Potential exotic plant species invading the blackfoot drainage an Analysis by




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POTENTIAL EXOTIC PLANT SPECIES

INVADING THE BLACKFOOT DRAINAGE
An Analysis

by


Peter M. Rice, Christopher Toney, and Robert Sacco
December 1997





POTENTIAL EXOTIC PLANT SPECIES INVADING THE BLACKFOOT DRAINAGE
An Analysis

by


Peter M. Rice, Christopher Toney, and Robert Sacco
December 1997


Preface and Goals 3

Short term (1997) objectives 3

Suggested multi-year efforts 4

Species Selection and Assessment of Weed Potential 5

Alert List 7

Species Summaries 10

velvetleaf 12

jointed goatgrass 13

bishop's goutweed 14

small bugloss 15

common bugloss 16

weedy orache 17

white bryony 18

flowering rush 19

plumeless thistle 20

dwarf snapdragon 21

trailing crownvetch 22

sand rocket 23

blueweed 24

Russian olive 25

babysbreath 26

orange hawkweed 27

yellowdevil hawkweed 28

kingdevil hawkweed 29

meadow hawkweed 30

yellowflag iris 31

bluebuttons 32

perennial pepperweed 33

malcolm stock 34

scentless chamomile 35

Scotch thistle 36

Japanese knotweed 37

Polygonum polystachyum 38

sakhalin knotweed 39

European buckthorn 40

self salsify 41

puncturevine 42

Syrian beancaper 43

Well-Known and/or Old Weeds 44

References 45



References 45



Note: This version of the report was prepared for downloading. The regional distribution maps and time-series spread plots for each weed species were removed to keep the file size from being exorbitantly large. Maps and graphs can be generated interactively and printed from the INVADERS Database web site, at http://invader.dbs.umt.edu. To obtain hard copies of the maps and graphs directly, send requests to Peter Rice (biopmr@selway.umt.edu).

POTENTIAL EXOTIC PLANT SPECIES INVADING THE BLACKFOOT DRAINAGE
Preface and Goals

The Blackfoot Challenge is developing and implementing integrated management plans for several well know noxious weeds, declared noxious by the State of Montana, that are currently problem plants in the Blackfoot drainage. These wide-spread noxious weeds include leafy spurge, dalmatian toadflax, spotted knapweed, sulfur cinquefoil, and St. Johnswort.


The task of the INVADERS work group was to identify additional exotic plant species that have the potential to become significant problem weeds over the next five decades in the Blackfoot River Basin. Professional awareness of new invaders and early detection are the essential prerequisites for any successful eradication or containment action. The cost-benefit ratio is optimized by intervention during the initial phases of spread of a weed species.
Short term (1997) objectives:
Objective 1.

Produce an alert list of thirty-two recently invading or less well known weeds, not yet listed as noxious by the State of Montana, that have the most potential to become significant problem plants in the Blackfoot River Basin during the next half century. The report also describe the life form and cycle, growth habit, means of dispersal and propagation, and environments susceptible to invasion by these alert list weed species.


Objective 2.

Develop a short list of twelve well known Aold weeds@, including species already declared noxious by the state of Montana, that have the potential to increase to problematic levels in the Blackfoot drainage.


Objective 3.

Indicate the proximity of theses species to the Blackfoot drainage by generating county- level resolution presence-absence maps that show the reported distribution of these thirty-two plus twelve species in the five northwest states (MT, WY, ID, OR, WA); and graph the rate of spread in the five state region. Also to indicate how many known occurrences there are of these species in the multi-county infiltration area surrounding the Blackfoot drainage.

The results of these first year efforts, and the following suggested multi-year efforts, need to be incorporated with the Blackfoot Challenge Weed Management Education Plan. Initial education for new invaders should be directed at our resource management professionals, including the most active private-sector land mangers as well as cross training of agency staff. As professional awareness is developed the new invaders education endeavors can be refined and extended to political decision makers and the broader public.

Suggested multi-year efforts:

The principal multi-year goal of the early detection and prevention components of an integrated weed management plan is to empower land managers to eradicate or contain new invaders before they can become widespread and permanent members of the local plant communities. To obtain this goal there would be seven overlapping steps.


1. The creation of the alert list.
2. Determination of environments susceptible to invasion.
3.Determine characteristics necessary to identify these new invaders in the field, prepare training materials (herbarium mounts, photos, key field character tables) and conduct short courses to teach local land managers how to recognize these less well known weed species.
4. Conduct cooperative surveys of the Blackfoot River Basin and surrounding areas to locate example colonies for training, determine the current magnitude of the problem, and provide the mapping information necessary to implement control action if deemed prudent.
5. Provide managers with tactics and methods for eradication or containment of these species.
6. Implement the control actions.
7. Monitor the response of these target colonies.


ANNUAL SCHEDULE FOR AN EARLY DETECTION & PREVENTION PROGRAM




1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Alert List














Environments














ID Training














Recon & Map














Tactics













Control













Monitor














Species Selection and Assessment of Weed Potential
The geographic region treated in this analysis was the 11-county area approximately centered on the Blackfoot River drainage (Missoula + Powell and their 9 surrounding counties Mineral, Sanders, Lake, Flathead, Lewis and Clark, Jefferson, Deerlodge, Granite, and Ravalli). A list of plant species exotic to North America that have been recorded in the 11-county Ainfiltration area@ was generated from the INVADERS Database Release 6.4 (Rice 1997). Distribution records were available for 411 exotics in the project infiltration area. This initial list was reduced by first excluding well-known widespread weeds (e.g., spotted knapweed, leafy spurge, Dalmatian toadflax, cheatgrass) and other common exotic plants known to be non-invasive or only minor ruderal weeds (e.g., Draba verna, Myosotis micrantha). The reduced list contained 308 species. For these species the following information was examined:
1. Presence on noxious weed lists:


  • Northwest states (MT, ID, WY, OR, WA) in which the species is legally designated as a noxious weed (any category).




  • Other western states and provinces where the plant is designated legally as noxious. The other western states/provinces examined are AZ, CA, CO, KS, ND, NE, NM, NV, SD, UT, BC, SK, AB, and MB.




  • The Federal Noxious Weed list.




  • Weed status in Australia: Noxious Weeds of Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). The Australian noxious weed list was examined because of the climatic similarity between southern Australian and the western United States. A number of species known to be important weeds in Australia have also invaded in Montana such as rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea), tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobea) and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis).

2. Presence on other lists of pest/invasive plants:




  • Other western states and provinces where the plant has been recognized as a problem weed but is not legally listed as noxious. This includes ecological problem plants, county-designated noxious weeds, agricultural weeds etc. The other western states/provinces examined are AZ, CA, CO, KS, ND, NE, NM, NV, SD, UT, BC, SK, AB, MB, CPR (Canadian Prairie Region).




  • Countries in which the plant is considered an agricultural weed, as described by Holm et al. (1979) A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds.




  • The Brooklyn Botanic Garden list Invasive Plants: Weeds of the Global Garden Randall and Marinelli 1996).




  • The National Association of Exotic Pest Plant Council=s AWorst@ Invasive Plant Species in continental United States. (Sept. 1997 update provided by Faith Campbell)




  • The Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council list, Non-Native Pest Plants of Greatest Concern in Oregon and Washington as of August 1997. The focus of this list is on non-native plants with potential to impact wildlands, including natural areas; national, state and community parks; wildlife areas; and all other public lands that have not been highly disrupted by human activities. Plant species which are solely confined to croplands or highly disturbed habitats have not been included in this list.

3. Overall rate of spread in the five-state northwest region (WA, OR, ID, MT, WY), expressed as the average number of counties with records per decade (first year of record to 1996, derived from the INVADERS Database)


4. Number of occurrence records and number of counties within the 11-county project area (INVADERS Database).
We looked for species with the following characteristics, but that were not presently listed as noxious weeds in Montana: 1) Reported frequently as a noxious weed or problem plant elsewhere, and 2) Spreading rapidly in the northwest region, yet recently introduced into North America, recently invading in Montana or otherwise not well known in comparison with species already declared noxious in Montana. Thirty-two species were selected to comprise an Alert List for the Blackfoot River drainage. Spring annuals, weeds which complete their life cycle in a single growing season, are seldom declared noxious. Most species which are designated noxious are perennials, while a limited number are biennials or winter annuals.. However, we have included seven species on the Alert List that are primarily annuals because of their potential to alter the species composition of native grassland communities or impact agriculture.
For each of the 32 species on the Alert List, ratings of weed potential, which generally should be considered preliminary, were assigned for six broad environmental types. The small proportion of total land area comprising riparian and wetland environments in Montana increases the resource and ecological value of these types far above the actual acreage. These environments are particularly important to the Blackfoot area. These risk ratings were determined by examination of the specimen comments field for INVADERS distribution records (i.e. associated vegetation, environmental factors, land use, extent/severity of weed infestations, etc.), available scientific literature, and previous work on cover/habitat type susceptibility (Rice and Rider 1995, Rice 1997) and climatic correlations (Rice et al. 1997) of weeds in the northwest United States.

Alert List
The Alert List covers 32 species that have been reported from the Blackfoot River counties of Missoula and Powell or their nine immediately surrounding counties and ratings of potential to become significant weeds in six environmental types.
The environmental types are:
Agriculture - hay fields, permanent pastures, cultivated land

Grassland - valley or montane grassland and shrubland habitat types

Forest- sites capable of supporting forest vegetation, including cleared timber units and other open-canopy forest sites

Riparian - terrestrial zones adjacent to streams and lakes, and wet shore areas

Wetland - marshes, wet meadows and shallow ponds

Disturbed areas - roadsides, ditch banks, waste places, etc

The ratings are:
High - the species has high potential to become an important weed in this environment within the Blackfoot River drainage.

Possible - initial indications are that the species could become a weed of this environment, but current information is limited for specific conditions within the Blackfoot drainage. Further analysis may be warranted.

Limited - the species is not expected to affect extensive areas of the Blackfoot drainage in the near future, but could become a localized weed under certain conditions

Uncertain - current information is inadequate to assess risk. Further analysis may be warranted.


* An asterisk following the common name indicates species which grow primarily as annuals





Genus


Species


Common name


Agriculture


Grassland


Forest


Riparian


Wetland


Disturbed

areas


Abutilon


theophrasti

velvetleaf*


possible

possible

possible





high



Aegilops


cylindrica

jointed goatgrass*


possible

possible







high



Aegopodium


podagraria

bishop's goutweed


uncertain




Anchusa


arvensis

small bugloss*


possible

possible

possible





high



Anchusa


officinalis

common bugloss


possible

possible

possible





high



Atriplex


heterosperma

weedy orache*


uncertain




Bryonia


alba

white bryony






possible

possible



possible



Butomus


umbellatus

flowering rush


possible





high

high

high



Carduus


acanthoides

plumeless thistle


high

high

possible

high



high



Chaenorrhinum


minus

dwarf snapdragon*


possible

possible

possible





high



Coronilla


varia

trailing crownvetch


possible

possible

possible

possible



high



Diplotaxis


muralis

sand rocket


uncertain




Echium


vulgare

blueweed

possible

possible

possible





high



Elaeagnus


angustifolia

Russian olive








limited

limited





Gypsophila


paniculata

babysbreath


possible

possible

possible

possible



high



Hieracium


aurantiacum

orange hawkweed






high





high



Hieracium


pratense

floribundum

piloselloides

meadow


yellow-devil

kingdevil

(yellow-flowered hawkweed complex)





high





high



Iris


pseudacorus

yellowflag iris








high

high

high



Knautia


arvensis

bluebuttons


possible

possible

possible





high



Lepidium


latifolium

perennial

pepperweed

high

possible

possible

high

possible

high



Malcolmia


africana

malcolm stock*


possible

possible







high



Matricaria


maritima

scentless chamomile


high

possible



possible



high



Onopordum


acanthium

Scotch thistle


high

high

high

high



high



Polygonum


cuspidatum

Japanese knotweed


possible





high



high



Polygonum


polystachyum


possible





high



high



Polygonum


sachalinense

sakhalin knotweed


possible





high



high



Rhamnus


cathartica

European buckthorn


limited



limited

limited



limited



Scorzonera


laciniata

self salsify*


uncertain




Tribulus


terrestris

puncturevine


possible

possible

possible





high



Zygophyllum


fabago

syrian beancaper


possible

possible







high

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