Preliminary evidence for a 1000-year-old tsunami in the South China Sea




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Preliminary evidence for a 1000-year-old tsunami in the South China Sea

Liguang Sun1*#, Xin Zhou1#, Wen Huang1, Xiaodong Liu1, Hong Yan1, 2, Zhouqing Xie1, Zijun Wu1, 3, Sanping Zhao1, Da Shao1, Wenqing Yang1



  1. Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China

  2. Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an, 710075, China

  3. State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China

*Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to L.S. (email: slg@ustc.edu.cn)

# These authors contributed to the work equally and should be regarded as co-first authors.

Supplementary Information



Figure S1. Geochemical profiles of sediment core DY4 in the Cattle Pond (Grey shadow shows the AD 1024 event).



Figure S2 Changes in foraminifer abundances versus depth in the DY4 core. Red dots show foraminifer abundances in unit 3.



Figure S3. Pictures of tridacna and coral fossils. (a) Tridacna sp. fossil in the guano layer with the dorsal side facing upward. (b) A brown colored Tridacna sp. fossil. (c) A Tridacna sp. fossil with broken edge. (d) The coral fossil.


Figure S4. Map of >6º earthquakes around the South China Sea. Base map was drawn by ArcGIS software.



Figure S5. Submarine topography of the Xisha Islands (modified from ref. [S1]). Pink triangles are sampling sites. Yellow arrows show possible way of fossils transported by the tsunami.

Table S1. AMS 14C dating results of the sediment cores DY2 and DY4 from the Cattle Pond on Dongdao Island

Laboratory

number


Sample number

Dated material

Depth (cm)

14C Conventional age (a BP)

Calibrated age (cal. A.D.)

Intercept

2 sigma

BA05842

DY4-21

Plant caryopsis

20-21

305±40

1636

1476-1661

BA05843

DY4-36

Plant caryopsis

35-36

765±35

1275

1215-1294

BA05844

DY4-45

Plant caryopsis

44-45

900±35

1160

1026-1220

BA051074

DY4-58(1)

Plant caryopsis

57-58

1020±30

1018

980-1146

BA051075

DY4-58(2)

Plant caryopsis

57-58

985±30

1024

997-1156

BA051076

DY4-58(3)

Plant caryopsis

57-58

980±30

1025

999-1157

BA051077

DY4-71(1)

Plant caryopsis

70-71

1025±30

1017

979-1033

BA051078

DY4-71(2)

Plant caryopsis

70-71

960±30

1034

1005-1160

BA051079

DY4-71(3)

Plant caryopsis

70-71

1010±40

1020

978-1155

BA051080

DY4-71(4)

Plant caryopsis

70-71

965±30

1031

1003-1160

BA05846

DY4-71(5)

Plant caryopsis

70-71

995±35

1022

984-1156

BA05849

DY4-87

Plant caryopsis

86-87

1340±35

666

644-769

BA03236

DY2-20

Bulk organic carbon

19-20

250±70

1652

1475-1949

BA05849

DY2-54

Bulk organic carbon

53-54

850±60

1212

1027-1283

BA05849

DY2-95

Bulk organic carbon

94.5

1440±65

623

440-688

BA03240

DY2-C1

Plant caryopsis

94-95

1360±40

662

619-766


Table S2. AMS 14C dating results of the tridacna sp. and coral fossils on Dongdao Island

Laboratory

number


Sample number

Dated material

14C Conventional age (a BP)

Calibrated age (AD/BC)

Intercept

2 sigma

12177

1-1

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

2440±25

80 BC

213-34 BC

12178

1-2

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

2550±25

220 BC

357-189 BC

12179

1-3

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

2130±25

270 AD

143-326 AD

12180

1-4

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

2710±25

410 BC

550-372 BC

12181

1-5

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

1840±25

610 AD

480-674 AD

12182

1-6

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

1750±25

690 AD

592-703 AD

12183

1-7

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

1850±25

600 AD

468-637 AD

12184

1-8

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

2710±25

410 BC

550-372 AD

12185

1-9

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

3980±25

1980 BC

2128-1936 BC

12186

1-10

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

2550±25

220 BC

357-189 BC

12187

3-1

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

2200±25

190 AD

77-239 AD

12188

Coral

Carbonate (Coral)

1720±25

720 AD

615-732 AD

50358

DD-1

Carbonate (Tridacna sp.)

2340±15

30 AD

81 BC-66 AD


Supplementary References:
S1. Xie, Y. Underwater topography in maritime region of the Xisha Islands. Marine Science Bulletin, 24-33 (1979).


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