Protected area system




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PROTECTED AREA SYSTEM
Recipient Expression of Interest


COUNTRY

Kenya.

Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) is a State Corporation established by an Act of Parliament for the conservation and management Act. It has jurisdiction of all national parks, reserves and marine parks in Kenya.



REQUEST

US $ 100,000,000

DURATION

5 years

ELEMENTS

Please headline the main elements to be supported. If Project-scale Expressions of Interest have been submitted to LifeWeb, please indicate and annex them here as elements to this broader System-scale Expression of Interest.

Strategies

Descriptions

    1. Secure wildlife migratory corridors and Strengthen Law Enforcement & (patrols, Intelligence etc)

  • Securing wildlife corridors and dispersal areas is critical to the survival of wildlife in Kenya. The corridors have been identified and mapped. KWS requires support to develop and inventory, then procure and or lease and engage communities for wildlife conservation.

  • The Poaching and encroachment of wildlife in protected areas has been a major problem. Require support to enhance security to visitors, wildlife and park boundaries.

  • Combat illegal trade in wildlife species and their products

  • Procure equipment support the operation teams in the 52 protected areas

  • Enhance problem animal control units to quickly respond to human wildlife conflict challenges.

    1. Wildlife Industry Governance

  • Support conservation, management and maintenance of national parks, reserves and sanctuaries.

  • Support developing policy direction, guidelines and technical support for wildlife management outside National Parks, Reserves and Sanctuaries;

  • Ensure sustainable management of critical habitats outside National Parks, Reserves and Sanctuaries;

  • Enlist community support for wildlife conservation through provision of incentives;

  • Promote the establishment and the maintenance of wildlife corridors and dispersal areas and biodiversity hot spots to ensure continuity of viable ecosystems and Capacity building for natural resource management.

  • Conservation education and extension services to engage and inform the public, schools and communities.

  • Capacity building for development of management plans

  • Facilitation of community wildlife-community based wildlife conservation initiatives.

  • Infrastructure in parks and reserves

    1. Attain financial sustainability

KWS Financial sustainability will be addressed through strategies aimed at resource mobilization, diversification of revenue streams and growth as well as effective and efficient management of resources. There is need for support to:

  • Capitalise the Kenya Wildlife Service Fund to attain the target of US $ 100million to support wildlife conservation in Kenya.

  • International marketing of parks and reserves

  • Enhancing public private sector partnership in developing facilities in the protected areas

  • Support the devolution of financial management into the 8 conservation areas

    1. Maintain Ecological Integrity

  • Ecological integrity is a key pillar in wildlife management. On continuous basis, all efforts must be directed at healthy wildlife habit and ecosystems.

  • There is a need for proper inventories of endangered species as well as cropping of other wildlife populations to ensure optimal levels are maintained.

  • Equally through research and monitoring, KWS will manage to determine threatened Eco-systems and suggest remedial measures including propositions for securing additional conservation areas.

  • Support for different management tools including translocation as an option for degraded habitats

  • Maintaining viable and sustainable barriers as well as encouraging income-generating activities in areas of intense human-elephant conflicts.

  • Climate change which is augmenting drought in much of our country and floods in other areas





  1. FINANCIAL GAP




Budget Required

US$ 96,742,464


The amounts requested covers existing parks and new wildlife migratory corridors to be secured. Most of the migratory corridors which are outside protected areas are some of the key breeding sites like the Mt. Kenya – Ngare Ndare and Nairobi-Amboseli corridors. Funds are needed for security operations, research and monitoring, translocations, infrastructure and other requirements inside the national parks. Further supports the endowment fund.

This covers the entire country Kenya, with 26 national parks, 10marine parks and 28 national reserves and community sunctuaries.

Current Budget

US $ 4,700,000

(Annually)


GoK support: US $ 2,066,667 (Annually)

KWS Internally generated US $ 2,700,000 (Annually)



Total Funding Gap

Please indicate amount(s) here.*

US $ 5,000,000

Annually US $ 4,766,667

Please indicate amount here.

US $ 76,166,000

US $ 76,166,000




  • Please indicate amounts on an annual basis for 1 to 5 years. To extent possible, indicate recurring and non-recurring expenses. You are welcome to include additional tables and/or annex relevant supporting documents. To the extent possible, please draw directly from sustainable financial plans completed as per Activity 3.4, as well as other protected area system planning inputs that identify financial implications for ecological gaps, management effectiveness and capacity development and other plan listed in question 3 below, as per the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas.



  1. ECOLOGICAL PRIORITIES

Please annex map(s) and/or list of the existing protected area system as well as the priority areas to be created for greater ecological representativeness* if the funding gap is addressed.




Priority Ecosystems and Species

Kenya is rich in biological diversity. Around 25,000 species of animal and 7000 species of plants have so far been recorded, along with atleast 2000 fungi and bacteria. An enormous species of plants and animals inhabit the country’s varied habitats, from its crowded and colorful coral reefs to icy alpine moorlands. What is however, clear is that Kenya’s biodiversity is under threats from a variety of sources include natural and anthropogenic effects, and without concerted efforts for research and focused conservation actions, we are likely to loose unique species some of which are endemic to Kenya.

The extensive network of protected areas gazetted as national parks and reserves offer a greater opportunity for Kenya’s biodiversity conservation.

1. Endangered ecosystems

Mara National Reserve, Mara Conservancy, Siana, Koiyaki, Olare Orok Lemek, Ol Pieyei, Loita hills, plains and forest, Suswa, Nguruman, Maji Moto, Ol Choro Orua, Ol Gulului/ Lolorashi  Group Ranch, Mbirikani Group Ranch, Kuku A  and B Group Ranches, Selengei Group Ranch, Ol Gulului Trust Land, Kimana Group Ranch, Rombo Group Ranch, West Chyulu National Park,Mashuru, Nairobi National park, Athi-Kitengela & Kaputei Plains, Machakos ranches, Lake Nakuru N.P and its catchment, Mau Forest Complex, Soysambu Ranch, Marula Ranch, Lake Elementaita and its catchment and its basin, Soysambu Ranch, Marula ranch, Eburru Forest, Sibiloi National Park, Kerio valley, Lake Turkana, Mt. Kulal, Loima hills, Mt. Nyiro, Central and Southern Islands National Parks, Nairobi Ranch, Kipini, Witu forest, Tana Primate National Primate Reserve, Lango la Simba Ranch, Sheikh Salim Ranch.



2. Areas of environmental significance

Baringo Ecosystem, Boni-Dodori -Kiunga Ecosystem, Malindi- Watamu Ecosystem, Mt. Elgon Ecosystem, Mt. Kenya Ecosystem, Marsabit Ecosystem, Lake Naivasha Ecosystem, Aberdare Ecosystem Ranges, Tsavo Ecosystem, Shimba Hills Ecosystem.



3. Water towers of national importance
Mt. Kenya Ecosystem, Aberdares Ecosystem, Mt. Elgon Ecosystem, Mau Forest Complex Ecosystem, Cherangany Forests, Shimba Hills Ecosystem, Chyulu Hills, Taita Hills, Marsabit Forest, Kibwezi Forest, Ngong Forest, Karura Forest, Mathews Range, Mua Hills, Loita Hills, Kakamega Forest National Reserve, Bonjoge Forest, Ol Donyo Sabuk National Park, Ndundori Hills

4. Endangered and threatened mammals
Aders' duiker (Cephalophus adersi);Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis); Hirola (Beatragus hunteri); Eastern red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus); Tana crested mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus); Roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus); Sable antelope (Hippotragus niger); White rhino (Ceratotherium simum simum); Coalfish whale (Balaenoptera borealis); Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus); Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi); African wild dog (Lycaon pictus); Giant thicket rat (Grammomys gigas); Barbour's vlei rat (Otomys barbouri); Mount Elgon vlei rat (Otomys jacksoni); Golden-rumped elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon chrysopygus); Eastern bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci); African elephant (Loxodonta Africana); African lion (Panthera leo); Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus); Striped hyaena (Hyaena Hyaena); Sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii); Leopard (Panthera pardus); Lelwel hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus); Rothschild’s giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi).

5. Endangered and threatened birds
Taita apalis (Apalis fuscigularis); Taita thrush (Turdus helleri); Madagascar pond-heron (Ardeola idae); Saker falcon (Falco cherrug); Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus); Sokoke scops-owl (Otus ireneae); Aberdare cisticola (Cisticola aberdare); Basra reed-warbler (Acrocephalus griseldis); Turner's eremomela (Eremomela turneri); Spotted ground-thrush (Zoothera guttata); Amani sunbird (Anthreptes pallidigaster); Clarke's weaver (Ploceus golandi); Sharpe's longclaw (Macronyx sharpei); Sokoke pipit (Anthus sokokensis); Lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni); White-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis); Lappet-faced vulture (Torgos tracheliotos); Greater spotted eagle (Aquila clanga); Eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca); Madagascar pratincole (Glareola ocularis); Blue swallow (Hirundo atrocaerulea); White-winged apalis (Apalis chariessa); Karamoja apalis (Apalis karamojae); Papyrus yellow warbler (Chloropeta gracilirostris); Hinde's pied-babbler (Turdoides hindei); Abbott's starling (Cinnyricinclus femoralis); Chapin's flycatcher (Muscicapa lendu).

6. Endangered and threatened reptiles
Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata); Du toit's torrent frog (Petropedetes dutoiti); Green turtle (Chelonia mydas); Olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea); Rock python (Python sebae); Shimba hills banana frog (Afrixalus sylvaticus); Shimba hills reed frog (Hyperolius rubrovermiculatus); Forest frog (Afrixalus sylvaticus); Treefrog (Hyperolius rubrovermiculatus); Mount Kenya frog (Phrynobatrachus irangi); Crevice tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri); Turkana mud turtle (Pelusios broadleyi); Montane toad (Bufo kerinyagae); Montane tree frog (Hyperolius cystocandicans); Mt. Kenya bush viper  (Atheris desaixi); Kemp's ridley  (Lepidochelys kempii); Black turtle  (Chelonia agassizi); Loggerhead  (Caretta caretta); Leatherback  (Dermochelys coriacea); Yellow-bellied hinged terrapin  (Pelusios castanoides); Tropical geckos  (Hemidactylus modestus); Baobab gecko  (Hemidactylus platycephalus); Writhing skink  (Lygosoma tanae); Keel-bellied lizard  (Gastropholis prasina); Girdled-lizard  (Cordylus tropidosternum); Worm snakes  (Leptotyphlops boulengeri); Günther’s centipede-eater  (Aparallactus turneri); East African egg eating snakes  (Dasypeltis medici); Large brown spitting cobra  (Naja ashei); Black necked spotters  (Naja nigricollis); Savannah monitor lizard  (Varanus albigularis); Speckled bush snake  (Philothamnus punctatus); Puff adder  (Bitis arietans); Green mamba  (Dendroaspis angusticeps); Nairobi toad  (Bufo nairobiensis); Silvery tree frog  (Leptopelis argenteus); Taita toad  (Bufo taitanus); Yellow-spotted tree frog  (Leptopelis flavomaculatus); Turkana toad (Bufo turkanae); Delicate spiny reed frog (Afrixalus delicatus); Painted reed frog (Hyperolius marmoratus); Long reed frog (Hyperolius nasutus); Spotted reed frog (Hyperolius puncticulatus); Water lily reed frog (Hyperolius pusillus); Kenya sand boar  (Eryx colubrinus); Side-striped chameleon  (Chamaeleo bitaeniatus); Flap-neck chameleon  (Chamaeleo dilepis); Elliot's chameleon  (Chamaeleo ellioti); High casqued chameleon  (Chamaeleo Hohnelii); Jackson's chameleon (three-horned chameleon)  (Chamaeleo jacksoni); Mount Kenya chameleon  (Chamaeleo schubotzi); Gaboon viper  (Bitis gabonica gabonica).

7. Endangered and threatened fishes
Singidia tilapia  (Oreochromis esculentus); Lake Chala tilapia  (Oreochromis hunteri); Jipe tilapia  (Oreochromis jipe); Victoria tilapia  (Oreochromis variabilis); Rainbow sheller  (Ptyochromis sp.); Lake Victoria deepwater catfish  (Xenoclarias eupogon); Montane dancing-jewel  (Platycypha amboniensis); Magadi tilapia  (Alcolapia alcalicus); Giant wrasse  (Cheilinus undulatus); Victoria stonebasher  (Marcusenius victoriae); Kyoga flameback  (Xystichromis nuchisquamulatus); Grey nurse shark  (Carcharias taurus); Bigeye tuna  (Thunnus obesus); Whale shark  (Rhincodon typus); Porcupine ray  (Urogymnus asperrimus); Oceanic whitetip shark  (Carcharhinus longimanus); Great white shark  (Carcharodon carcharias); Bowmouth guitarfish  (Rhina ancylostoma); Black-blotched stingray  (Taeniura meyeni); Giant guitarfish  (Rhynchobatus djiddensis); Shorttail nurse shark  (Pseudoginglymostoma brevicaudatum); Brindle bass  (Epinephelus lanceolatus); Blue notho  (Nothobranchius patrizii); Boji plains nothobranch  (Nothobranchius bojiensis); Elongate nothobranch  (Nothobranchius elongatus); Ewaso nyiro labeo  (Labeo percivali).

8. Endangered and threatened plants
Voi cycad  (Encephalartos kisambo); East African sandalwood  (Osyris lanceolata); Red stinkwood  (Prunus africana); Meru oak  (Vitex keniensis); Camphor  (Ocotea kenyensis); Parasol tree  (Polyscias kikuyuensis); Rat aloe  (Aloe ballyi); Tana river poplar  (Populus ilicifolia).

9. Alien/invasive animals
Coypu rat  (Myocastor coypus); Speckled mousebird  (Colius striatus); Ring-necked pheasant  (Phasianus colchicus); Mute swan  (Cygnus olor); Chaffinch  (Fringilla coelebs); House finch  (Carpodacus mexicanus); Common indian myna  (Acridotheres tristis); Rose-ringed (ring-necked) parakeet  (Psittacula krameri); Common (european) starling  (Sturnus vulgaris); Rock dove (feral pigeon)  (Columba livia); Beautiful fruit dove  (Ptilinopus pulchellus); Black-chinned fruit dove  (Ptilinopus leclancheri); Coroneted fruit dove  (Ptilinopus coronulatus); Mariana fruit dove  (Ptilinopus roseicapilla); Pink-spotted fruit dove  (Ptilinopus perlatus); Wompoo fruit dove  (Ptilinopus magnificus); Speckled mousebird  (Colius striatus); House crow  (Corvus splendens); Red-billed quelea  (Quelea quelea); Red-headed agama lizard  (Agama agama); Brother’s island tuatara lizard  (Sphenodon guntheri); Orange-throated whiptail lizard  (Aspidoscelis hyperythra beldingi); Rainbow kopje skink  (Lampropholis delicata,); Brown tree snake  (Boiga irregularis); Red diamond rattlesnake  (Crotalus exsul); Burmese star tortoise  (Geochelone platynota).

10. Alien/invasive plants
Mathenge (velvet mesquite)  (Prosopis juliflora); Tickberry  (Lantana camara); Nile cabbage  (Pistia stratiotes); Yellow oleander  (Thevetia peruviana); Crown of thorns  (Acanthaster planci); Mauritius thorn  (Caesalpinia decapelata); Jimsonweed  (Datura stramoniun); Yellow bells  (Tecoma stans); Mexican poppy  (Argemone mexicana); Long spine cactus  (Opuntia exaltata); Sweet prickly pear  (Opuntia ficus- indica); Drooping prickly pear  (Opuntia vulgaris); Water hyacinth  (Eichhornia crassipes).




  • To extent possible, please draw directly from the Ecological Assessments completed as per Activity 1.1 in the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas.




  1. SUPPORTING ASSESSMENTS AND PLANS

Please indicate the status of completion of the protected area system analyses that are called for by the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas and annex those that have been completed as supporting documents.




Protected Area System

Assessment and Planning

Programme of Work on Protected Areas

activity #

Status of completion

Please indicate 1-5

1 = Just started

2 = Fully underway

3 = Almost completed

4 = Completed



5 = Implementation plan developed

Annexed
Please indicate all that apply

Ecological Gaps

1.1

2

Ecological Monitoring strategy (draft)

Integration and Connectivity

1.2







Transboundary Protection

1.3

2

Strategic Plan

Protected Areas Threats

1.5

1

Strategic Plan

Costs and Benefits

2.1

1




Governance

2.1

2

Strategic Plan

Participation

2.2

2

Strategic Plan

Policy Environment

3.1

2

Strategic Plan

Protected Areas Values

3.1

2

Strategic Plan

Capacity Needs

3.2

5

Training needs assessment 2008

Sustainable Financial

3.4

1

Endowment Fund Profile

Communication and Outreach

3.5







Management Effectiveness

4.2

2

Strategic Plan

Research Needs

4.3

2

Strategic Plan



  1. SUPPORTING INFORMATION ABOUT PROTECTED AREA VALUES

Please briefly indicate available information about the value of protected areas in your country to climate change mitigation, adaptation, and sustainable livelihoods. You are welcome to annex any existing supporting documents.




Wildlife has an intrinsic environmental value, as well as its present and potential revenue generation, contributing 75% of the 10% earnings in GDP from Tourism activities. Kenya’s wildlife is one of the richest and most diversified in Africa, with several of its protected areas and wetlands internationally renowned as World Heritage Sites and RAMSAR sites. Protected areas have long been seen as successful in conservation of wildlife and environmental sustainability. Wildlife covers an area of about 8% of Kenya’s landmass. The major concern in wildlife is the loss of corridors, habitat degradation, security, seasonability of tourism and infrastructure.



Climate Change poses major challenges in the economy, human life and wildlife and on environment thereby affecting Kenya’s social and economic development. While Kenya’s contribution to the Green House Gases (GHGs) is minimal in comparison to developed countries, it is adversely affected by effects of Climate Change. There is need to develop appropriate, detection, prediction, adaption and mitigation measures to reduce the negative impact of the adverse effects.
Kenya has 53 protected areas with 6 marine and the rest are terrestrial parks. The national parks and reserves act as important carbon sinks in the country. The protected areas represent 8% of Kenya’s landmass.
The Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been identified by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the RAMSAR Convention, the Nairobi Convention and the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) as key tools in the conservation and management of marine and coastal biodiversity. The MPAs of Kenya harbor coral reefs and associated ecosystems such as mangroves and seagrasses that are among the most biologically diverse and economically important ecosystems in the Earth’s oceans. Taken collectively, these ecosystems support important finfish and shellfish fisheries, play a key role in biodiversity protection, sediment catchment and shoreline protection, and directly or indirectly support coastal tourism which represents an important source of foreign exchange. These marine ecosystems are also particularly vulnerable to overexploitation, and suffer the impacts of destructive exploitation, siltation, pollution, unplanned tourism and urban development, all of which are aggravated by climate change and an ever-increasing human population. Because Kenyan MPAs only cover ~ 8.7% of the coastal shelf area and 3.1% (~ 925 km2) of the total protected area surface in Kenya, they are of crucial importance to the protected area system and were prioritized by the national protected area agency the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) within a network of coastal PA. These MPAs are effectiveness in protecting coral reef biodiversity as evidenced by significantly higher diversity, abundance and biomass of coral reef fish, coral species diversity and cover and lower densities of sea urchins within MPAs than reefs outside the MPAs as well as endemic species of fish and coral.
Additional important attributes that have not been evaluated include carbon sequestration by coral reefs, mangroves and seagrass beds, the potential for medicinal products and the recreational and aesthetic value of these areas. Although no country-wide geographical prioritization of biodiversity has been carried out in Kenya, the high dependence of coastal communities on marine resources, the importance of MPAs for tourism (the mainstay of the Kenyan economy), fisheries and biodiversity and other ecosystem services, and the serious threat of climate change on coral reefs and associated ecosystems increase the urgency for strengthening the management of Kenyan MPAs. The effect of climate change were particularly manifested during the 1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation bleaching event that caused widespread hard coral mortality across the WIO region.



Annex 1 Budget


Strategies

Descriptions

Budget US $

    1. Secure wildlife migratory corridors and Strengthen Law Enforcement & (patrols, Intelligence etc)

  • Securing wildlife corridors and dispersal areas is critical to the survival of wildlife in Kenya. The corridors have been identified and mapped. KWS requires support to develop and inventory, then procure and or lease and engage communities for wildlife conservation.

  • The Poaching and encroachment of wildlife in protected areas has been a major problem. Require support to enhance security to visitors, wildlife and park boundaries.

  • Combat illegal trade in wildlife species and their products

  • Procure equipment support the operation teams in the 52 protected areas

  • Enhance problem animal control units to quickly respond to human wildlife conflict challenges.

3,250,000

    1. Wildlife Industry Governance

  • Support conservation, management and maintenance of national parks, reserves and sanctuaries.

  • Support developing policy direction, guidelines and technical support for wildlife management outside National Parks, Reserves and Sanctuaries;

  • Ensure sustainable management of critical habitats outside National Parks, Reserves and Sanctuaries;

  • Enlist community support for wildlife conservation through provision of incentives;

  • Promote the establishment and the maintenance of wildlife corridors and dispersal areas and biodiversity hot spots to ensure continuity of viable ecosystems and Capacity building for natural resource management.

  • Conservation education and extension services to engage and inform the public, schools and communities.

  • Capacity building for development of management plans

  • Facilitation of community wildlife-community based wildlife conservation initiatives.

  • Infrastructure in parks and reserves

3,800,000

    1. Attain financial sustainability

KWS Financial sustainability will be addressed through strategies aimed at resource mobilization, diversification of revenue streams and growth as well as effective and efficient management of resources. There is need for support to:

  • Capitalise the Kenya Wildlife Service Fund to attain the target of US $ 100million to support wildlife conservation in Kenya.

  • International marketing of parks and reserves

  • Enhancing public private sector partnership in developing facilities in the protected areas

  • Support the devolution of financial management into the 8 conservation areas

88,500,000

    1. Maintain Ecological Integrity

  • Ecological integrity is a key pillar in wildlife management. On continuous basis, all efforts must be directed at healthy wildlife habit and ecosystems.

  • There is a need for proper inventories of endangered species as well as cropping of other wildlife populations to ensure optimal levels are maintained.

  • Equally through research and monitoring, KWS will manage to determine threatened Eco-systems and suggest remedial measures including propositions for securing additional conservation areas.

  • Support for different management tools including translocation as an option for degraded habitats

  • Maintaining viable and sustainable barriers as well as encouraging income-generating activities in areas of intense human-elephant conflicts.

  • Climate change which is augmenting drought in much of our country and floods in other areas

4,450,000




Total

100,000,000


Annex 2

Map of Conservation Areas

Areas marked in green are the terrestrial protected areas



Annex 3: Annual Financial Reports 2008/09
Annex 4: Strategic Plan 2009 - 2012




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