Restricted use: 46, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 69




Дата канвертавання27.04.2016
Памер99.26 Kb.
CHANGES MADE IN CAPTION/CREDIT: FIGS. 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.8, 8.12, 8.15, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.32, 8.35, 8.39, 8.43, 8.47, 8.48, 8.52, 8.53, 8.54, 8.55, 8.56, 8.63, 8.64, 8.65, 8.67, 8.68, 8.69, 8.70, 8.72, 8.73, 8.74, 8.75, 8.78, 8.79

RESTRICTED USE: 8.46, 8.57, 8.58, 8.59, 8.61, 8.62, 8.64, 8.65, 8.69
INSERT FIG. 8.1, SET DOUBLE COLUMN
Fig. 8.1 Plotting convections used in synoptic charts.
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INSERT FIG. 8.2, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.2 Hemispheric 500-hPa height chart for 00 UTC Nov. 10, 1998. Contours at 60-m intervals. Contours labeled in tens of meters (decameters, dkm). Solid red lines denote the axes of ridges, and dashed red lines denote the axes of troughs in the 500-hPa wave pattern. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.3, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.3. Synoptic charts at 00, 09, and 18 UTC Nov. 10, 1998. (Left) The 500-hPa height (contours at 60-m intervals; labels in dkm) and relative vorticity (blue shading; scale on color bar in units of 10⁻⁴ s⁻¹). (Right) Sea-level pressure (contours at 4-hPa intervals) and 1000 to 500 hPa thickness (colored shading: contour interval 60 m; labels in dkm). Surface frontal positions, as defined by a skilled human analyst, are overlaid. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.4, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.4. (Top) Fields of 500-hPa height (thick black contours) 1000-hPa height (thin black contours), and 1000- to 500-hPa thickness (dashed red) at 00, 09, and 18 UTC Nov. 10, 1998; contour interval 60 m for all three fields. Arrows indicate the sense of the geostrophic wind. (Bottom) Idealized depictions for a baroclinic wave and its attendant tropical extratropical cyclone in its early (left), developing (center), and mature (right) stages. [Top panel courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES. Bottom panel adapted from Atmospheric Circulation Systems: Their Structure and Physical Interpretation, E. Palméen and C.W. Newton, Atmospheric Circulation Systems, Academic Press, p. 326, CopyrightNew York (1969), with permission from Elsevier p. 326.]
Delete period after “Fig. 8.4”, place accent over “e” in Palmen

Waiting for this permission from Elsevier. An attempt to follow the protocol sketched out by Elsevier for other books, journal publications.

INSERT FIG. 8.5, SET SINGLE COLUMN OR

DOUBLE COLUMN WITH GENEROUS MARGINS
Fig. 8.5. The 500-hPa height (in tens of meters) and vertical velocity (in Pa s⁻¹) fields at the 700-hPa level at 09 and 18 UTC Nov. 10, 1998. Blue shading (negative ω) indicates ascent and tan shading indicates subsidence. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.6, SET DOUBLE COLUMN, ROTATED 90°

TO MAKE AS LARGE AS POSSIBLE
Fig. 8.6. Sea-level pressure, surface winds and frontal positions at 00, 09, and 18 UTC 10 Nov. 1998. Frontal symbols and wind symbols are plotted in accordance with Fig. 8.1. The dashed blue line denotes the secondary cold front. In this figure and in subsequent figures in this section, the frontal positions are defined by a human analyst. The contour interval for sea-level pressure is 4 hPa. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.7, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.7 Surface air temperature (in °C) and frontal positions at 00, 09, and 18 UTC 10 Nov. 1998. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.8, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.8 Close-up of surface weather conditions over the southern United States Great Plains at 00 UTC Nov. 10, 1998, showing data plotted using the conventional station model illustrated in Fig. 8.1. [Courtesy of Lynn McMurdie.]
Add hyphen to make “close-up” versus “closeup” and add “surface” for clarity.

INSERT FIG. 8.9, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.9 Idealized cross sections through frontal zones showing air motions relative to the ground in the plane transverse to the front. Colored shading indicates the departure of the local temperature from the mean temperature of the air at the same level. (a) Warm front, (b) stationary front with overrunning warm air, and (c) cold front. Heavy arrows at the bottom indicate the sense of the frontal movements.
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INSERT FIG. 8.10, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.10 Hourly surface observations at Gage, Oklahoma (KGAG in Fig. 8.36) showing the passage of the primary and secondary cold fronts. The locations of Gage and the other stations for which time series of hourly station observations are shown are indicated in Fig. 8.36 at the end of Section 8.2. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.11, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.11 Hourly surface observations at Bowling Green, Kentucky (KBWG in Fig. 8.36) showing the passage of the warm front. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]

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INSERT FIG. 8.12, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.12 Hourly Ssurface observations at Columbia, South Carolina (KCAE in Fig. 8.36) showing the delayed passage of the warm front. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
Add “Hourly” to beginning of figure to match previous surface observation records. May choose not to make this change because of missing data, but other stations also have missing data.
MIKE: SHOULD CHANGE BE MADE?

INSERT FIG. 8.13, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.13 Hourly surface observations at Marquette, Michigan (KMQT in Fig. 8.36) showing the passage of the occluded front. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.14, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.14 Sea-level pressure tendency (in hPa) for the 3-h interval ending 09 UTC Nov. 10, 1998. Heavy lines denote the frontal positions at this time. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.15, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.15. Surface weather observations of rain, snow, fog, and thunderstorms at 00, 09, and 18 UTC 10 Nov. 1998. For plotting conventions see Fig. 8.1. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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Fig. 8.16 Hourly surface observations for Sioux Falls, South Dakota (KSUX in Fig. 8.36) just to the west of the track of the center of the surface low. Some of the pressure data are missing. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.17, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.17. Infrared satellite imagery for 00, 09, and 18 UTC Nov. 10, 1998, based on radiation in the 10.7-μm channel, in which the atmosphere is relatively transparent in the absence of clouds. Radiances, indicative of equivalent blackbody temperatures TE of the Earth's surface or the cloud top, are rendered on a scale ranging from black for the highest values (indicative of cloud-free conditions and a warm surface) with progressively lighter shades of gray indicative of lower temperatures and higher cloud tops. Color is used to enhance the prominence of the coldest (highest) cloud tops in the image.
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INSERT FIG. 8.18, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.18 Satellite imagery for 00, 19 and 18 UTC Nov. 10, 1998, based on the 6.7 μm "water vapor channel.". The radiances in this band provide a measure of the mid- and upper tropospheric humidity which, in turn, is determined by the air trajectories. Air that has been rising tends to be moist, resulting in a high optical depth, a low equivalent blackbody temperature and a low radiance, and vice versa. Low radiances, indicative of ascent are rendered by the lighter gray shades and high radiances, indicative of subsidence, by the darker shades. The brightest features in the images are clouds with high, cold tops.
Transpose quotation mark and period (change to “channel."”)

INSERT FIG. 8.19, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.19. Composite radar image for 0620 UTC Nov. 10, 1998. Estimated rainfall rates increase by about a factor of five from the faintest echoes, rendered in blue, to the strongest echoes, rendered in red. The white circle indicates the location of Springfield, Missouri.
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INSERT FIG. 8.20, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.20 Hourly surface reports for Springfield, Missouri (KSGF in Fig. 8.36) showing the passage of the squall line and primary cold front around 07-08 UTC. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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Fig. 8.21. Composite radar image for 1535 UTC Nov. 10, 1998.
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INSERT FIG. 8.22, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.22 Upper level charts for 00 UTC Nov. 10, 1998, showing geopotential height (black contours), temperature (red contours), and observed winds. Contour interval 30 m for 850 and 700-hPa height, 60 m for 500-hPa height, 120 m for 250 and 200-hPa height, and 60 m for 1500-hPa height. The contour interval for temperature is 4°C in the left panels and 2°C in the right panels. The shading in the 250-hPa chart are isotachs defining the position of the jet stream. The circled wind arrows denote the radiosonde stations for which soundings are shown in the next figure. Conventions for plotting wind vectors are shown in Fig. 8.1. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
Need to ask Mike about this one—something doesn’t match: either the figure panels are mis-labeled (in the 9.8.05 version I have) and the highest plot should be from 100 hPa (not 150 hPa) or the caption should be changed (as above) to 150 hPa. Also, since he’s looking at it anyway, can you have him check the contour intervals? I think they are correct, but wanted to check. GRAPHIC LABEL ON FIG. 8.22 (upper right label, 100 hPa) UPDATED (11/2/05) AND UPLOADED TO FTP (PRIYAA)

MIKE: IS CAPTION ACCURATE WITH CHANGE IN GRAPHIC?
INSERT FIG. 8.23, SET SINGLE COLUMN
Fig. 8.23 Vertical temperature soundings for Denver, Colorado (blue line), Amarillo, Texas (black line), and Davenport, Iowa (red line) at 00 UTC Nov. 10, 1998, plotted on a skew-T ln p diagram. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
Change “skew-T ln p” to “skew-T ln p

Add comma after Nov. 10 for consistency with previous captions (e.g., 8.18, 8.19 and 8.21).

INSERT FIG. 8.24, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.24 Height contours for the 250-hPa surface superimposed on 1000- to 500-hPa thickness (indicated by colored shading) as in Fig. 8.3 for 00 UTC Nov. 10, 1998. For selected stations, tropopause temperatures (TT in °C) and pressures (PPP in hPa) are plotted (TT/PPP). [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.25, SET DOUBLE COLUMN, GENEROUS MARGINS


Fig. 8.25 Soundings of wind, temperature (red lines), and dew point (green lines) at 00 UTC Nov. 10, 1998 at Amarillo, Texas (left) in the cold frontal zone and Davenport, Iowa (right) in the warm frontal zone. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.26, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.26 Idealized representations of a sloping frontal zone looking downwind at the jet stream level in the northern hemisphere (or upwind in the southern hemisphere). (Left) The wind component directed normal to the section: values into the section are denoted as positive. (Middle) Temperature. (Right) Potential temperature. Plus (+) and minus (-) (–) signs indicate the polarity of the gradients (e.g., in the left the wind component into the section increases with height).
Change “(-)” to “(–)”

INSERT FIG. 8.27, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.27 Vertical cross section of wind and temperature for 00 UTC Nov. 10, 1998. This section extends from Riverton, Wyoming, to Lake Charles, Louisiana (KRIW to KLCH; see Fig. 8.36). Temperature is indicated by red contours, and isotachs of geostrophic wind speed normal to the section, with positive values defined as southwesterly winds directed into the section, are plotted in blue. Regions with relative humidities in excess of 80% are shaded in red and below 20% in blue. Heavy black lines indicate positions of the surface-based fronts and the tropopause. The orientation of the section relative to the front is indicated in Fig. 8.36 at the end of this section. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
Remove comma after Wyoming?

INSERT FIG. 8.28, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.28 Vertical cross section of wind and potential temperature for 12 UTC Nov. 10, 1998. This section extends from North Platte, Nebraska, to Jackson, Mississippi (KLBF to KJAN; see Fig. 8.36). Potential temperature is indicated by red contours, and isotachs of geostrophic wind speed normal to the section are plotted in blue with positive values defined as southwesterly winds directed into the section. The region in which isentropic potential vorticity exceeds 10⁻⁶ K m² s⁻¹ kg⁻¹ is indicated by shading. Heavy black lines represent the position of the surface-based fronts and tropopause. [Courtesy of Jennifer Adams, COLA/IGES.]
Remove comma after Nebraska?

INSERT FIG. 8.29, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.29 Family of three-dimensional trajectories in an intense extratropical cyclone, as inferred from a high-resolution grid point dataset for an actual storm over the North Atlantic. The trajectories are shown in a coordinate system moving with the cyclone. Two different frontal positions are shown: the lower one is for an earlier time when the configuration is that of an open wave and the upper one is for a later time when the cyclone is in its mature stage and exhibits an occluded front. The configuration of the cloud shield and the position of the surface low correspond to the later time. The width of the arrows gives an indication of the height of the air parcel in accordance with the scale at the lower right. [Adapted from Mon. Wea. Rev., 120 (1995) p. 2295.]
Change “data” to “dataset”.

INSERT FIG. 8.30, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Figure 8.30 Idealized 24-h trajectories for selected air parcels in the descending branch of an intense extratropical cyclone similar to the one examined in the case study in this section. The trajectories start and end at about the same time. Black arrows are the trajectories and blue contours are isobars of sea-level pressure. [From Project Springfield Report, U. S. Defense Atomic Support Agency, NTIS 607980 (1964).]
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INSERT FIG. 8.31, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.31 Schematic showing four stages in the development of extratropical cyclones as envisioned in the Norwegian polar front cyclone model. Panels I, II, III and IV represent four successive stages in the life cycle. (Top) Idealized frontal configurations and isobars. Shading denotes regions of precipitation. (Bottom) Isotherms (black) and airflow (colored arrows) relative to the moving cyclone center (red dot). Red arrows indicate the flow in the warm sector, and blue arrows indicate the flow in the cold air mass. Frontal symbols are listed in Table 7.1. [Adapted from Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 (1998) p. 1787.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.32, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.32 As in Fig. 8.31 but for tightly coiled, warm core storms. [From Extratropical Cyclones: The Erik Palméen Memorial Volume, Amer. Meteorol. Soc. (1990) p. 188.]

Accent over “e” (Palmén)

INSERT FIG. 8.33, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.33 Time-longitude section of the 250-hPa meridional wind component (in m s⁻¹) averaged from 35°N to 60°N for November 6–28, 2002, a period marked by well-defined baroclinic wave packets and several major northern hemisphere cyclogenesis events. Slopes of the dashed arrows indicate the phase velocities of the waves, and the solid arrow indicates the group velocity of the wave packets. [Courtesy of Ioana Dima.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.34, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.34 Idealized schematic emphasizing the kinds of mesoscale rain bands frequently observed in association with a mature extratropical cyclone. The green shading within the cloud shield denotes light precipitation, yellow shading denotes moderate precipitation, and red shading denotes heavy precipitation. [Courtesy of Robert A. Houze.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.35, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.35 Vertical cross section along AA′ in Fig. 8.34. The position of the cold front at the Earth's surface coincides with the leading edge of the narrow cold frontal rainband, and the frontal surface tilts upward toward the west with a slope comparable to that of the air trajectory. The dark blue shading indicates areas of high liquid water concentration, and the density of the blue asterisks is proportional to the local concentrations of ice particles. High liquid water contents are restricted to the layer below the 0°C isotherm except in regions of strong updrafts in convective cells, as represented by the narrow, dark blue "chimneys." See text for further explanation. [Adapted from from R. A. Houze, Cloud Dynamics, R. A. Houze, p. 480, Academic Press Copyright (1993), with permission from Elsevier p. 480.]
Delete duplicate “from”

Change “concentrations” to “concentration”? I’m not sure, but it seems there are many locations of singular “density” of blue asterisks, but only one local concentration at each density?
Try to follow Elsevier’s permission format.

INSERT FIG. 8.36, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.36 Locations of the stations and vertical cross sections shown in this section. From north to south, KMQT is the station identifier for Marquette, Michigan; KRIW for Riverton, Wyoming; KLBF for North Platte, Nebraska; KSUX for Sioux Falls, South Dakota; KGAG for Gage, Oklahoma; KSGF for Springfield, Missouri; KBWG for Bowling Green, Kentucky; KCAE for Columbia, South Carolina; KJAN for Jackson, Mississippi; and KLCH for Lake Charles, Louisiana.
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INSERT FIG. 8.37, SET SINGLE COLUMN
Fig. 8.37 Idealized pressure and geostrophic wind patterns along the eastern slope of a north–south-oriented mountain range in the northern hemisphere. Contours represent geopotential height perturbations on a pressure surface that intersects the terrain, as indicated. Wide arrows indicate regions of upslope and downslope flow along sloping terrain. The effects of cold air damming, considered in the next section, are not represented in this schematic.
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INSERT FIG. 8.38, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.38 Idealized flow near a north--south-oriented mountain barrier in the northern hemisphere. (a) Deflection of the surface winds as they approach the mountain barrier. The contours represent isobars on a surface of constant geopotential lower than the top of the mountain barrier. (b) Instantaneous balance of forces on an air parcel in idealized flow close to the mountain barrier. C is the Coriolis force, directed to the right of the wind, P is the pressure gradient force, directed down the pressure gradient, and F is the frictional drag force, directed opposite to the wind.
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INSERT FIG. 8.39, SET DOUBLE COLUMN, GENEROUS MARGINS


Fig. 8.39 Surface winds (arrows) and sea surface temperatures (color shading) for January 2000 in the vicinity of Central America. Regions of high terrain are indicated by the darker gray and black shading. Note the pronounced signature of strong winds and remarkably low sea surface temperatures in the lee of the (light gray) gaps in the terrain, extending southwestward several hundred kilometers into the Pacific. These regions are also marked by high marine productivity (not shown) due to the mixing of nutrients from below the thermocline. [Winds are from the scatterometer on the NASA QuikSCAT satellite; sea-surface temperature data are from the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. Courtesy of Dudley Chelton.]
Change “temperature” to “temperatures” (two instances) in first and third sentences (since there are multiple temperatures)? Though maybe this is considered one “field”, so singular.

INSERT FIG. 8.40, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.40 Dispersion of the smoke plumes from a massive outbreak of California wildfires on October 26, 2003, during a nearly week-long episode of hot, dry, northeasterly Santa Ana winds. Red pixels denote the locations of the fires at this time. Of the three large clusters of fires in the image, the middle one is located east of Los Angeles and the southern one near San Diego. The fires raged out of control until the winds subsided and shifted 2 days later. [NASA Terra MODIS satellite imagery.]
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INSERT FIG. 8.41, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.41 Schematic of low level airflow through gaps on an extended mountain range converging into terrain-induced cyclones on the lee side of the range, giving rise to the development of rain bands. If air simply flowed over the mountains rather than around them, one might expect to find a rain shadow directly downstream of the mountains.
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INSERT FIG. 8.42, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.42 A hypothetical sounding illustrating the concepts of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN). The CAPE and CIN in this sounding are indicated by shading.
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INSERT FIG. 8.43, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.43. Illustration of the increase in the lapse rate –dT/dz within an inversion layer as the layer is lifted. The black line segment AB represents the temperature profile within the inversion layer before it is lifted; CD represents the temperature profile in the same layer after it is lifted one height increment, DE after it is lifted two height increments, etc. It is assumed that the bottom of the layer is saturated with water vapor and cools at the saturated adiabatic lapse rate as the layer is lifted, while the top of the layer is unsaturated and cools at the dry adiabatic lapse rate. The steepening of the lapse rate due to the differential rate of cooling is partially compensated by the expansion of the air within the layer as it rises. This effect is not represented in the diagram.
Delete period after “Fig. 8.43”

INSERT FIG. 8.44, SET DOUBLE COLUMN, GENEROUS MARGINS


Fig. 8.44 Idealized northern hemisphere vertical wind profiles depicted in the form of hodographs. Points on the hodograph indicate the ends of wind vectors radiating out from the origin. The points are numbered in order from the bottom to the top of the profiles, which extend from the ground up to the tropopause. Both profiles exhibit veering of the wind with height. In (a) the vertical wind shear V/∂z is unidirectional, while in (b) it rotates clockwise with height, as indicated by the curvature of the hodograph. In both panels a midtropospheric steering level S and velocity vectors for hypothetical storms moving toward the left L and right R of the steering flow are indicated in red. The sense of the curvature hodograph determines whether left- or right-moving storms are favored, as explained in the next subsection. Light blue arrows show the relative flow in a coordinate system moving with the right-moving storm.
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INSERT FIG. 8.45, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.45 Schematic showing how the updraft of a convective storm can acquire vorticity about a vertical axis by ingesting boundary layer air that possesses vorticity about the x axis by virtue of the vertical shears ∂u/∂x. See text for further explanation.
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INSERT FIG. 8.46, SET DOUBLE COLUMN, GENEROUS MARGINS


Fig. 8.46 Deep convective cells in various stages in the development of a tornadic storm near Anthony, Kansas, May 25, 1997. The photo in the left panel was taken about an hour and a half before sunset, looking eastward. The photo in the right panel was taken around sunset, looking eastward toward the departing storm. [Courtesy of Brian Morganti.15]


15Most of the ground-based photographs shown in this section were provided by amateur or professional meteorologists who maintain or share Web sites: www.stormeffects.com (Brian Morganti); www.twisterchasers.com (Kathryn Piotrowski); www.mesoscale.ws (Eric Nguyen); skydiary.com (Chris Kridler); and www.dblanchard.net (David Blanchard). These sites provide numerous additional examples of observed convective storms and related phenomena.
Send Brian a copy of the book (only mentioned here, not with respect to all his photos). NAME ON LIST TO RECEIVE COMPLIMENTARY COPY
Note that there is only record of Brian (not the other photographers mentioned here) accepting the new, “lumped” figure caption proposed by Mike’s e-mail of 7.28.05 at 12:09 for all the photographs in this chapter, though maybe the other photographers responded directly to Mike? Only noted here, not with each cited photograph.
Signed permission form from Mike includes terms of: “We would appreciate permission to reproduce the following images in the 2nd edition print version of our textbook in English
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INSERT FIG. 8.47, SET SINGLE COLUMN
Figure 8.47. A small isolated cumulonimbus cloud. [Courtesy of Art Rangno.]
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Fig. 8.48 Schematic of a typical ordinary single-cell thunderstorm in three stages of its life cycle showing (a) cumulus stage, (b) mature stage, and (c) dissipating stage. The horizontal scale is compressed by about 30% relative to the vertical scale in the figure. The 0°C and –40°C isotherms are indicated in red. [Adapted from The Thunderstorm, U.S. Government Printing Office (1949).]
Insert space between “Fig.” and “8.43”

INSERT FIG. 8.49, SET DOUBLE COLUMN, GENEROUS MARGINS


Fig. 8.49 Schematic of an idealized multicell storm developing in an environment with strong vertical shear in the direction of the vertically averaged wind. The vertical profile of equivalent potential temperature θe in the environment is shown at the left, together with the wind profile. Arrows in the right panel denote motion relative to the moving storm.
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INSERT FIG. 8.50, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.50 Supercell thunderstorm over north-central Kansas on May 8, 2001, with a rotating updraft and a shaft of heavy rain and hail. [Courtesy of Chris Kridler.]
Requested book copy. NAME ON LIST FOR COMPLIMENTARY COPY

INSERT FIG. 8.51, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.51 Balance of forces in flow that is in a state of cyclostrophic balance. P denotes the pressure gradient force, V the horizontal wind vector, V the scalar wind speed, and R the radius of curvature.
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INSERT FIG. 8.52, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.52 Schematic showing the splitting of a multicell storm into right and left moving supercell storms. Bold black arrows denote updrafts and downdrafts, shading denotes radar echoes, the thin tube in the upper two panels represents a cylinder of marked boundary layer air parcels, and thin circular arrows denote the sense of the rotation of the parcels. [Reprinted Ffrom Adv. Geophys., 24, R. A. Houze and P.V. Hobbs, “Organization and Structure of Precipitating Cloud Systems, p. 263., Copyright (1982), with permission from Elsevier., 225-315.]
Insert period after “Geophys”

Cite year of publication. Cite only page number where figure appears. Try to follow Elsevier permission format.

INSERT FIG. 8.53, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.53 Composite hodograph formed by averaging the hodographs of soundings made in the vicinity of 62 tornadic supercell thunderstorms over the central United States. Labels represent pressure levels in hPa. The red vector from the origin to point O indicates the average movement of the storms, and blue arrows represent the winds at various levels as viewed in a coordinate system moving with the storms. This plot was the basis for constructing the idealized hodograph in Fig. 8.44b. [Based on data in Mon. Wea. Rev., 104, 133-–142 as adapted inby Cloud Dynamics, R. A. Houze, p. 291, Copyright Cloud Dynamics, Academic Press (1993), with permission from Elsevier p. 291.]
Change hyphen to en dash (133–142)

Change “adapted by” to “adapted in”? Try to follow Elsevier permissions format.

INSERT FIG. 8.54, SET DOUBLE COLUMN, GENEROUS MARGINS


Fig. 8.54 Schematic based on a composite of radar imagery for supercell storms over the Canadian prairies. Horizontal cross sections at left and vertical cross sections at right. The reflectivity scale in dBZ is a logarithmic measure of rainfall intensity. BWER denotes the bounded weak echo region that is the signature of the updraft and Ze max denotes the strongest echoes. [Reprinted fFrom R. A. Houze, Cloud Dynamics, R. A. Houze, p.293, Academic Press Copyright (1993), with permission from Elsevier p. 293. Adapted from A. J. Chisholm and J. H. Renick, Preprints, International Cloud Physics Conference, London (1972).]
Try to follow permissions format from Elsevier.

INSERT FIG. 8.55, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.55 Idealized structure of a right-moving supercell storm. [Based on NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory publications. Reprinted Ffrom R. A. Houze, Cloud Dynamics, R. A. Houze, p. 279, Academic Press Copyright (1993), with permission from Elsevier p. 279.]
Try to follow Elsevier permissions format.

INSERT FIG. 8.56, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.56 Structure of a typical tornadic supercell storm.18 Motion of the warm air is relative to the ground. [Based on NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory publications and an unpublished manuscript by H. B. Bluestein. Reprinted Ffrom R. A. Houze, Cloud Dynamics, R. A. Houze, p. 279, Academic Press Copyright (1993), with permission from Elsevier p. 279.]


18Supercell storms can be divided into three categories: classic supercells that resemble this schematic; low precipitation (LP) supercells in which the anatomy of the rotating updraft is often clearly visible; and high precipitation (HP) supercells in which heavy rain (often accompanied by hail) wraps around the trailing side of the mesocyclone, obscuring any embedded tornadoes. In contrast to most classic supercells, HP storms develop strong rotation along the forward (eastern) flank of the gust front.
Try to follow Elsevier permission format.

INSERT FIG. 8.57, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.57 Wall cloud developing along the base of a bell-shaped rotating updraft at the center of the mesocyclone of a supercell storm. The view is looking SW. Observers located to the south of the storm at this time observed a tornado that rapidly became enshrouded in rain. [Courtesy of Brian Morganti.]
Signed permission form from Mike includes terms of: “We would appreciate permission to reproduce the following images in the 2nd edition print version of our textbook in English
N/A

INSERT FIG. 8.58, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.58 Shelf cloud at the base of the updraft of a supercell storm looking southward along the forward flank of the gust front in the direction of the mesocyclone. The gust front is advancing rapidly toward the left (E), propelled by rain-cooled downdraft air. When viewed from a distance looking from left to right, rising cloud motion often can be seen in the leading (outer) part of the shelf cloud, while the underside often appears turbulent, and wind-torn, as in this image. [Courtesy of Brian Morganti.]
Signed permission form from Mike includes terms of: “We would appreciate permission to reproduce the following images in the 2nd edition print version of our textbook in English
N/A

INSERT FIG. 8.59, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.59 Looking north toward the approaching forward flank of a strong gust front marked by a distinctive arcus cloud with strong counterclockwise rotation about a horizontal axis pointing into the page. [Courtesy of Kathryn Piotrowski.]

Send two autographed copies of the textbook. Last correspondence at 12:49 7.27.05 states:

“Hello Judy, I just sent the fax to you accepting the terms of the agreement. I spoke with Prof. Wallace and he has agreed to sending me two autographed copies of the textbook. Given the global issue of this textbook, I would like my website TwisterChasers.Com listed, following the Preface, along with my name. I would prefer this…the site is not going to change…at least for another 20 years, God willing and I am still able to chase. This is the last request for change of the agreement and would you please attach the addendum of the agreement to the fax when you mail the signed copy to me. Kindest Regards, Kathryn Piotrowski”

7/26/05 email to Mike Wallace: …are for the purpose of the textbook and not to be reprinted in any other format by the publisher or others
We need to make sure we follow up on the items above and check to make sure (see note from 8.46) that Kathryn responded to either Mike or Debbie with permission to lump citation of the websites together.
INSERT FIG. 8.60, SET SINGLE COLUMN
Fig. 8.60 Thunderstorms over the midwestern United States, just before sunset July 10, 1994, as revealed in satellite imagery. The low sun angle accentuates the overshooting cloud tops. [NASA-GSFC GOES Project.]
N/A

INSERT FIG. 8.61, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.61 Supercell tornadoes come in many different sizes, shapes and colors. (Top left) Near Sharon, KS, May 29, 2004, looking east. The whirling orange cloud is ground debris illuminated by the setting sun. The thinner, light gray funnel cloud extending downward from cloud base is condensed water vapor. [Photo courtesy of Kathryn Piotrowski.] (Top middle) Tornado over Attica, KS from the same supercell storm, looking north. Much of the ground debris is from bales of hay. (Top right) Rope-like funnel cloud near Mulvane, KS, June 12, 2004, looking east. (Lower left) "Stove pipe" tornado with a smooth white condensation funnel near Big Spring, NE, June 10, 2004, looking NW. Towers of power lines, faintly visible just above the horizon, provide a sense of scale. (Lower right) Wedge tornado (informal term for a large tornado with a condensation funnel that appears at least as wide at the ground as the distance from the ground to cloud base) over Argonia, KS, May 29, 2004, looking NNW. [Photos courtesy of Eric Nguyen.]
Spell out “Kansas” and “Nebraska”?
Send two autographed copies of the textbook. Last correspondence at 12:49 7.27.05 states:

“Hello Judy, I just sent the fax to you accepting the terms of the agreement. I spoke with Prof. Wallace and he has agreed to sending me two autographed copies of the textbook. Given the global issue of this textbook, I would like my website TwisterChasers.Com listed, following the Preface, along with my name. I would prefer this…the site is not going to change…at least for another 20 years, God willing and I am still able to chase. This is the last request for change of the agreement and would you please attach the addendum of the agreement to the fax when you mail the signed copy to me. Kindest Regards, Kathryn Piotrowski”

7/26/05 email to Mike Wallace: …are for the purpose of the textbook and not to be reprinted in any other format by the publisher or others
We need to make sure we follow up on the items above and check to make sure (see note from 8.46) that Kathryn responded to either Mike or Debbie with permission to lump citation of the websites together.
INSERT FIG. 8.62, SET DOUBLE COLUMN, GENEROUS MARGINS
Fig. 8.62 Tornado over western Nebraska, June 10, 2004, in three stages of development. In the left panel the condensation funnel is just beginning to emerge from the wall cloud, but the circulation at the ground is already raising dust. The condensation funnel is more fully developed in subsequent panels. The wall cloud is clearly visible in the center and right-hand images, together with a tail cloud entering from the right and wrapping around the near flank of the wall cloud. [Courtesy of Kathryn Piotrowski.]
N/A

Send two autographed copies of the textbook. Last correspondence at 12:49 7.27.05 states:

“Hello Judy, I just sent the fax to you accepting the terms of the agreement. I spoke with Prof. Wallace and he has agreed to sending me two autographed copies of the textbook. Given the global issue of this textbook, I would like my website TwisterChasers.Com listed, following the Preface, along with my name. I would prefer this…the site is not going to change…at least for another 20 years, God willing and I am still able to chase. This is the last request for change of the agreement and would you please attach the addendum of the agreement to the fax when you mail the signed copy to me. Kindest Regards, Kathryn Piotrowski”

7/26/05 email to Mike Wallace: …are for the purpose of the textbook and not to be reprinted in any other format by the publisher or others
We need to make sure we follow up on the items above and check to make sure (see note from 8.46) that Kathryn responded to either Mike or Debbie with permission to lump citation of the websites together.

INSERT FIG. 8.63, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.63 Schematic of the flow in the interior of a tornado during various stages of development. [Based on diagrams in articles in Thunderstorm Morphology and Dynamics, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman (1986) 197–236 and in Proceedings of the Symposium on Tornadoes, Institute for Disaster Research, Texas Tech University, Lubbock (1976) 107–143, as adapted by R. A. Houze, Cloud Dynamics, R. A. Houze, p. 308,Academic Press Copyright (1993), with permission from Elsevier p. 308.]
Include “Norman” in Univ. of OK Press cite for consistency with other university publishers?

Try to follow Elsevier permissions format.

INSERT FIG. 8.64, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.64 Non-supercell tornado that developed in thunderstorms near Denver, CO, June 15, 1988. [© 1988, cCourtesy of David Blanchard.]
According to the agreement signed 5.5.05 by P. V. Hobbs: “Photo attribution shall read ‘© David Blanchard’”. Did David ever respond to the 7.28.05 e-mail Mike sent to Brian Morganti (and cc’d to David) agreeing to the combined listing of their websites (see 8.46)?
Restricted use as per agreements signed by both P. V. Hobbs and J. M. Wallace (and approved by the publishing agent). $50 per image token royalty fee [Blanchard (3), Piotrowski (5), Nguyen (4), Kridler (1), Morganti (4)] per e-mail from J.M. Wallace (7/30/05).
5/5/05 agreement signed by Hobbs: “One-time non-exclusive usage by the Department of Atmospheric Science to use the photographs in one edition only world rights granted. Languages: English only. NO ELECTRONIC RIGHTS are granted in any form with an an express license in writing. These photographs may not be used on the internet for any purpose including revisions or electronic editions of printed work without said written license. NO PRINTED OR ELECTRONIC REVISIONS are granted with this license. any additional usage, including said revisions must be negotiated with the copyright owner.
Send along book copy.

INSERT FIG. 8.65, SET SINGLE COLUMN

Fig. 8.65 When sufficient low level rotation is present, dust devils can form beneath strong updrafts in dry convection. This was one of numerous dust devils observed over a recently plowed field late on an August morning near Corvallis, OR. [© 1988, cCourtesy of David Blanchard.]
See 8.64.

INSERT FIG. 8.66, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.66 Conceptual model of a downburst. [From T. T. Fujita,20 The Downburst-Microburst and Macroburst. Reports of Projects NIMROD and JAWS, SMRP, University of Chicago, Chicago (1985).]


20Tetsuya Theodore Fujita (1920–1998). Professor at the University of Chicago, noted for his innovative research on tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and downbursts. Coined the term microburst and, based on evidence from aerial photographs of tornado debris, developed a scale for classifying the intensity of tornadoes.
N/A

INSERT FIG. 8.67, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.67 Idealized depiction of an aircraft taking off facing into a microburst. In passing from 2 to 4, the aircraft loses its headwind and begins to experience a tailwind, causing a loss of lift, and consequently a sudden loss of altitude. [From J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 25 (1986), p. 1399.1398–1425.]
Add comma after “4”?

Add year for consistency with other journal citations

Include only page number of original figure.

INSERT FIG. 8.68, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.68 Schematic cross section through a gust front, in coordinates moving with the front. [From J. Atmos. Sci., 44 (1987) pp. 11810–1210.]
Change “pp.” to “p.”

Include only page number of original figure.

INSERT FIG. 8.69, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.69 The nose of a gust front from a thunderstorm cell near Denver, CO, as revealed by a cloud of blowing dust. [© 1991, cCourtesy of David Blanchard.] Convectively generated sand and dust storms are common in the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa, where they are referred to as haboobs.
See notes for Fig. 8.64.

Spell out Colorado?

INSERT FIG. 8.70, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.70 Schematic showing the radar echo of a thunderstorm (a) evolving into a bow echo (b,c) and finally into a comma echo (d) in the northern hemisphere as it moves eastward. Arrows indicate surface winds relative to the moving system. The regions of cyclonic and anticyclonic rotation at the ends of the echo are favored sites for tornado development and the axis of strongest winds is indicated by the dashed line. [Adapted from J. Atmos. Sci., 38 (1981) pp. 152812–1534.]
Change pp. to p.

Include only page number of original figure.

INSERT FIG. 8.71, SET DOUBLE COLUMN, GENEROUS MARGINS


Fig. 8.71 A squall line over the Gulf of Mexico April 7, 1984 in NOAA GOES satellite imagery (inset) and a high-resolution photograph taken by the crew of the NASA Challenger space shuttle.
N/A

INSERT FIG. 8.72, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.72 Pattern of radar reflectivity in a squall line over Oklahoma. [From Mon. Wea. Rev., 1187, 613-–654 (1990) p. 622.]
Correct volume number, reference only page # on which the cited figure appears (pg 622).

INSERT FIG. 8.73, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.73 Cross section through an idealized squall line. [Reprinted Ffrom R. A. Houze, Cloud Dynamics, R. A. Houze, p. 349,Academic Press Copyright (1993), with permission from Elsevier p. 349.]
Try to follow Elsevier’s permission format.

INSERT FIG. 8.74, SET DOUBLE COLUMN, GENEROUS MARGINS


Fig. 8.74 Idealized vertical profiles of vertical velocity and divergence observed in association with (a) convective and stratiform precipitation and (b) prescribed linear combinations of convective and stratiform precipitation. [From Rev. Geophys., 42, 10.1029/2004RG000150 (2004) p. 343 pp. Adapted from J. Atmos. Sci., 61 (2004) 1341–1358p. 1344.]
Cite only page on which fig 8.74a is drawn from for Rev. Geophys. component (page 3).

Cite only page on which fig 8.74b is drawn from for J. Atmos Sci component (page 1344).

From Dr. Courtney Schumacher’s reply (note that first comment / sentence is from an earlier version of the caption, I believe):

“Also, another heads up that the text in the

caption on the page copy was a little garbled ('and stratiform' is

misplaced). Another side comment is that the figure only depicts heating

(and thus ~vertical velocity), but only suggests variations in

divergence profiles...but if Mike wants to make that indirect link, great.”

INSERT FIG. 8.75, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.75 Idealized distribution of radar reflectivity in an mesoscale convective system with rotation. [From Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 70 (1989) p. 611608–619.]
Change “an” to “a” (…a mesoscale convective…)

Cite only page upon which the original figure appears.

INSERT FIG. 8.76, SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.76 The eye of Hurricane Isabel, passing to the northeast of Puerto Rico at 1315 UTC September 12, 2003. At this time Isabel was a category 5 storm with sustained winds of ~70 m s⁻¹. The eyewall cloud slopes radially outward with increasing height. Lower clouds within the eye itself are arranged in a symmetric pattern. [NOAA GOES-12 Satellite imagery.]
N/A

INSERT FIG. 8.77 SET SINGLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.77 Photograph taken in the eye of Hurricane Katrina, late afternoon September 28, 2005 looking toward the east just south of the center of the eye. The aircraft was flying at an altitude of 3500 m. The radially outward slope of the eyewall with increasing height is clearly evident. The darker clouds in the lower part of the image are in the shadow of the eyewall cloud to the west. [Courtesy of Bradley F. Smull and the RAINEX project.]
N/A

INSERT FIG. 8.78, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.78 Idealized radial cross section through an intense tropical cyclone showing the distributions of clouds, rain, radial flow and equivalent potential temperature (θe) on the left and azimuthal wind speed and angular momentum on the right. The θe contours are congruent with angular momentum contours. [Adapted from E. Palmen and C. W. Newton, Atmospheric Circulation Systems: Their Structure and Physical Interpretation, E. Palméen and C. W. Newton, p. 481,Academic Press, New York Copyright (1969), with permission from Elsevier. p. 481 with mModifications based on figures in Mon. Wea. Rev., 104 (1976) 418–442.]
Include “equivalent potential temperature” before the first time θe appears?

Place accent over “e” in Palmen.

Try to follow Elsevier permissions format.

INSERT FIG. 8.79, SET DOUBLE COLUMN


Fig. 8.79 A climatology of tropical cyclones with peak surface wind velocities in excess of 32 m s⁻¹, based on the years 1970–1989. Red dots indicate the genesis regions (i.e., the positions of the cyclones on the first day duringon which their peak winds exceeded 32 m s⁻¹), and blue dots indicate the positions of the same cyclones on all subsequent days on which their peak winds exceeded 32 m s⁻¹. The shading indicates oceanic regions with sea surface temperatures in excess of 27°C. [Courtesy of Todd P. Mitchell.]
Replace “on” with “during”?

Remove comma after parenthetical note?

Revised: 10/31/05 Page


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