Plant Systematics May 10th, 2005




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Plant Systematics May 10th, 2005 :



Changes:

2nd Lab practical will be on Thursday June 2 at 12noon in the lab room (Thimann 239)

It will cover ALL lab families but most will be from the last 5 weeks of class.
Lecture Final will be on Monday June 6 from 12-3 pm. It will be 1/4 from the 1st half of class and 3/4 from the 2nd half.
NEXT WEEK: EUDICOTS:Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Asteraceae. MONOCOTS:Juncaceae,Cyperaceae,Poaceae
Keying - If you need help, bring plants in to lab and we can help you key them. Stay until the end of lab you should be able to get 5 plants done in lab time, especially if you work in pairs. Don't spend too much time trying to get the exact species if it seems to be trouble, write down where there are ambiguities or conflicts (2 sentences) and the possible choices and move on- keep a sample or take a picture and Jeremy or I may be able to help narrow down the choices later. Pop quiz at end of lecture will give up to 5 extra points that can be used to offset any deficiencies.
There were questions about what you will be responsible for from week 5.

A. Fagaceae and Onagraceae.


Phylogenetic tree review with features characterizing the clades.

For lecture test know the clades in figs 9.6 - 9.8, and the descriptions for the groups outlined below, more descriptions will come each week. Note that there are new differences between Judd and the APG classifications (http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/)

especially with the "ales". It is good to know them but realize that the hypotheses about what belongs in them are changing. They still form a framework upon which to "hang" the families, it's just a changing one.
For the families, read what is written in Judd and try to understand the terminology and meaning of the initial description but most of the test will come from my lectures. For Judd, focus on the Distribution and Ecology, the Economic plants and products and the pollination section of the Discussion. Read some other parts of the Discussion section so you are familiar with what they are saying - I may have a fictitious or real example of this type of discussion as part of a question.
Floral formulas: Know how to read them and what all the symbols mean. Do not memorize the general floral formulas for the families. Be able to use floral formulas as an aid in family description - I may give you a specific floral formula and ask you what family this is likely to be in. These will be based on family descriptions given in lecture.
Eudicots (Tricolpates) (p297) - tricolpate pollen, flowers in whorls, slender well-differentiated filaments, S-type plastids in sieve elements (long tube, phloem)

Rosids- heterogeneous group with weak support, no good synapomorphies

Eurosids I - no good synapomorphies

Fagales


Fagaceae

Betulaceae, (lab only)

Juncaginaceae, (lab only)

Myrtales



Onagraceae

Eurosids II - no good synapomorphies

Brassicales

Brassicaceae

Malvales


Malvaceae

Sapindales



Sapindaceae/Aceraceae (lab only)
Asterid(Sympetalae) (p 421) ovule with single integument (unitegmic)

Cornales (Corn-, Hydr ange-)

Ericales

Ericaceae

Primulaceae

Polemoniaceae

Core Astrids (Euastrids 1 and II)(p421,436) - stamen# ≤ petal#, sympetalous corolla, epipetalous stamens, gynoecium of 2 fused carpels

Euasterids I - Inflorescence cymose

Solanales



Solanaceae

Boraginaceae (Hydrophyllaceae)

Gentianales



Apocynaceae (Adsclepiadaceae)

Lamiales


Plantaginaceae

Scrophulariaceae

Orobanchaceae

Euasterids II:


random info:

This species has internal phloem (arrows): phloem that is located to the inside of the primary xylem, in the pith. (Be careful of the name: this is internal phloem; in an unusual type of secondary growth, phloem is located inside the wood, the secondary xylem; that phloem is included phloem.) This is a bicollateral vascular bundle because there is phloem to both the outside and inside of the xylem

Solanaceae: Solanales
Habit: Herbs, shrubs, trees, vines

Hairs: Often stellate, prickles or spines

Leaves: Simple, alternate, exstipulate (sometimes deeply lobed), may be adenate to stem

Inflorescence: Determinate, cymose or solitary

Flowers (overall): Showy, bisexual

Floral Symmetry: Radial

Calyx: 5 connate sepals, often persistent

Corolla: 5 connate petals, rotate to tubular, plicate (folded), lobe end turned inward or reflexed

Androecium: 5 epipetalous stamens, alternate, connivient anthers (touching)

Gynoecium: 2 connate carpels, tilted, superior ovary, terminal (gynobasic) style

Placentation: axile

Fruit: Berry or capsule

Pollination regime: Bees, wasps & flies (pollen sp. only). Moths, butterflies (nectar sp.)

Interesting Species: Tomato, eggplant, tobacco, jimsonweed, petunia

Gestalt: "5-5-5-2" Hairs, plicate corolla, berry, rotate flower, connivient anthers
Boraginaceae:Solanales
Habit: Herbs, shrubs, trees, woody vines(lianas)

Hairs: Rough bristly hairs

Leaves: Alternate, simple, exstipulate

Inflorescence: Helicoid (Scorpoid) cyme, determinate

Flowers (overall): Bisexual, funellform or tubular

Floral Symmetry: Actinomorphic

Calyx: 5 connate sepals

Corolla: 5 connate petals

Androecium: 5 epipetalous stamens, alternate the lobes

Gynoecium: 2 connate carpels, deeply 4-lobed, gynobasic style (or terminal), superior ovary, nectar disc around ovary base

Placentation: axile

Fruit: 4-parted nutlet

Pollination regime: bees wasps, butterflies, flies, (also moths, beetles, bats and birds)

Interesting Species:Heliotrope, borage, hounds tongue, forget-me-not, bluebells, amsinkia, popcorn flower

Gestalt: round stems, 4-part nutlet, gynobasic style, bristly, helicoid cyme, often toxic ( alkaloids, nitrates), "5-5-5-2"
Boraginaceae("Hydrophyllaceae"):Solanales
Habit: Herbs and shrubs

Hairs: hairy or spiny

Leaves: Alternate (basal), simple but sometimes compound

Inflorescence: Helicoid (Scorpoid) cyme, determinate

Flowers (overall): Bisexual, rotate

Floral Symmetry: Actinomorphic

Perianth: Of

Calyx: 5 connate sepals

Corolla: 5 connate petals, often with appendages within

Androecium: 5 epipetalous stamens, alternate lobes

Gynoecium: 2 connate carpels, ovary superior, styles often 2-lobed, not gynobasic numerous ovules on 2 parietal placentas,

Placentation: parietal

Fruit: capsule

Interesting Species: Baby blue eyes, phacelia,

Gestalt: helicoid cyme, round stem, split style, hairy, entire ovary, many ovules on parietal placenta (look for this in lab), "5-5-5-2"

Apocynaceae:Gentianales
Habit: Trees, shrubs, vines, herbs with milky sap

Leaves: Simple, entire, opposite or whorled, exstipulate,

Inflorescence: Racemose, cymose or solitary, often determinate

Flowers (overall): Bisexual

Floral Symmetry: Actinomorphic

Calyx: 5 connate sepals, glandular inside

Corolla: 5 connate petals, spiral or contorted in bud

Androecium: 5 epipetalous stamens

Gynoecium: 2 connate carpels (apically united), ovary superior or half-inferior

Placentation: Marginal

Fruit: follicle, capsule, drupe or berry, seed with tuft of hair

Pollination regime: great diversity, specialized mechanisms, 3-zone style (deposition, sticky middle, reception) [get nectar from base of stylar head and deposit pollen, get sticky, pick up pollen on the way out]

Other comments: Contain poisons, poison arrows, oleander

Interesting Species: Vinca, Oleander, Dogbane

Gestalt: Milky sap, opposite leaves, contorted bud, "5-5-5-2", glandular calyx. 3-part style
Apocynaceae ("Asclepiadaceae"):Gentianales
Corolla: reflexed petals

Androecium: 5 stamens = 5 x 2 united pollinia, corona(nectar accumulates here), adenate to gynoecium

Gynoecium: elaborate 3-part structure

Fruit: pair of follicles

Pollination regime: get nectar from corolla, foot get lodged on pollinia, fly away, dislodged on next flower.
Plantaginaceae ("Old Plantaginaceae"):Lamiales
Habit:Herbs

Leaves: Basal rosette, prominant parallel veins

Inflorescence: Scapose, stout or wirey scapes, spike

Flowers (overall): bisexual

Floral Symmetry: Actinomorphic

Perianth: Of

Calyx: 4 connate sepals, herbaceous

Corolla: 4 connate petals, scarious

Androecium: 4 epipetalous stamens

Gynoecium: 2 connate carpels, superior

Placentation: axile, basal

Fruit: U


Pollination regime: U

Floral Formula: Basal rosette, wirey scape, 4-merous flowers, spike


Plantaginaceae ("Old Scrophulariaceae"):Lamiales
Habit: Herbs , rarely trees

Leaves: Simple exstipulate

Inflorescence: variable

Flowers (overall): Bisexual

Floral Symmetry: Zygomorphic

Calyx: 5 connate sepals

Corolla: 5 connate petals, 2 lipped, 2upper + 3 lower

Androecium: 2 or 4 stamens, didynamous (2long, 2 short) + staminode

Gynoecium: 2 connate carpels, ovary superior, style terminal

Placentation: axile

Fruit: capsule (berry)

Pollination regime: bees flies birds (nectar) nectar guides often present


Notes: hemiparisites moved to Orobanchaceae (Aureolaria, Castilleja, Pedicularis, Agalinis, Buchnera). Verbascum and Scrophularia retained in Scrophulariaaceae


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