Project Report




Дата канвертавання27.04.2016
Памер232.78 Kb.


Northern NY Agricultural Development Program

2007-2008 Project Report
Cereal Variety Trials for Grain and Straw Production
Project Leaders

  • Michael H. Davis (mhd11@cornell.edu), Cornell University E.V. Baker Research Farm

  • Michael Hunter (meh27@cornell.edu), Cornell Cooperative Extension of Jefferson County


Collaborators

  • Jerry Cherney (jhc5@cornell.edu), Cornell University

  • Anita Deming (ald6@cornell.edu), Cornell Cooperative Extension of Essex County


Background

Grain Production Trials:

Small grain variety trials at the Cornell E.V.Baker Research Farm have provided NNY producers with variety evaluations since the 1980’s. These trials test the performance of established varieties from regional seed companies such as W.G. Thompson, JGL Inc., Seedway, and Agriculver, in addition to advanced lines and recently released varieties from Dr. Mark Sorrell’s breeding program at Cornell. Promising varieties from the hard red spring wheat breeding program at North Dakota State University have also been included in recent years.

2007-2008 trials included 19 spring wheat varieties, 25 winter wheat varieties, 5 winter triticale varieties, 8 oat varieties, and 5 spring barley varieties. New additions in the 2007-2008 trials include Jensen a recently released winter wheat variety from Dr. Mark Sorrells that reportedly has excellent sprouting and disease resistance, and a soon to be released upgrade of the variety Caledonia (also from Dr. Mark Sorrells breeding program) with improved sprouting resistance.


Winter Cereal Straw Production Trials (Year 2):

The premium prices paid for clean straw in the Northeast have led to increasing farmer interest in growing small grains solely for the straw. “Pre-cut straw” – straw that is harvested after the crop has headed out, but before the grains have filled, could be a profitable crop for NNY farmers. Properly harvested pre-cut straw that has been bleached to a yellow or off white color before baling is generally longer, cleaner, and brighter than wheat straw baled after combining, and as a result, commands a higher price. The relatively tall winter triticale and rye varieties are particularly promising as they have high straw yields and fewer lodging problems when harvested before grain filling.


In 2007-2008, one winter rye and three winter triticale varieties were evaluated for pre-cut straw production on the Cornell E.V. Baker Research Farm in Willsboro, NY. The Jefferson County 2007-2008 trial tested the straw yield response of one winter rye and two winter triticale varieties to five different nitrogen treatments.
Objectives:

  • To test the agronomic performance of regionally available varieties of spring and winter wheat, winter triticale, spring barley, and oats when produced under northern New York growing conditions.

  • To evaluate winter hardiness and straw production potential for winter triticale and rye varieties grown on NNY farms.


Methods

Grain Production Trials:


Variety trials for spring wheat, spring barley, oats, winter wheat, winter triticale, and winter barley were conducted at the Baker Research Farm in Willsboro, NY. A randomized complete block design was employed with three replications for each trial. Plots were located on a Rhinebeck clay loam soil with subsurface tile drainage. 200 lb/acre 6-24-24 was broadcast applied and incorporated with a spring-tooth harrow prior to planting each trial. Additionally, the winter wheat, winter triticale, and winter barley plots all received a topdress application of ammonium nitrate (33-0-0) at a rate of 75 lbs nitrogen per acre on April 24, 2008. On May 1, 2008, winter grain trial plots were sprayed with 1 pint per acre 2,4 D herbicide for broadleaf weed control. Plant heights, lodging scores, disease incidence, and bird damage data were collected prior to grain harvests. Grain samples from each plot were cleaned, and then tested for moisture content and bushel weight. 2008 spring barley and oat trials were not harvested due to extensive bird damage and lodging problems.
Winter Cereal Straw Production:

Winter triticale and winter rye plots for pre-cut straw production evaluations were planted on the Cornell E.V. Baker Research Farm on September 25, 2007. Plots were located on a Rhinebeck clay loam soil with subsurface tile drainage, and seeded at a rate of 115 lbs/acre. 200 lb/acre 6-24-24 was broadcast applied and incorporated with a spring-tooth harrow prior to planting. A randomized complete block design with four replications was employed. All plots received a topdress application of 75 lbs nitrogen per acre in the form of ammonium nitrate (33-0-0) on April 24, 2008. 2,4 D herbicide (1 pint/acre application rate) was applied to all plots on May 1, 2008 for broadleaf weed control. Height and lodging scores were recorded for all plots prior to harvest on June 25, 2008.


A pre-cut straw production/nitrogen rate study was planted on a farm in northern Jefferson County on September 26, 2007. A randomized complete block experimental design with four replications was utilized. Trical 336, Trical 815, and winter rye plots were seeded at a rate of 115 lbs/acre. Four nitrogen rate treatments (0, 50, 75, 100 lbs/acre) were surface applied on April 15, 2008, and plots were harvested for straw on June 25, 2008 (after pollination but prior to grain fill).
Results


Table 1. Northern New York 2008 Winter Wheat Variety Trial Results

Brand/Company

Source

Hybrid/Variety Name

Market Class

Yield

Test weight

Moisture

Plant height

Lodging

 




 

bu/a

lb/bu

%

inches

0-10

 

 

Trial Mean

79.4

53.1

12.9

34.3

0

 

 

LSD

8.0

1.9

0.7

1.8




 

 

LSD P >

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05




 

 

CV

6.2

2.2

3.4

3.3




 

 

F Test

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001




Agriculver

7730R

SRW

89.3

57.2

13.9

28.3

0

Cornell

Freedom

SRW

84.6

53.8

13.0

32.5

0

Agriculver

Ashlund

SRW

77.2

54.2

13.0

34.4

0

JGL Inc.

HR45-104J

HRW

56.3

47.4

13.5

28.7

0

JGL Inc.

Gryphon

HRW

86.0

56.2

13.0

36.4

0

Cornell

NY 88024

SW

77.1

49.5

12.2

36.9

0

JGL Inc.

HR45-063J

HRW

80.9

55.3

13.0

31.2

0

JGL Inc.

Harvard

HRW

84.3

57.8

13.4

37.0

0

JGL Inc.

Kristy

SRW

88.9

56.0

13.7

32.4

0

Pioneer

Piovar25W33

SW

80.2

50.5

12.4

37.1

0

Cornell

99-53

SRW

88.8

55.0

12.8

35.7

0

JGL Inc.

CM98091

HRW

81.0

56.2

13.3

35.2

0

Agriculver

Harus

SW

82.3

52.5

12.5

35.7

0

Agriculver

Genesis

SRW

83.0

54.5

12.9

33.1

0

Agriculver

Richland

SW

74.8

46.7

12.0

36.6

0

Cornell

NY Batavia

SW

71.1

49.5

12.6

36.0

0

Cornell

Geneva

SW

73.7

50.7

12.4

36.6

0

JGL Inc.

Maxine

HRW

76.6

56.2

13.0

33.3

0

JGL Inc.

HR45014J

HRW

69.9

54.3

13.8

31.8

0

Cornell

Lindon

HRW

80.0

57.5

13.1

35.4

0

Agriculver

Caledonia

SW

70.6

45.0

12.5

30.4

0

Agriculver

AC Morley

HRW

87.0

57.8

13.4

37.1

0

Cornell

Cayuga

SW

82.5

53.0

13.1

39.4

0

Cornell

Jensen

SW

81.6

51.3

12.2

32.5

0

Cornell

Caledonia reselect-L

SW

82.5

45.5

12.0

33.1

0



Winter Wheat Trial: The 2008 winter wheat trial consisted of ten soft white (SW), six soft red winter (SRW), and nine hard red winter (HRW) varieties (Table 1). Plots were planted at a 2 bu/acre seeding rate on September 25, 2007, and harvested July 30, 2008. Grain yields ranged from 71.1 bu/acre to 89.3 bu/acre with a trial mean of 79.4 bu/acre. There was no lodging in the 2008 winter wheat trial. The top 12 yielding varieties (7730R, Freedom, Gryphon, Harvard, Kristy, 99-53, Harus, Genesis, AC Morley, Cayuga, Jensen, and Caledonia reselect-L) did not differ significantly at the 0.05 level, and included soft red winter, soft white winter, and hard red winter entries (Table 1). A soft red winter variety, 7730R, had the highest mean yield in the test for the second year in a row. It is interesting that the two new entries with improved sprouting resistance, Jensen, and Caledonia reselect-L, had the lowest grain moisture levels in the trial at harvest. Winter grain trial test weights averaged 53.1 lb/bu, and moisture levels at harvest averaged 12.9%.


Table 2. Northern New York 2007 Spring Wheat Variety Trial Results

Source

Hybrid/Variety Name

Market Class

Yield

Test weight

Moisture

Plant height







 

bu/a

lb/bu

%

inches

 

 

Trial Mean

43.1

49.1

17.1

33.2

 

 

LSD

8.8

1.5




2.7

 

 

LSD P >

0.05

0.05




0.05

 

 

CV

12.3

1.9

4.5

4.9

 

 

F Test

0.0001

0.0001

0.3075

0.0001

JGL Inc.

HRS6002J

HRS

49.1

50.7

16.7

40.8

Cornell

Stoa

HRS

41.5

48.0

16.4

29.4

NDSU

2375

HRS

36.4

48.3

17.7

29.1

Champlain Valley Milling

Russ

HRS

50.1

49.0

16.7

34.5

JGL Inc.

HRS45-025J

HRS

52.6

50.7

17.3

35.7

JGL Inc.

HRS45-035J

HRS

52.4

50.7

16.9

30.4

JGL Inc.

Profit

HRS

35.3

48.3

17.4

26.4

Champlain Valley Milling

Freyr

HRS

50.3

51.3

16.6

32.2

Champlain Valley Milling

Hannah

HRS

46.1

51.0

17.1

35.6

NDSU

Alsen

HRS

45.8

51.0

17.5

29.0

JGL Inc.

HRS6001J

HRS

41.9

49.7

17.4

34.9

NDSU

Butte 86

HRS

43.4

48.3

17.6

35.4

Champlain Valley Milling

Knudson

HRS

46.0

50.0

17.3

28.2

NDSU

Parshall

HRS

51.7

52.3

16.8

34.5

JGL Inc.

CM606

HRS

46.9

51.3

17.5

31.6

Champlain Valley Milling

Gunner

HRS

42.7

50.3

16.4

33.3

Champlain Valley Milling

Coteau

HRS

30.7

45.7

17.3

38.3

NDSU

Dapps

HRS

27.9

46.7

16.6

40.7

JGL Inc.

SD45-015J

HRS

28.1

39.7

18.2

30.8


Spring Wheat Trial: Spring grain trial plots were planted April 18, 2008 and harvested August 22, 2008. The seeding rate was 2.5 bu/acre. No lodging was observed in any of the plots. Yields were relatively low compared to the past two years, and ranged from 27.9 bu/acre to 52.6 bu/acre with an overall trial mean of 43.1 bu/acre (Table 2). Trial test weights averaged 49.1 lbs/bu, and moisture levels at harvest were on the high side with a mean of 17.1%. The top ten yielding varieties did not differ significantly at the 0.05 level, and included HRS45-025J, HRS45-035J, Parshall, Freyr, Russ, HRS6002J, CM606, Hannah, Knudson, and Alsen. HRS6002J, a line from JGL Inc.’s breeding program that yielded exceptionally well in 2006 and 2007, was once again among the top producers. Two other JGL Inc. lines, HRS45-025J and HRS45-035J, had the two highest mean yields in the 2008 trial.
The three lowest yielding entries were Dapps, SD45-015J, and Coteau. SD45-015J, and Coteau have been at the bottom of the hard red spring wheat yield rankings for the past three years, while Dapps has yielded at or near the bottom for the past two years. Dapps yielded in the middle of the trial in 2006. Dapps is a high protein variety that was bred for North Dakota growing conditions; low yields in the Baker Farm trials may indicate that an inherent trade-off exists between protein content and grain yield, and/or the variety is not well adapted to northern New York growing conditions.



Table 3. Northern New York 2008 Winter Triticale Variety Trial Results

Source

Hybrid/Variety Name

Yield

Test weight

Moisture

Plant height

Lodging







lbs/a

lb/bu

%

inches

Scale 0-10

 

Trial Mean

4345

45.9

12.3

45.5

2.3




LSD

1440

2.1




4.3

1.3




LSD P>

0.05

0.05




0.05

0.05




CV

17.6

2.5

4.1

5.0

29.5




F Test

0.0228

0.0001

0.4317

0.0001

0.0001

Agriculver seeds

Trical 102 lot# T521

2976

41.7

12.6

56.4

7.3

Agriculver seeds

Trical 103BB T412B

3603

39.7

12.2

51.0

4.3

Agriculver seeds

Trical 336

4738

50.7

12.4

39.5

0.0

Agriculver seeds

Alzo

5086

48.8

11.9

38.6

0.0

Agriculver seeds

Trical 815

5322

48.9

12.5

42.0

0.0






















Winter barley entry

McGregor

3836

40.0

13.6

67.3

2.7


Winter Triticale (and Barley) Trial: Five winter triticale varieties and one winter barley variety were included in the 2008 test. Plots were seeded September 25, 2007 and harvested July 30, 2008. The planting rate was 115 lbs/acre for triticale, and 2 bu/acre for barley. The 2007-2008 winter was relatively mild with good snow cover through mid-March, and no winterkill problems were observed in the plots. 2008 results were consistent with those observed in 2006 and 2007. Trical 336, Alzo, and Trical 815 were markedly shorter, had less lodging problems, much higher yields, and higher test weights than Trical 102 lot #T521 or Trical 103BB T412B (Table 3). McGregor, the lone winter barley entry, had a mean yield of 3838 lbs/acre.



Table 4. 2008 Winter Triticale and Rye for Straw Trial

Source

Hybrid/Variety Name


Straw

Yield

Moisture

At Harvest

Plant height










Dry Matter

Per acre (lbs)



%

inches




 

Trial Mean

5.01

64.6

50.1







LSD

0.6

1.9

1.5







LSD P>

0.05

0.05

0.05







CV

7.7

1.8

1.9







F Test

0.0112

0.0001

0.0001




Agriculver

Alzo

4.38

68.0

42.3




Agriculver

Trical 336

5.12

64.9

46.1




Agriculver

Trical 815

4.91

67.3

47.2




Agriculver

Winter rye

5.59

58.4

64.7





Winter Triticale and Rye for Straw Trial:

The 2008 triticale and rye straw production plots in Willsboro did not exhibit any signs of winter injury. 2008 dry matter straw yields ranged from 4.38 tons/acre to 5.59 tons/acre with a trial mean of 5.01 tons/acre (Table 4). Yield comparisons among the entries are consistent with the 2007 results as winter rye and Trical 336 produced the highest straw yields, while Alzo produced the lowest. Trical 815 was intermediate and did not differ significantly in yield from the other triticale varieties, but did yield significantly lower than the winter rye entry. There was no lodging in the 2008 trial. The winter rye entry was markedly taller than all the triticale entries. Among the triticale varieties, Alzo was significantly shorter than either Trical 336 or Trical 815. The winter rye entry also had significantly lower moisture contents at harvest relative to the three triticale varieties. A lower moisture level in the winter rye suggests that the rye was at a more advanced developmental stage at harvest than the triticale varieties.




Table 5. Effect of nitrogen rate on yield in Jefferson Co.

Treatment

Trical 336

815 triticale

Rye

Nitrogen Rate (lb/acre)

DM Yield (ton/acre)

DM Yield (ton/acre)

DM Yield (ton/acre)

0

3.46c

2.81c

3.07b

50

4.69bc

4.09b

4.32ab

100

5.47ab

4.90ab

4.94a

150

5.65ab

5.43a

5.17a

200

6.68a

5.62a

5.36a

Means within a column followed by different letters are different by LSD (0.05)


Jefferson County Nitrogen Rates for Straw Production Trial:

Results from the 2008 study on the influence of nitrogen rates on pre-cut winter cereal straw production was consistent with previous trials conducted in Jefferson County. All entries exhibited a consistent trend of increased straw yields with increased nitrogen fertilization rates, but the two triticale varieties were more responsive to higher N application rates than the winter rye entry (Table 5). In the 2008 trial, an application of 50 lbs N/acre at spring green up appeared to be sufficient for rye straw production, while an application of 100 lbs N/acre was sufficient for Trical 336 and Trical 815.


Results from the 2008 trials provide further evidence that winter triticale straw yields can be comparable to winter rye, and in regions where triticale can reliably survive the winter, winter triticale offers a viable alternative to rye for straw production. Trical 336 has consistently performed well in both Jefferson County and Essex County (Baker Farm) trials, and appears to be well adapted to northern New York growing conditions.
It should be noted that winter triticale survival in Willsboro Farm trials has been inconsistent. The past three winters (2005-2007) were relatively mild and winter triticale survival was excellent in all years. However, winter triticale plots all winterkilled in both 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. Given the uncertainty of winter triticale survival, winter rye would generally be considered a safer bet for straw production from a winter grain. An additional advantage of winter rye is that it can be successfully planted later in the fall than winter triticale.
Outreach.

Tabulated trial results will be posted on the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program website www.nnyagdev.org and in the variety trial section of the online journal Plant Management Network www.plantmanagementnetwork.org. Results will also be presented at regional extension meetings and wheat production workshops.


Acknowledgments.

Small grain variety trials were funded by a grant from the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program.


Person(s) to contact for more information.

Michael H. Davis, Cornell E.V. Baker Willsboro Research Farm, 48 Sayward Lane, Willsboro, NY 12996, 518-963-7492, mhd11@cornell.edu




Photo
Small Grain Variety Trial Plots at the Cornell E.V. Baker Farm (photo by Michael H. Davis)


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка