

Fig. 1. Placodus gigas (?) H. v. MEYER. Nat. size. Dorsal vertebra. Upper Muschelkalk, region of Göttingen. a, posterior view; b, anterior view. Original in Geological Museum at Göttingen.

Fig. 2. Placodus gigas (?) H. v. MEYER. Nat. size. Dorsal vertebra in right lateral view. Upper Muschelkalk of Laineck near Bayreuth. Original in the Palaeontological Museum at Munich.

Fig. 3. Dermal armor plate if Placodus sp. (= Pseophosaurus cf. suevicus E. FRAAS). Rhaetic bonebed of Schönthal near Liestal. Nat. size. Original in Basel Museum.

Fig. 4. Plesiosaurus (priscus v. HUENE). Nat. size. Cervical vertebra in ventral view. Lettenkohle bonebed of Biebersfeld. Original in Geological Museum, Tübingen.

Fig. 5. Plesiosaurus (priscus v. HUENE). Nat. size. Anterior cervical vertebra. a, left lateral view; b, ventral view. Upper Muschelkalk of Laineck near Bayreuth. Original in the Palaeontological Museum at Munich.

Fig. 6. Humerus, gen. et sp. indet. 2/3 nat. size. Upper Muschelkalk of Laineck near Bayreuth. Original in the district collection at Bayreuth.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI

Fig. 1. Tibia, perhaps belonging to Eurycervix or a related form. Nat. siz. Upper Muschelkalk of Steinbiedersdorf, Lorraine. Original in the geological area collection, Strassburg.

Fig. 2. Trochanterium gaudryi v. HUENE. Nat. size. Right femur. a, from below; b, from above. Upper Muschelkalk of Bischmisheim, Lorraine. Original the geological collection at Strassburg.

Fig. 3. Right articular + surangular of a crocodile. Nat. size. Medial view. Upper Muschelkalk of Busendorf, Lorraine. Original the geological area collection, Strassburg.

Fig. 4. Anomosaurus sp. v. HUENE. Nat. size. Dorsal vertebra in posterior view. Upper Muschelkalk of Laineck near Bayreuth. Original in Geological Museum at Tübingen.

Fig. 5. Pectenosaurus strunzi v. HUENE. Nat. size. Middle caudal vertebra. Upper Muschelkalk of Laineck near Bayreuth. Original in Geological Museum at Tübingen.

Fig. 6. Sacral vertebra of a plesiosaurid(?). Nat. size. Upper Muschelkalk of Laineck near Bayreuth. a, ventral view; b, dorsal view. Original in Tübingen Geological Museum.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII

Fig. 1. Chelyzoon blezingeri v. HUENE. Nat. size. Cervical vertebra in left lateral view. Upper Muschelkalk bonebed from the Oelmühle near Crailsheim. Original in the Royal Natural History Collection, Stuttgart.

Fig. 2. Chelyzoon latum v. HUENE. Nat. size. Cervical vertebra. Upper Muschelkalk of Laineck near Bayreuth. a, left lateral view; b, ventral view. Original in the Paleontological Museum at Munich.

Fig. 3. Costal plate of a chelonian reminiscent of Thalassemys. Nat. size. a, ventral view; b, dorsal view. Upper Muschelkalk of Busendorf, Lorraine. Original in Geological Museum at Strassburg.

Fig. 4. Free end of a rib from a chelonian reminiscent of Thalassemys. Nat. size. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view. Upper Muschelkalk of Busendorf, Lorraine. Original in Geological Museum at Strassburg.

Fig. 5. Caudal vertebra of a chelonian(?). Nat. size. Rhaetic bonebed of Schlösslessmühle, Württemberg. a, left lateral view; b, profile of anterior articular facet; c, profile of posterior articular facet. Original in Geological Museum, Tübingen.

Fig. 6. Anomosaurus sp. v. HUENE. Nat. size. Dorsal vertebra. Upper Muschelkalk of Schlotheim, Thuringia. a, left lateral view; b, anterior view. Original in Geological Museum, Göttingen.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII

Fig. 1. Left femur, gen. et sp. indet. Nat. size. (Original in H. v. MEYER: Fauna der Vorwelt, pl. 65, figs. 5-7.) Upper Muschelkalk of Bischmisheim near Saarbruck. Original in geological area museum, Strassburg.

Fig. 2. Right femur, gen. et sp. indet. Nat. size. Upper Muschelkalk of Laineck near Bayreuth, Original in area museum, Bayreuth,

Fig. 3. Left femur, gen. et sp. indet. Nat. size. Upper Muschelkalk of Laineck near Bayreuth, Original in area museum, Bayreuth,

Fig. 4. Plesiosaurus priscus v. HUENE. Nat. size. Cervical vertebra in ventral view. Upper Muschelkalk of Laineck near Bayreuth. Original in Geological Museum, Tübingen.

Fig. 5. Caudal vertebra of a crocodile. Nat. size. Wellenkalk of Merklingen, Württemberg. a, right lateral view; b, dorsal view. Original in Geological Museum, Tübingen.

Fig. 6. Caudal vertebra of a crocodile. Nat. size. Wellenkalk of Hausen an der Wurm, Württemberg. a, lateral view; b, dorsal view; c, ventral view. Original in Geological Museum, Tübingen.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX

Fig. 1. Procerosaurus cruralis v. HUENE. 2/3 nat. size. Left femur in posterior view; the proximal end is missing. Upper Muschelkalk bonebed from the Oelmühle near Crailsheim. Original in private collection of the Hon. BLEZINGER of Crailsheim.

Fig. 2. Eurycervix postumus v. HUENE. Nat. size. Cervical rib. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view. Upper Muschelkalk bonebed from the Oelmühle near Crailsheim. Original in private collection of the Hon. BLEZINGER of Crailsheim.

Fig. 3. Neural arch of a pterosaurian cervical vertebra. Nat. size. a, dorsal view; b, right lateral view. Rhaetic bonebed of an unknown locality in Württemberg (?Schlösslesmühle). Original in Royal Natural History Cabinet, Stuttgart.



* Original citation: Huene, F. v. 1902. Übersicht über die Reptilien der Trias. Geologische und Paläontologische Abhandlungen (Neue Serie.) 6:1-84, 78 figs., Pls. I-IX. Translated by Michael Benton, April 3, 1975, checked and retyped May 22, 1976. Transferred to electronic copy and corrected by Matthew Carrano, 2004-5 with contributions from Clare Finn, 2008.

(1) Found in the English Lias and Dogger (see below).

(1) Geol. Mag., 1900, vol. VII, pp. 486-492.

(1) Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. 178, 1887, p. 208.

(2) In a more detailed treatment, many interesting facts would no doubt emerge.

(3) More exact explanations of these and other points is awaited in a description of the Mixosauria by Prof. REPOSSI of Milan, due to appear soon.

(1) Die Ichthyosaurier der süddeutschen Trias- und Jurasblagerungen. Tübingen, 1891, pl. 3, fig. 5.

(1) N. Jahrb. f. Min., 1847, p. 190 and 191.

(2) N. Jahrb. f. Min., 1856, p. 825.

(3) N. Jahrb. f. Min., 1856, p. 824 and 825.

(4) SEELEY, On the Theriodontia. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. 185, 1894, p. 1013 pp.

(1) cf. CREDNER, Eotetrapoda.

(1) Közlöny földtani. 1902. N. Jahrb. f. Min. etc. 1902, I, p. 127 pp. Prof. JAEKEL was kind enough to show me the specimen in Berlin in detail last November, for which I thank him sincerely.

(2) This also goes for the ilium, although JAEKEL says that it differs somewhat from that of Nothosauria, for he only seems to be thinking of the broad ilium of many Nothosauria, but not of the rod-shaped, curved one cf. Nothosaurus strunzi and other species.

(1) Already Cyamodus taraowitzensis from the Lower Muschelkalk possesses attachments for the spines of the occiput, which are so very much developed in Placochelys.

(2) Quart. Journ., 1892, p. 584.

(1) Whose identity with Sclerosaurus armatus H. v. M. 1859 (1857) has hitherto remained unnoticed.

(1) To be obtained from the firm Faulstich, München.

(2) The casts can be bought new from B. Sturtz of Bonn am Rhine.

(3) For the endocranial cast he takes (loc. cit.) the whole surface from the occiput to the point of the snout, whereby e.g. the impression of the orbits will represent the large cerebral hemispheres.

(1) Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 183, pl. 23, fig. 3, 1892.

(1) WIEDERSHEIM says, loc. cit.: “Finally I will still say that no trave whatever of dermal armor is preserved.”

(2) However in some scales a little of the upper side is still recognizable; it is covered with irregular pits as in the piece from Riehen.
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