“PREVALENCE OF ROTAVIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN IN AND AROUND DAVANGERE”.
BRIEF RESUME OF THE INTENDED WORK:
6.1 Need for the study:
Human rotavirus are the most important etiologic agents of acquired diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide.1
In India, about 20-30% of hospitalized diarrhea cases are caused by rotavirus.2
Rotavirus gastroenteritis can lead to severe dehydration and consequently it is estimated that rotavirus gastroenteritis accounts for approximately 39% of all deaths due to diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age worldwide.3
The infection is transmitted from person to person through feco-oral route. Rotavirus is highly contagious, only a small infectious dose (< 100 virus particles) is required to infect another person.4
Limited reports are available from India about diarrhea due to rotavirus.5
Therefore, this study is carried out to find out rotavirus prevalence in infants and children.
In a study conducted at Kolkata between May 2005 – Dec. 2006, 668 children were screened for rotavirus and 249 were detected positive for group A rotavirus.6
In a study done at Delhi between 1st Aug 2000 to 31st July 2001, 137 out of 584 (23.5%) children were detected with rotavirus in stool specimen.
In a study conducted between 2005 to 2007, at Lanzhou, China, 544 stool samples were collected from children hospitalized with diarrhea. ELISA was used to detect rotavirus antigen and gave a positivity rate of 54%. 8
In a study conducted between Jan 2002 to Dec 2003 at Yansun, Myanmar, 1736 children with diarrhea were tested for rotavirus, 923 children were found positive.9
In a study done at Vellore, South India, prevalence rate of rotavirus infection was compared between children residing in urban slum and children admitted to Christian Medical College Hospital, with acute diarrhea. From May2002 to May2004, a total of 351 children in community cohort presented with 1299 episodes of diarrhea. Out of 1152 samples screened for rotavirus, 82 (7.1%) samples were detected positive. 94 among 343 (27.4%) children admitted to hospital, turned out positive for rotavirus.10
In a study conducted between 1 April 2001 – 31 March 2003, at Taiwan, 2600 children aged 5 years who were hospitalized because of diarrhea were enrolled from 4 sentinel hospitals. Rotavirus was detected in 43% (1113 out of 2600) of specimen tested.11
6.3. Objectives of study:
To determine the presence of rotavirus antigen in stools of children suffering from acute gastroenteritis.
To know the prevalence of rotavirus infection in children in our place.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
7.1 Source of data:
100 stool samples collected from children admitted to the pediatric ward, suffering from acute gastroenteritis.
7.2 Method of collection of data (including sample procedure if any)
Stool sample is collected within 24 hours of admission to hospital in a clean sterile bottle and transported same day to lab.
Inclusion criteria :
All clinically suspected viral diarrhea cases.
Exclusion criteria :
All clinically suspected bacillary and amoebic dysentery cases.
Stool samples are tested using ELISA with Ridascreen (R) rotavirus test, which utilizes monoclonal antibodies directed against VP6 antigen (group specific antigen for all known human rotaviruses), in a solid phase sandwich type ELISA.
7.3. Does the study require any investigations or interventions to be conducted on patients or other humans or animals? If so describe briefly.
Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of 7.3?
LIST OF REFERENCES:
Chang HG, Glass RT, Smith PF, Cicirello HG, Holman RC, Morse DL. Disease burden and risk factors for hospitalizations associated with rotavirus infection among children in New York. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003;22(9):803-14.
Kelkar SD. Present status of rotavirus vaccine. Indian Pediatr J 1994;31:957-69.
World Health Organization. State of the art of new vaccines research and development : Geneva, Switzerland : WHO, 2003.
Glass RI, Parashar UD, Bresee JS. Rotavirus vaccines: current prospects and future challenges. Lancet 2006;386:323-32.
Ananthan S, Saravanan P. Analysis of human rotavirus serotypes in children with acute diarrhea in Chennai by monoclonal antibody based ELISA. Indian J Med Res 1998; 108:58-61.
Samajdar S, Ghosh S, Chawla-Sarkar M, Mitra U, Dutta P, Nobumichi Kobayashi et al. Increase in prevalence of human group A rotavirus G9 strain as an important VP7 genotype among children in eastern India. J Clin Virol 2008 Nov;43(3):334-39.
Bahl R, Ray P, Suboth S, Shambharkar P, Saxena M, Parashar U et al. Incidence of severe rotavirus diarrhea in New Delhi, India and G and P types of infecting rotavirus strains. JID 2005;192 (Supp.1), S114-19.
Jin Y, Cheng WX, Yang XM, Jin M, Zhang Q, Xu ZQ et al. Viral agents associated with acute gastroenteritis in children hospitalized with diarrhea in Lanzhou, China. J Clin Virol ; March 2009;44(3):238-41.
Moe K, Hummelman EG, Oo WM, Lwin T, Htwe TT. Hospital based surveillance for rotavirus diarrhoea in children in Yangen, Myanmar. JID 2005;1:192, S111-13.
Banerjee I, Ramani S, Primrose B, Mosis P, Iturriza GM, Gray J et al. Comparative study of epidemiology of rotavirus in children from community based birth cohort and a hospital in South India. J Clin Micro 2006 July; 44(7):2468-74.
Chen KT, Chen PY, Tang KB, Huang YF, Lee PI, Yuan J et al. Rotavirus in Taiwan. J Infect Disease 2005 ;( 1):192, S-44-48.