Presowing treatments of papaya seeds as influenced by some chemicals and irradiation on germination, growth, flowering, sex expression and fruit quality bakry, kh. A. E. and Faten H. M. Ismaeil




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2 nd Inter. Conf.Hrot. Sci., 10-12 Sept. 2002, Kafr El-Shikh, Tanta Univ., Egypt


PRESOWING TREATMENTS OF PAPAYA SEEDS AS INFLUENCED BY SOME CHEMICALS AND IRRADIATION ON GERMINATION , GROWTH, FLOWERING, SEX EXPRESSION AND FRUIT QUALITY
Bakry, kh. A. E. * and Faten H. M.Ismaeil*

*Hort. Dep. Fac. of Agric Moshtohor-Zagazig University.

**Agric. Plant Dep. Fac. of Agric Moshtohor-Zagazig University
ABSTRACT
Study was carried out at experimental farm, faculty of Agriculture Moshtohor during 2000 and 2001seasons. Seeds of papaya Solo cultivar were soaked in colchicine at 0.5 & 1%, ethyl methyldisulfonate (EMS) at 100& 200 ppm, Ethyephone (CEPA) at 250& 500 ppm and water(control) or irradiation seeds with gamma irradiation at 10&12 Gray.
Results obtained could summarize as following: -
The treatments of EMS at 200ppm followed by 100 ppm as seed- soaking material gave the highest parameters of germination followed by gamma irradiation at 12 Gray.
The vigorous vegetative growth was obtained with treatment of water (control) except, stem diameter, No. of leaves/ plant and No. of branches/ plant the treatments of EMS at 200 ppm followed by 100 ppm and gamma irradiation at 12 Gray gave the highest values in this respect.

The most important results of this study was that No. of female plants significantly exceeded the male ones in case of EMS at 200 ppm followed by 100 ppm and gamma irradiation at 12 Gray treatments. As for physical and chemical fruit quality,the treatment of EMS at 200 ppm gave highest values for different quality characteristics.


Cytological study includes chromosome karyotyping of Carica papaya of the family caricaceae which has the chromosome basic number (x= 9), 2n= 18 in the mitotic cell. These chromosomes were metacentric, sub metacentric, acrocentric and sub acrocentric.

The 1st until 8th were metacentric chromosome and the arm ratio is ranged from 1.0 to 1.3, while the 9th,10 th, 17th and 18th were sub metacentric chromosomes.On the other hand the 11th till 14th are sub telocentreic family. Finally the 15th &16th chromosomes were telocentreic with highly arm ratio (20.7 and 24.8).


For the anatomical aspects, several alterations were existed with different applied treatments.
INTRODUCTION
Papaya or papaw plant (Carica papaya L.) family caricaceae is a dioecious, tropical plant and it is nearly tree in size. It can yield fruits all- around the year. Among several forms of sex in papaya staminate or pure pistilate forms predominates. There are fruiting male plants which bear staminate bunches ending with hermaphrodite flowers (chandler, 1959). Papaya is commercially used for its fruits as well as some medical purposes, since the fruit contains a high level of papain enzyme and considerable quantities of vitamin A, B and C.

Ethyl methyldisulfonate (EMS) and gamma rays were found to enhance the growth of opium poppy (Patra et al, 1998). Seeds of papaya soaking in ethyphone solution at 100 or 200 ppm improved germination parameters and increased the percentage of female plants. Gamma irradiation at 8 or 10 Gray enhanced germination percentage parameters of papaya seeds (Salama, 1998). It is well established that EMS application could increase plant height and leaf number (Konzak, 1993).

This work was designed to investigate the effect of some chemicals and irradiation on germination, growth, flowering, sex expression, yield and fruit quality in papaya under the Egyptian conditions. Beside, studying the effect of the applied treatments on anatomical and cytological changes in papaya.

The genus of papaya has as 2n=18 chromosomes. From the evolutionary studies of the karyotype of the spices, five different characteristics are usually observed in absolute size of the chromosomes, in the position of the centrosome, in relative chromosome size in basic number and differences in the number and position of the satellites.


Chromosome numbers and the information on the karyotype structure in the genus papaya had been studied by many investigators as Eichhorn and Franqvet (1936) and Eichhorn (1937), which studied the karyotype and karyotype analysis and chromosome number and found that 2n= 18, x= 9. Allard, (1999) which studied the genetic changes associated with the evaluation of adaptedness in cultivated plants and their wild progenitors. Goro et al (1999) studied the comparison of chromosome number and karyotype of two Lepidozamia species.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was conducted during two consecutive seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 at the Experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture at Moshtohor, Zagazig University to study the influence of seeds treatment with some chemical substances and gamma irradiation on growth, flowering and fruiting of Solo papaya cultivar. Mature papaya seeds cv. Solo were taken from the fruits in June 1998 and 1999 seasons and stored at room temperature up to the planting date.

Seeds were divided into nine groups then each group was subjected to one of the following treatments: -

1- Soaking in tap water for 12 hours as control treatment.

2- Soaking for 12 hours in colchicine at 0.5 and 1%.

3- Soaking for 12 hours in ethyl methyldisulfonate (EMS) at 100 and 200 ppm

4- Soaking for 12 hours in ethyphone (CEPA) at 250 and 500 ppm

5- Soaking in tap water for 12 hours then gamma irradiation at 10 and 12 Gray.

Seeds were sown in March 5th in plastic bags (20 cm. in diameter) filled with a mixture of sandy and clay soil (1:1 by volume) and kept under greenhouse conditions.

These treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with twenty replicates for each treatment and plastic bags were sown with five seeds for each. Furthermore, from the beginning of seed germination, the number of emerged seedlings was counted at three days intervals until seed germination ceased. Seed germination was evaluated through the following germination parameters:

-Germination percentages, rate and value according to the Bartellet (1937).


-Cytological Studies: -

Root tips were harvested from the control and prepared in 4 ml 8-hydroxyquinoline at 4oC for 10 hours fixed in acetic ethanol (3:1) at 4oC for 24 hours and were transferred and stored in 70% ethanol at 20oC. Fixed root tips were macerated in a mixture of Hcl and acetic acid (2:1) at 60 oC for 10 sec. put on glass slides and them stained in 2% aceto orcin at room temperature for 4 hours. Orcin stained chromosomes were classified according to centromeric position defined using arm ratios (Levan et al, 1965)

Ten weeks after seed germination, twenty plants for each treatment- healthy and nearly similar in growth vigor- were transplanted into the orchard and planted at 3X3m. apart on clay loamy soil. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with twenty replicates for each treatment and each replicate was represented by one plant. The plants received normal cultured practices that usually followed in the commercial fields and reached the blooming stage, the following data were recorded: -

-Plant height (cm.), stem diameter (cm.) at 10cm. above the soil, number of leaves per plant, leaf area (cm.),petiole long (cm. of the 5th leaf from top), number of branches, time (days) required to attain blooming stage, sex expression in the plants i.e. percentage of female or male plants, number of female flowers per plant and number of male inflorescences per plant.


-Pollen grain fertility: -
Pollen fertility was estimated in two ways: the first was by the inspection and counting of fertile and non-fertile pollen grains mounted in dilute iodine solution and the second way was by the germination of pollen grains on a cultural media (Shahine 1961).

Germination of pollen grains took place on slides surrounded by water (to control humidity) at room temperature (about 23oC) in petri dishes in the laboratory on the media mentioned by Darlington and La-Cour (1960). The culture media was made up of 100 ml.-distilled water,(6 gm. cane sugar, 2gm.agar and 2gm gelatin). Inspection and counts were carried out after 18 hours.


-Anatomical studies
Comparative microscopically examination of pedicel of flowers and small fruits of control and plants treated with colechecine at 1%, EMS at 200 p.p.m., ethyephone at 500 ppm and gamma irradiation at 12 Gray were inspected .

The samples were taken from the 5th internod from top of the stem at the flowering stage (blooming stage). The vegetative speciments were taken then killed and fixed in FAA (5ml. formalin, 5ml. glacial acetic acid and 90ml. ethyl alchohol 70%), washed in 50% ethyl alcohol, dehydrated in series of ethyl alchohol 70,90,95 and 100%, infiltrated in xylene, embedded in paraffin wax with a melting point of 60-63 oC, sectioned to 20 microns in thickness (Sass 1951), stained with the double stain method (fast green and safranin), cleared in xylene and mounted in Canada balsam (Johanson 1940). Sections were read to detect histological manifestation of noticeable responses resulted from other treatments.


-yield indicators: -
Fruit set was recorded at 15 July, number of retained fruits was recorded at picking date at the start of appearance of yellow colour on part of the fruit and fruit drop percentages were recorded as follows: -

Total No.of fruit set - No.of remained fruits



Fruit drop = ________________________________________________________________X 100

Total No.of fruit set



- Fruit characters: -

Five mature fruits per each treatment were picked (start of appearance of yellow colour on part of the fruit), ripened and the following data were recorded: -

Fruit weight (Kg.), fruit length (cm.), fruit diameter (cm.), fruit shape index, pulp thickness (cm.), number of seeds per fruit, T.S.S. %, total acidity %, T.S.S. /Acidity and vitamin C mg/100gm(A.O.A.C. 1975).
All obtained data were subjected to analysis of variance according to Snedecor and Cochran (1982). The differences between means were differentiated by using Duncan's multiple range tests (1955).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
A -Germination parameters: -

1-Germination percentage and rate: -
Data presented in Table (1) indicated that all test treatments caused significant increase in germination % and rate as compared with control in both seasons of study. The best results were obtained from EMS at 200 ppm and 100 ppm followed by gamma rays at 12 gray .
These results are in agreement with the findings of Alamgir and Rhaman, (1991); Ray Noggle and Fritz, (1992).
2-Germination value: -
The presented data in Table (1) indicated that, the treatments EMS at two concentrations, CEPA at 250 ppm and two radiation treatments caused significant increase in germination value of papaya seeds compared with the control treatment which gave the lowest values. On the other hand, colechecine treatments gave intermediate values between the above mentioned treatments and control in both seasons of study.
These results are in agreement with the findings of Esashi and Leopoid, (1969); Alamgir and Rahman, (1991) and Salama, (1998).
B- Vegetative growth: -

1-Plant height (cm.): -

It is obvious from Table (2) that plants raised from control (soaking in water) had the tallest stems at blooming date in both seasons. On the contrary, the treatments with gamma irradiation at 12 followed by 10 Gray and EMS at 200 ppm followed by 100 ppm produced the shortest plant when attained blooming stage in both seasons of study.



2-Stem diameter (cm.): -
Table (2) shows that all treatments caused significant increase in stem diameter when the emerged plants attained blooming stage as compared with untreated seeds (control). Generally, EMS at 200 ppm followed by 100 ppm and gamma rays at 10 Gray followed by 12 Gray produced plants with thickest stem in both seasons of study.

3-Number of leaves per plant: -
Data in Table (2) clear that all treatments caused significant increase in number of leaves per plant attained blooming stage as compared with control, the highest number of leaves formed on papaya plants at blooming stage were obtained from EMS at 200 ppm followed by 100 ppm and gamma irradiation at 12 Gray followed by 10 Gray in both seasons of study.

4-Leaf area (cm2) and petiole long (cm): -
It is clear from Table (2) that the largest leaf area and petiole long on papaya plants at blooming stage were obtained from control. Meanwhile, lowest leaf area and petiole long on papaya plants at blooming stage were obtained from gamma irradiation at 12 Gray followed by 10 Gray and EMS at 200 ppm followed by 100 ppm in both seasons of study.


5-Number of branches per plant: -
Table (2) shows that the highest number of branches per plant borne on papaya plants at blooming stage were obtained from EMS treatments at 200 ppm followed by 100 ppm and gamma irradiation treatment at 12 Gray. On the contrary, the other treatments produced plants without branches in both seasons of study. These results are in agreement with the finding of Luckey, (1980); Wally, (1981); Alamgir and Rahman, (1991) and Salama, (1998).
C-Blooming and sex parameters: -

1-Time required for attaining blooming stage: -

Data present in Table (3) shows that untreated seeds (control) gave plants required longer time to attain blooming stage. On the contrary, the treatments with gamma irradiation at 12 Gray followed by 10 Gray and EMS at 200 pm followed by 100 ppm succeeded in shortening that time needed to attain blooming stage in the first and second seasons.


2- Female plant percentage: -
Data in Table (3) clear that higher percentages of female plants were obtained from soaking papaya seeds in EMS at 200 ppm followed by 100 ppm and seeds irradiation with gamma irradiation at 12 Gray followed by 10 Gray as compared with the control treatment in both seasons of study.
3- Male plant percentage: -
Table (3) shows that higher percentage of male plants raised from untreated seeds (control). Meanwhile, the treatments with EMS at 200 ppm followed by 100 ppm and gamma irradiation at 12 Gray succeeded in decreasing the percentage of male plants in both seasons of study.

4-Number of female flowers per plant: -
Data in Table (3) clear that highest number of female flowers per plant was borne on plant raised from EMS at 200 ppm followed by 100 ppm and gamma irradiation at 12 Gray treatments as compared with untreated seeds (control ) during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 seasons.
5- Number of male inflorescence per plant: -
Data in Table (3) obvious that in the first season no differences between all treatments in this respect. Meanwhile, in the second seasons plants raised from seed irradiation with gamma irradiation at 12 Gray, seeds soaked in EMS at 100 ppm, CEPA at 250 ppm and untreated seeds (control ) borne the highest number of male inflorescence per plant as compared with other treatments.

These results are in agreement with the finding of Lucky, (1980) ; Alamgir and Rahman, (1991) and Salama, (1998).


D-Pollen fertility: -
Table (4) and figures (1&2) shows that all treatments increased pollen fertility percentage compared with the control. These values were 85.11, 82.45, 79.78, 75.86, 75.01, 60.25, 56.83, 46.44 and 41.38 % for EMS at 200 ppm, gamma irradiation at 10 Gray, CEPA at 250 ppm , EMS at 100 ppm, rad. at 12 Gray, col. at 1%, CEPA at 250 ppm, col. at 0.5% and control, respectively.
The same result was noticed with the percentage of germinated pollens when compared with the control. Of interest was that the length of pollen tube increased only with EMS at 200 ppm These results could illustrate the increase or decrease of yield as the fertility of pollen grains could be an indication for egg fertility.

These obtained results are in agreement with those found by Sayed (1970) on tomato and Ismaeil (1995) on broad bean.



Table (4): Effect: of seeds chemical soaking and gamma rays on fertility % and

germination of pollen grains in Solo papaya cultivar.



Treatments

Iodine treatments

Germinqation of pollens


Fertility

%

Sterile


Sterilityt%


Germinated

Pollens %


Ungerminated

Pollens %

Length of

Pollen tube (micron)

Morphol.

Normal

%


Aborted

CONTROL

41.38

35.26

23.36

58.62

40.12

59.88

120.90

COL. at 0.5%

46.44

34.34

19.22

53.56

45.23

54.77

230.50

COL. at 1%

60.26

29.32

10.43

39.75

60.17

39.83

236.45

EMS at 100 ppm

75.86

13.82

10.32

24.14

75.20

24.80

300.80

EMS at 200 ppm

85.11

12.15

2.74

14.89

84.36

15.64

340.15

CEPA at 250 ppm

56.83

26.10

17.07

43.17

56.10

43.90

278.30

CEPA at 500 ppm

79.78

13.91

6.31

20.33

78.45

21.55

320.18

RAD. at 10 Gray.

82.45

10.77

6.78

17.55

80.34

19.66

330.75

RAD. at 12 Gray

75.01

11.73

13.26

24.99

75.00

25.00

301.64

Col.= Colchicine, EMS= ethyl methyldisulfonate, CEPA= ethyphone, Rad.= gamma irradiation
E - Anatomical study: -
Data shown in Table (5) indicate the effect of colchicine (1%), EMS (200 ppm), CEPA (500ppm) and only water as seed soaking materials as well as gamma irradiation (12 Gray); upon different estimated anatomical features in cross section in the petiole of flowers of treated papaya plants.

1-In cross section of petiole flower: -
As shown in Table (5) and Figure (3) different applied treatments increase the diameter of whole section. This increase reached maximum with CEPA at 500 ppm that reached 7304.40. Meanwhile, gamma irradiation at 12 Gray gave the lowest increase in this respect.
Also, it could be noticed that increases of the whole diameter were reversed upon different layers comprises each section. Since, thickness of each of epidermis, cortex, phloem zone and xylem zone as well. In this respect, also CEPA at 500 ppm followed by EMS at 200 ppm gave the highest measurements of all these parameters.
In addition, the number of xylem rows in the vascular cylinder also increased with different applied treatments as well as the number vessels in each row. The same positive effect of applied treatment upon wall thickness of widest xylem vessel and pith diameter was also existed.
On the other hand, diameter of widest xylem vessel increased only with CEPA at 500 ppm and irradiation with 12 Gray. Yet, colchicine and EMS at 200 ppm slightly decreased this parameter.

In general, the stimulatory effects of the applied treatments upon the anatomy features of treated plants could be attributed to the effect upon cambium activity. Increment of cambium activity could mainly attributed to the increase of endogenous hormones level especially cytokinin and auxin. In this respect, CEPA as antiethylene agent has been established to increase endogenous cytokinin level (El Desouky, (1988) and Wanas, 1996).


Also, it has been recommended that each of irradiation and paclobutrazol (of the growth retardant) has stimulatory effect upon the anatomy of broad bean plants. This enhancement was attributed to increase of endogenous cytokinins (Ismaeil, 1995). Moreover, colchicine has been reported to duplicate genetic material in treated plant tissues that is also preceded with cytokinin increases (Gardner and Senstad, 1993).

2-In longitudinal section of petiole flower: -

As shown in Table (6) and Fig.(4) each of 1% colchicine and 200 ppm EMS increased mean length of collenchyma cells but had no effect upon mean length of parenchyma cells. Meanwhile, the vise versa was true with CEPA at 500 ppm and irradiation at 12 Gray since both treatments had no effect upon the length of collenchyma cells but both increased the length of parenchyma cells.

Also, it could be noticed that each of colchicine at 1% and irradiation at 12 Gray increased each of width of collenchyma and parenchyma cells. Yet, CEPA at 500 ppm decreased these two parameters

As for the width of xylem vessel and the mean length of pith cells, it could be noticed that different applied treatments either as seed soaking material or seed irradiation increased these two parameters.


Table (6): effect of seeds chemical soaking and gamma irradiation on mean count and

measurements of certain anatomical feature in longitudinal section of petiole

flower of Solo papaya cultivar.


Treatments


Mean length of collenchyma cells

Mean length of parenchyma cells

Mean widest of collenchyma cells

Mean widest of parenchyma cells

Mean widest of xylem vessel

Mean length of pith cells

Control

58.25

145.65

36.41

58.25

6.82

11.65

Col. at 1%

58.26

145.65

50.97

72.81

11.65

14.56

EMS at 200 ppm

87.38

145.65

29.13

75.20

14.56

29.13

CEPA at 500ppm

58.25

168.94

29.13

43.69

7.28

20.39

Rad. at 12 Gray

58.25

174.76

58.25

72.81

8.74

23.30

Col.= Colchicine, EMS= ethyl methyldisulfonate, CEPA= ethyphone, Rad.= gamma irradiation

3-Fruit anatomy: -

As for the diameter of pericarp it could be noticed that CEPA at 500 ppm (as seed soaking material) gave the highest increase value of the pericarp diameter that reached 2817.00 micron followed by colchicine at 1%(2736.00 micron), EMS at 200 ppm (2461.70 micron). Meanwhile seed irradiation at 12 Gray gave the lowest increase of this diameter that reached 2394.90 micron comparing with control value that only was 2195.00 micron (Table, 7 and Fig., 5). With regard to the thickness of exocarp, it could be noticed that both treatments either seeds soaking or seed irradiation increased this thickness. In this respect, EMS at 200 ppm gave the highest value of this thickness followed by CEPA at 500 ppm , Colchicine at 1% and irradiation at 12 Gray, in descending order. On the other hand, thickness of pericarp all showed contradicting results with different applied treatments. Since, its slight increase only was existed with 200 ppm EMS treatment. Meanwhile, 500 ppm CEPA had no effect up this thickness. Yet, colchicine at 1% and irradiation at 12 Gray obviously decreased this parameter.


In addition, length and widest of ovule were increased with different applied treatments. Exception was only that of ovule length that existed with CEPA at 500 ppm treatment. Also, it could be noticed that each of irradiation at 12 Gray and colchicine at 1% gave the highest values of ovule length and width, respectively. Moreover, applied treatments increased each of length and width of ovule bundle, except that reduction in the length of ovule bundle and no effect upon the width of ovule bundle with 1% colchicine treatment. Also, it could be noticed that effects of different treatments upon length and width of ovule bundle similar was prolonged to the diameter of widest xylem vessel in ovule.
In general, the obtained results of the anatomy study are of great important. Since, increases of most histological features with different applied treatments when compared with control ones were completely reversed upon yielded fruits as well as improving their quality.

Table (7): Effect of seeds chemical soaking and gamma irradiation on mean count and

measurements of certain anatomical feature in cross section of fruit of Solo

papaya cultivar.



Treatments




Diameter of

Pericarp


Thickness of

Exocarp


Thickness

of

pericarp

cell


Length

of

ovule



Widest

of

ovule


Length of

ovule bundle


Widest of

ovule bundle


Diameter of widest xylem vessel in ovule

Control

2195.00

203.89

58.25

699.05

291.27

436.91

262.14

29.13

Col. at 1%

2736.00

233.02

43.69

786.44

990.33

320.40

262.14

26.21

EMS at 200 ppm

2461.70

247.58

59.75

742.74

682.54

466.04

291.27

29.13

CEPA at 500ppm

2817.00

243.15

58.25

669.93

611.67

450.85

349.53

29.13

Rad. at 12 Gray

2394.090

218.45

29.13

902.94

786.44

495.16

349.53

29.13

Col.= Colchicine, EMS= ethyl methyldisulfonate, CEPA= ethyphone, Rad.= gamma irradiation

F- Cytological characters: -
Genus Carica papaya L. showed the chromosome number of 2n= 18 (Fig. 6) which was consistent with those of the previous reports (Eichhorn and Franqvet, 1936 and Eichhorn, 1937).

The karyotype of Carica papaya L. consisted of eight medians (metacentric) four submedian, four sub terminal and two terminal-centromeric chromosomes (Fig. 7 & 8 and Table 8). The arm ratio value of eight median centromeric chromosomes range from 1.0 to 1.3 while the arm ratio value of four submedian centromeric chromosomes were very close to 3.1 the lowest extreme of the arm ratio range of the subterminal centromeric chromosome Levan et al, (1965); Eichhorn and Franqvet, (1936); Eichhorn, (1937); Allard, (1988); Goro et al, (1999) and Abd El Magid and Rabie , (2001).



G-Yield indicator:

1- Fruit set: -
Data presented in Table (9) showed that highest fruit set percentage was recorded by 500 ppm CEPA treatment followed by 12 Gray gamma irradiation, 250 ppm CEPA, 10 Gray gamma irradiation and 200 ppm EMS treatments, respectively. The lowest fruit set percentage was recorded by the control and rest of treatments was intermediate during two seasons of this study.

2-Fruit drop percentage: -

Results in Table (9) show that in the first season, the heighest fruit drop percentage was recorded by control (untreated seeds), followed by 0.5% colechecine, 500 and 250 ppm CEPA and 12 gray of gamma irradiation treatments. The lowest fruit drop percentage was recorded by 12 gray of gamma irradiation treatments. The second season gave the similar results in this respect.


Table (9): Effect of seeds chemical soaking and gamma irradiation on yield indicators of

Solo papaya cultivar during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 seasons.



Treatments



Fruit set %


Fruit drop %

No. of retained fruits ( being harvested )

1999-2000

2000-2001

1999-2000

2000-2001

1999-2000

2000-2001

Control

55.56 D

66.67 D

40.00 A

28.57 A

3.00 F

5.00 G

COL. at 0.5%

60.00 D

69.56 CD

33.00 B

25.00 B

4.00 E

6.00F

COL. at 1%

75.26 BC

72.73 BCD

14.00 DE

12.50 D

6.00 D

7.00 E

EMS at 100 ppm

71.42 C

73.00 BC

20.00C

18.18 C

8.00 B

9.00 C

EMS at 200 ppm

75.00 BC

77.78 AB

16.00 D

7.14 F

10.00 A

13.00 A

CEPA at 250 ppm

76.19 BC

75.00 BC

12.50 E

11.12 DE

7.00 C

8.00 D

CEPA at 500 ppm

83.33 A

81.00 A

12.53 E

8.80 EF

7.00 C

8.00 D

Rad. at 10 Gray

75.00 BC

71.00 BCD

22.22 C

20.00 C

7.00 C

8.00 D

RAD. at 12 Gray

78.57 B

80.00 A

9.09 F

9.09 EF

10.00 A

11.00 B

Col.= Colchicine, EMS= ethyl methyldisulfonate, CEPA= ethyphone, Rad.= gamma irradiation
3-Number of retained fruits (being harvested): -
Data in Table (9) indicated that 200ppm EMS and 12 gray of gamma radiation treatments recorded the highest number of retained fruits. The lowest number of retained fruits was obtained by control treatment. The rest of treatments were intermediate during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 seasons.

These results agree with the findings of Thomas et al (1973), Wally (1981), Odeigah et al (1998) and Singh et al (1999).


H-Physical properties: -

1-Fruit weight: -

Data in Table (10) showed that all treatments caused significant increase in fruit weight as compared with control. The heaviest fruit weight was obtained from soaking seeds in the EMS at 200 ppm and 100 ppm followed by irradiation seeds with gamma rays at 12 Gray and 10 Gray treatments in both seasons of study.


2-Fruit length: -
Data in Table (10) indicated that EMS at 200 ppm caused significant increase in fruit length of papaya followed by EMS at 100 ppm and irradiation seeds with gamma rays at 12 Gray. On the other hand, the control treatment gave the lowest values in this respect. However, the other treatments gave intermediate values in both seasons of study.
3-Fruit diameter: -

Table (10) shows that, in the first season all treatments caused different fruit diameter of papaya. EMS at (200 and 100 ppm), gamma rays at (12 and 10 gray), CEPA at 250 ppm, Col. at 1%, CEPA at 500 ppm, Col. at 0.5% and control treatments gave 21.80, 19.67, 17.33, 15.77, 14.70, 13.60, 13.23, 12.80 and 12.67 cm., respectively. The second season gave nearly similar results.
4-Fruit shape index: -
Data in Table (10) show that the highest values in the first and second seasons were recorded by 1% colechecine, 500 ppm CEPA, 0.5% colechecine, control,12 Gray of gamma radiation, 250 ppm CEPA, 10 Gray of gamma irradiation, 100 ppm EMS and 200 ppm EMS treatments.
5- pulp thickness: -
Table (10) clear that, all treatments caused significant increase in pulp thickness as compared with control. Best pulp thickness was obtained from plants raised from seed treatment with 200 or 100 ppm EMS in both seasons of study.
6- Number of seeds per fruit: -
Data present in Table (10) shows that all treatments caused significant reduce in number of seeds per fruit as compared with control. The lowest number of seeds per fruit was obtained from plant raised from seed irradiation with gamma rays at 12 or 10 Gray treatments in both seasons of study.
I-Chemical properties: -

1-Total soluble solids percentage (T.S.S. %): -
Data in Table (11) clear that all treatments caused significant increase in T.S.S. % as compared with control. The best result was obtained from EMS treatment at 200 or 100 ppm during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 seasons.

2-Total acidity %: -

Table (11) shows that, all treatments reduced total acidity as compared with control in both seasons of study. But, in the first season colchicine at 1 % treatment gave smallest value in this respect. On the other hand, results in this respect the second season showed no differences between all treatments.
3-T.S.S./Acidity: -
Table (11) clear that all treatments caused significant increase in T.S.S./ acidity as compared with control. The highest values were obtained from EMS at 200 ppm and irradiation with gamma rays at 12 Gray treatments in both seasons of study.
4-Vitamin C: -
Data presented in Table (11) shows that the highest values of vitamin C were obtained from EMS at 200 or 100 ppm and irradiation with gamma rays at 12 or 10 Gray treatments in both seasons of study. On the contrary, colchicine at 1% and CEPA at 500 ppm treatments reduced of vitamin C as compared with control in the first season only.
These results are in agreement with the findings of Ghanta et al (1995).

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تأثير معاملات ما قبل زراعة بذور الباباظ ببعض المواد الكيماوية والإشعاع على الإنبات والنمو والتزهيروالنسبه الجنسية وصفات جودة الثمار.
خالد على إبراهيم بكرى*- فاتن حسن محمود إسماعيل**

*قسم البساتين - ** قسم النبات الزراعي- كلية الزراعة بمشتهر- جامعة الزقازيق
أجريت هذه الدراسة خلال موسمين متتاليين 1999-2000 و2000- 2001فى مزرعة التجارب بكلية الزراعة بمشتهر لدراسة تأثير نقع بذور الباباظ صنف سولو فى بعض المواد الكيماوية أو معاملاتها بالإشعاع على الإنبات والنمو الخضري والتزهير والنسبه الجنسية والإثمار وصفات جودة الثمار.

وقد تم إجراء المعاملات الاتيه :



1-النقع فى الماء فقط (المقارنة)

2-النقع فى الكوليشيسين بتركيز0.5 %

3-النقع فى الكوليشيسين بتركيز1 %

4-النقع فى الإيثايل ميثيل داى سالفونيت بتركيز 100 جزء فى المليون

5-النقع فى الإيثايل ميثيل داى سالفونيت بتركيز00 2 جزء فى المليون

6-النقع فى الإيثيفون بتركيز 250جزء فى المليون

7-النقع فى الإيثيفون بتركيز 500جزء فى المليون

8- تعريض البذور لأشعة جاما بجرعة 10 جراى

9-تعريض البذور لأشعة جاما بجرعة 12 جراى
وتم دراسة قياسات الإنبات -النمو الخضري-التزهير-النسبة الجنسية-الإثمار-صفات جودة الثمار.كما أجريت دراسات تشريحية على الإزهار والثمار لمعرفة تأثير المعاملات السابقة الذكر على النبات.وكذلك أجريت دراسة سيتولوجيه لالقاء الضوء على عدد الكروموسومات وصفاتها فى الصنف سولو.
ووجد إن افضل المعاملات هى نقع بذور الباباظ صنف سولو فى الإيثايل ميثيل داى سالفونيت بتركيز 100او200 جزء فى المليون يليها المعاملة بأشعة جاما بجرعة 10 أو 12 جراى حيث حسنت هذه المعاملات من قياسات الإنبات -النمو الخضري-التزهير-النسبة الجنسية-الإثمار-صفات جودة الثمار.كما أوضحت الدراسة التشريحية فروق واضحة بين المعاملات.


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