Pices XIV fis paper-2256 Poster Monitoring of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus keta W. in the Sakhalin-Kuril Islands region using dna markers




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PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2256 Poster

Monitoring of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus keta W. in the Sakhalin-Kuril Islands region using DNA markers
K.I. Afanasiev1, G.A. Rubtsova1, T.V. Malinina1, E.A. Salmenkova1, V.T. Omelchenko2 and L.A. Zhivotovsky1
1 Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 ГСП-1, Russia. E-mail: afanasiev@vigg.ru

2 Institute of Marine Biology, FEBRAS, 17 Palchevskogo Street, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia
Chum salmon, Oncorhinchus keta, is one of the most economically important species of Pacific salmon in the Russian Far East. This species is reproduced in the rivers of both Asian and American coast and is the aim of artificial reproduction in hatcheries. In the Russian Far East, it is mainly represented in the Sakhalin-Kuril Islands region. Although chum salmon populations have already been investigated with use of classic genetic markers, such as protein polymorphisms, the level of genetic variation at these loci was not high enough to reveal fine population structure. Also, the distribution of chum samples analyzed so far was not sufficient to cover various levels of stratification, including different regions and wild versus farm reared stocks. We developed microsatellite markers (or STRs, short tandem repeats) specially designed for this species, based on the primers from the database of “Molecular Ecology”, and studied samples from both wild and hatchery populations in southern and eastern Sakhalin Island and western Iturup Island. Additionally we began to monitor the dynamics of the artificial stock at the Taranai hatchery (Aniva Bay, southern Sakhalin) which has been recently formed of fertilized eggs introduced from different Sakhalin Island chum populations; our analysis includes the return from the first artificially reproduced generation released in 1999. We found statistically significant within- and between-island differentiation in chum STR variation. The Taranai population showed signatures of genetic disequilibrium, which indicates the very beginning of the genetic process of population formation.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2568 Poster

Change of Myxozoa life strategy in the Japan Sea in XX Century
Nadezhda L. Aseeva
Pacific Research Fisheries Centre (TINRO), 4 Shevchenko Alley, Vladivostok, 690950, Russia. E-mail: aseeva_n@hotmail.com
Myxozoa are parasites of marine and freshwater fishes. Some species develop a r-strategy (large vegetative forms, great number of small-size spores), but others develop a K-strategy (few spores with complex structure). Unlike other animals, the r-strategists infected mainly single species, but K-strategists are usually able to infect multiple fish species. In total, 130 Myxozoa species have been found in the Japan Sea. In the early 20th Century, Fujita (1923) described 22 species, primarily r-strategists. Dogel (1948) found mostly the same species in the waters of Primorye, but added 14 new species to the Japan Sea, again predominately r-strategists. Shulman (1966) found a similar species composition of Myxozoa plus a few new species. Since early 1980s, Myxozoa species changed rapidly (Aseeva 1986, 2000, 2002). The number of r-strategists changed insignificantly, but new K-strategist species appeared. Now there are 90 K-strategist species in the Japan Sea, belonging to 15 genera. Among them, the genera Palliatus, Davisia, Alataspora, Pseudoalataspora were found only in 1990-2000s. Typically, myxozoans with a K-strategy are parasites of gull bladder. New Myxozoa species for the Japan Sea were either undescribed or were described from southern fish species. So, the increasing number of species is possibly connected to an increase in host species diversity and tropical fish appearance caused by climate change. On the other hand, strong variability of the spore structure exists, possibly caused by mutation. So, we cannot exclude a possibility of speciogenesis. The r-strategy is more pervasive in stable environments, and the K-strategy predominates in changing environments.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2577 Poster

Myxozoa parasites in the fishes of the Japan Sea
Nadezhda L. Aseeva
Pacific Research Fisheries Centre (TINRO), 4 Shevchenko Alley, Vladivostok, 690950, Russia. E-mail: aseeva_n@hotmail.com
Recently, 132 species of Myxozoa parasites have been documented from fishes of the Japan Sea, which belong to 17 families and 21 genera. Most of them (112) are of marine origin, but 20 species are of freshwater origin. The highest species diversity has parasitofauna of Pleuronectiformes, which are infected by 46 species of Myxozoa. Four genera of Myxozoa (Alataspora, Palliatus, Рseudoalataspora,and Parvicapsula) are observed in flounders only, but the genus Sphaeromyxa has never been observed in fish of this order. The Myxozoa parasites of flounders have various shapes of their spores and vegetative forms. The fishes from the order Scorpaeniformes are infected by 32 Myxosoa species with predominance of the genera Sphaeromyxa, Myxidium, and Ceratomyxa. The Gadiformes fishes are infected by three species of these parasites belonging to the genera Zschokkella, Myxidium and Sphaeromyxa (the Sphaeromyxa were found in Eleginus gracilis only). The Clupeiformes fishes have another three species of Myxozoa belonging to the genera Ceratomyxa and Ortholinea. Anadromous and semi-anadromous fishes of the orders Mugiliformes, Salmonifomes, and Perciformes are infected by 12 species of Myxozoa belonging to the genera Myxidium, Myxosoma, Myxobolus, Sphaerospora, and Chloromyxum. All of them, with inclusion of Myxidium, have a freshwater origin, but are adapted to marine life. The fishes from the orders Squaliformes, Rajiformes, Beloniformes, Perciformes, and Tetraodontiformes are infected insignificantly and have no more than a single species of Myxozoa for each host.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2311 Poster

The loss of herring developing eggs in spawning grounds in the western Bering Sea


А.А. Bonk
Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (KamchatNIRO), 18 Naberezhnaya Street, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683602, Russia. E-mail: bonkaa@kamniro.ru
In spawning grounds of herring in the western Bering Sea (the population of Korf and Karaginski Bays) the number of eggs spawned has been reduced significantly. In 2004 results of special observations indicated that the reduced number of herring eggs in the spawning grounds is related to ecological conditions. In herring spawning ground periodically exposed to draining, although protected from negative influence of waves (i.e. the spawning ground of lagoon type), the number of eggs was reduced by 52.6% on average, whereas in the spawning ground influenced less by the tides and ebbs, while much more by the waves (locked coastal spawning ground), the loss of eggs for the same period of observation was 71.3%. In the lagoon spawning grounds the loss of eggs takes place mostly due to the feeding by seabirds, fishes and invertebrates on. For example, reduction of eggs due to seabird feeding varied from 65.1% at daily tide to 91.4% at a neap tide. On average the percent egg reduction due to seabird feeding reached 86.8% in this spawning ground. In the locked coastal spawning ground until neap tide the loss of eggs due to seabird feeding was about 8% for the first 24 hours and varied from 45.9 to 51.4% for next days, with a maximum loss of 94% at neap tide (49.8% in average). For this spawning ground the main cause of egg losses is waves.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2476 Oral

Paralarval distribution patterns of the gonatid squid Berryteuthis anonychus in the North Pacific
John R. Bower
Northern Biosphere Field Science Center, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido, 041-8611, Japan

E-mail: akaika@fish.hokudai.ac.jp


Berryteuthis anonychus is a small (mantle length, ML, to 150 mm) oceanic squid distributed mainly in the northeast Pacific, where it is an important prey for salmonids, Pacific pomfret, and red flying squid. Despite its importance in the food web of the subarctic North Pacific, little is known about its life history. This study examines the paralarval distribution patterns of B. anonychus in the North Pacific to determine where it spawns and better understand its migration. Paralarvae were collected during six summer cruises (1999-2004) in the North Pacific aboard the Hokkaido University training ship Oshoro Maru. A total of 552 bongo-net tows were conducted between 0- and 100-m depth. Parlarvae occurred north of the Subarctic Boundary from the Subarctic Current to the Alaska Stream. In the North Pacific, MLs of juveniles and adults increase from south to north, suggesting B. anonychus migrates northward during spring. Based on these data, possible migration scenarios will be proposed.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2517 Oral

Oceanographical conditions changing and Pandalus borealis redistribution in the northern part Sea of Japan


Gennady A. Kantakov and Sergey D. Bukin
Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, 196 Komsomolskaya Street, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 693023, Russia

E-mail: okhotsk@sakhniro.ru


Redistribution of shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in the Sea of Japan is analyzed based on routine oceanographic observations along three lines in Tartar Strait, CTDs, plankton surveys, and shrimp catch data. Possible oceanographic causes of the Pandalus borealis redistribution in the northern part Sea of Japan are discussed.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2272 Oral

The Bering Sea Pollock and regime shifts


Oleg Bulatov
Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO), 17 Verkhnyaya Krasnoselskaya, Moscow, 107140, Russia

Email: obulatov@vniro.ru


The walleye Pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, is the most important species in the world fisheries. The main fishing grounds are located in Bering and Okhotsk Seas. The maximum Bering Sea catch has exceeded 4 million tons, the minimum level was about 1,6 million tons. In all areas (western, northern, eastern, Aleutian Basin, Aleutian Islands) stock biomass peaked in middle 1980’s and extremely low level at the end of 1990’s were observed. Despite of spawning grounds being temporally and spatially isolated, strong year-classes of walleye pollock appeared in the eastern (western) Bering Sea in 1966, 1967, 1977, 1978 (1978, 1979), 1982 (1982), 1984 (1986), 1989 (1988), 1992 (1992), 1996, 2000. The maximum numbers of eggs in the eastern and western Bering Sea was observed in 1990, larvae and yearlings - in 1987. The appearance of those strong year-classes are not a result of high abundance of spawning females: the strong 3 and 5 year classes appeared mainly in the first and in the late years of the solar activity cycle. The extremely high year classes are registered in 1977-1978 years. After extremely cold winter 1976/1977 the mean summer temperature of water sharply increased in 1977/1978 up to 4,0-4,8 C (Khen, TINRO-centre). Chlorophyll-a concentration increased from 1,1 to 4,1 mg/m cub in 1977-1980 (Tadakoro, 2002). Therefore, the regime shift occurred in 1977, which may change water temperature, primary production, zooplankton productivity, was proposed as the main reasons of walleye pollock stock biomass dynamics in the Bering Sea.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2291 Poster

The Bering Sea Pollock stock assessment using GIS “Fishery”


Oleg Bulatov and Georgiy Moiseenko
Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO), 17 Verkhnyaya Krasnoselskaya, Moscow, 107140, Russia

E-mail: obulatov@vniro.ru, georgem@vniro.ru.


The new approach for stock assessment biomass of walleye Pollock was based on using the information system “Fishery”. The data was obtained from vessels fishing Pollock in the Navarin area (59-64 N, 176 E-175 W) in 1998-2004. Biomass of walleye Pollock was calculated on information about large Russian vessels tows duration, type of trawls, horizontal opening and catch per one hour. In each quadrangle Pollock biomass was estimated for each month. We found that biomass widely changed in this region. The minimum season recorded in cold period – March-April, when the ice edge has extremely south position. The maximum seasonally biomass was observed in July-November. Obtained data showed that the lowest level of biomass recorded was in 2000, after this year biomass increased only until 2004.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2365 Poster

Interadecadal variations of the masses subtropical fishes reproduction and their influence on ichthyoplankton community of northwestern Japan/East Sea
S.V. Davydova
Pacific Research Fisheries Centre (TINRO), 4 Shevchenko Alley, Vladivostok, 690950, Russia. E-mail: davydova@tinro.ru
The fish community of northwest part of the Japan/East Sea is comprised of boreal and subtropical representatives from the south for feeding and spawning as water temperature warms in spring. Subtropical species (sardine Sardinops melanostictus, mackerel Scomber japonicus, anchovy Engraulis japonicus, saury Cololabis saira) dominated the fish community of the Japan/East Sea in part of 20th Century. From 1988 to 2003 ichthyoplankton surveys revealed marked changes in species composition and biomass of fish eggs and larvae. After 1990 the number of sardine eggs and larvae decreased gradually in the northwest part of the sea. Then, in 1997, sardine eggs and larvae disappeared as the stock decreased sharply. During the last decade, mackerel abundance has been low. At the end of 1990s, a short-term increase in mackerel catches near the coast of Korean Peninsula and an appearance of eggs in northwest part of Sea (south of Primorie) was associated with a strong 1995 year class. The leading role of anchovy in the ichthyoplankton community is determined by a high stock level and active spawning in northwest part of sea. However, significant interannual variability in spawning intensity and recruitment exist. The intensity of spawning depends on development of the coastal branch of the subarctic front. Currently, saury is the second numerous species. Young were widely distributed in summer and autumn in the northwest part of sea. Analyses of biological and environmental factors revealed that conditions favorable to successful reproduction of anchovy and saury in the Japan/East Sea occurred during the last decade.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2333 Poster

Species composition, distribution and food habits of ichthyoplankton in the Okhotsk Sea in summer-autumn, 2003-2004
Elena N. Andreeva, Svetlana V. Davydova and Marina A. Shebanova
Pacific Research Fisheries Centre (TINRO), 4 Shevchenko Alley, Vladivostok, 690950, Russia. E-mail: tinro@tinro.ru
Ichthyoplankton was sampled in summer and autumn, 2003-2004, along the shelf of the Okhotsk Sea (352 stations). Ichthyoplankton was represented by eggs and larvae of 37 fish species, belonging to 18 families. Boreal ichthyofauna dominated, but warm-water species were collected, as well, including Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus), and Japanese gisu (Pterothrissus gissu). Flounders (family Pleuronectidae) were represented by the greatest number of species (7). Among them, larvae of Sakhalin flounder Limanda sakhalinensis were the most abundant and widely distributed in both years. Larvae of banded Irish lord Hemilepidotus gilberti predominated, accounting for 63% of the total catch. In ichthyoplankton of the Okhotsk Sea eggs of 4 species fish were present – yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera), Korean sole (Glyptocephalus stelleri), walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Japanese anchovy. The spatial distribution of fish larvae is conditioned by the hydrological features of the Okhotsk Sea. The largest numbers of larvae were caught at the northeastern coast of Sakhalin and at the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea in subarctic waters. Representatives of a subtropical complex (e.g., Japanese anchovy, Pacific saury), as well as flounder eggs, were caught at the southeastern Sakhalin and Kuriles in waters of the Japan Sea. The diet of fish larvae in the Okhotsk Sea included more than 20 plankton species of different sizes. The dominant food items for all fish larvae were the copepods, Pseudocalanus minutus and Oithona similis. Paracalanus parvus, and copepod eggs, and nauplii were secondary prey. Fish larvae began actively consuming zooplankton after reaching 6 mm in length.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2593 Poster

Effect of the environmental conditions on the structure and distribution of Pacific saury in the Tsushima Warm Current region
Yeong Gong1 and Young-Sang Suh2
1 Korea Fisheries Association, 2-603 Gloria Town, Jaesong-Dong, Haeundae-Gu, Busan, Republic of Korea

2 National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, #408-1, Kijang, Busan, Republic of Korea 619-902. E-mail: yssuh@nfrdi.re.kr
Interannual and decadal scale changes in body size of Pacific saury, catch and catch per unit effort were examined to investigate the environmental effects on the stock structure and abundance in the Tsushima Warm Current region. Interannual changes in thermal conditions are responsible for the different occurrence (catch) rates of sized group of the fish. Changes in body size due to environmental variables lead the stock to be homogeneous during the period of high abundance, while one of the reminder cohorts supports the stock during the period of low level of abundance. Migration circuits of two cohorts of saury stock are hypothesized on the basis of short life span and spatio-temporal changes of the stock structure in normal environmental conditions. Changes in upper ocean structure and production cycles by the decadal scale climate changes lead changes in stock structure and recruitment, resulting in the fluctuation of saury abundance. Hypothesized mechanism of the effects of climate changes on stock structure and abundance is illustrated on the basis of changes in thermal regime and production cycle.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2591 Oral

Productivity of common squid, Todarodes pacificus in Korean waters and its adjacent regions
Yeong Gong
Korean Fisheries Association, Seoul, 120-012, Republic of Korea. E-mail: gongyeong@yahoo.co.kr
Fishery and some biological data of common squid, Todarodes pacificus, were used to describe changes in population structure and abundance in relation to oceanic climate factors. At present, it has possible to consider them as a single population to conserve. Areas of abundance of the population shifted from the Kuroshio-Oyashio Current region to the Tshushima Warm Current region in the early 1970s. Decadal ccean climate shifts between the cool and warm regimes in the last century appear to be associated with the productivity of the squid. Possible changes in distribution, life history traits and abundance are explained on the basis of the changes in current-mediated migration circuits.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2318 Poster

The northern Bering Sea pollock fishery in 2004


M.A. Stepanenko and E.V. Gritsay
Pacific Research Fisheries Centre (TINRO), 4 Shevchenko Alley, Vladivostok, 690950, Russia. E-mail: stepanenko@tinro.ru
The biomass of Eastern Bering Sea pollock varied significantly during the 1990s and 2000s. Although biomass of the Bogoslof spawning stock was very low by the end of the 1990s and early 2000s, catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of factory trawlers fishing over the continental slope in the Pribilof canyon (depth 580-620 m) in February increased since 2000, possibly reflecting a broad-scale of migration of first maturing (age 5-6) fish from the shelf to the continental slope in addition to recruitment to the Bogoslof stock. Direct observations onboard factory trawlers revealed that some prespawning 5-6 year old fish migrate from outer shelf to the adjacent continental slope inside the Pribilof and Zhemchug canyons by the end of February and early March. Five year olds accounted for 15-17% of these prespawning fish in 2003 and 75-80% in 2005, the latter representing the abundant 2000 year class. Big concentrations of prespawning pollock occurred at depths of 400-500 m in the Bering canyon north of Akutan Island between mid February and early March. In the Zhemchug canyon, the proportion of females with hydrated eggs increased from 0.27 to 58.2% during mid February to early March 2005. At the same time, pollock CPUE, reflecting number of fish in the canyons, decreased from 91.5 t to 31.1 t. These data demonstrate that prespawning pollock began active migration to southeast in last ten days of February. This all suggests that the biomass of the Bogoslof spawning stock may have been underestimated as recruitment increased in the 2000s.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2380 Poster

Species identification and age determination of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by scale patterns
Soto-o Ito and Yukimasa Ishida
Stock Assessment Division, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, 2-12-4, Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-8648, Japan. E-mail: ishiday@fra.affrc.go.jp
This paper summarizes methods used to determine the species and age of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by visual interpretation of characters on the scales of fish caught in the North Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas. Scale characters, such as freshwater growth, radial striations, and shape and number of circuli, are used to identify the Pacific salmon species. Several illustrated keys are included to determine the freshwater and ocean ages.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2527 Poster

Changes of fish communities in estuaries of the Peter the Great Bay during the 20-21st centuries
Victor A. Nazarov, Boris I. Ivanov, Nikolay A. Chernykh
Pacific Research Fisheries Centre (TINRO), 4 Shevchenko Alley, Vladivostok, 690950, Russia. E-mail: nazarov@tinro.ru
Estuarine communities of the Peter the Great Bay basin are including the fishes of three extensive groups: marine (sthenohaline, mesohaline and euryhaline), anadromous and freshwater (sthenohaline, mesohaline and euryhaline) with more than 130 species as a whole. Special researches of estuarine ichthyofauna here were begun at 1910-Th years and then were continued regularly to the present days activating especially since 1992. Qualitative fish species composition during the last hundred years is characterized the stability of freshwater and anadromous association’s components. In other side substantial changes of marine fish species body were took place. At the second and fourth quarters of XX century and the first pentade of XXI century the number of warm-liked species was increased under the influence of climate factors mainly. Last years some rare species were occurred such as striped puffer, triple-tail and others.
Quantitative parameters of communities were varied very dynamically according the climate changes and human activities. First of its promoted to increasing or decreasing of warm-liked or cold-liked species, for example, far-eastern sardine-iwashi, japanese anchovy, herrings, salmons, green gar, striped mullet and others. The second factor’s group promoted to changes of all fish stock quantity. Pollutions and fishery were the unselective decrease causes of the common fish resource abundance. Fishery was the selective decrease reason of abundance of the commercial species. Pisciculture which was started in the Bay since 1980 is influence on stocks of pacific salmons preferably. Both of pollutions and fishery were promoted to degradation of several species natural stocks in the Peter the Great Bay estuaries such as pacific herring, smelt, haarder, wachna cod and others during last thirty years period especially.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2602 Oral

The use of the “Orca Sphere” device in bottom longline fishery in the Okhotsk Sea


Konstantin A. Karyakin
Pacific Research Fisheries Centre (TINRO), 4 Shevchenko Alley, Vladivostok, 690950, Russia. E-mail: mokrin@tinro.ru
The problem of killer whale predation on demersal fishes during longline fisheries has recently attracted attention of fishermen in many fishing areas, particularly in the Okhotsk Sea. Fishermen lose catches and fishing time because killer whales regularly prey on fish caught by longliners. Killer whales may cause damage to bottom nets and sometimes significantly reduce the amount of catch. The “Orca Sphere” is a device specially designed for keeping killer whales away from fishing boats. It was manufactured by the “SaveWave” company in cooperation with “Mustad.” By generating ultrasonic signals, “Orca Sphere” restricts the ability of killer whales to echolocate thus preventing them from approaching fishing gear. In April-May 2005, the longliner “Yuliya Star” used “Orca Sphere” five times. Three times killer whales moved away from the vessel after the device was deployed. Once, killer whales were present within approximately 5 miles off the vessel, but did not approach the fishing gear and did not prey on the longline catch during the entire period of signal emission. In one case, “Orca Sphere” generated a signal too weak to keep killer whales away from the vessel. In this latter case, catches of turbot were attacked by killer whales.

PICES XIV FIS_Paper-2518 Oral
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