Photo credit: nasa




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ASTRONOMY



Photo credit: NASA

(The use of NASA photos in no way implies that NASA has endorsed or been connected with this publication.)
Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson
This is about astronomy. Astronomy is the study of objects beyond the atmosphere of our planet Earth. Ancient humans used their eyes to study stars and constellations or groups of stars. Galileo Galilei of Italy studied the stars and planets with a telescope. Our sun has many planets in outer space, for example, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
Esto es sobre astronomia. Astronomia es el estudio de objectos mas alla de la atmosfera de nuestro planeta la Tierra. Hace muchos anos los humanos antiguos utilizaron sus ojos para estudiar estrellas y constelaciones o grupos de estrellas. Galileo Galilei de italia estudio las estrellas y los planetas con un telescopo. Nuestro sol tiene muchos planetas en espacio exterior, por ejemplo Mercurio, Venus, Tierra, Marte, Jupitero, Saturno, Uranus, Neptuno, Pluto.
Some planets like Saturn have rings of rock and ice around them. Between Mars and Jupiter are asteroids. Meteors which hit the Earth are called meteorites. Big comets or showers of small meteorites may have killed dinosaurs and destroyed civilizations. Groups of stars are galaxies. Our galaxy is called the Milky Way, and it is larger than most galaxies.

Algunos planetas como Jupitero tienen anillos de piedras y hielo alrededor de ellos. Entre Marte y Jupitero estan asteroides. Los meteoros que golpean la Tierra se llaman meteoritos. Cometas grandes o lluvias de estrellas (es decir de meteoritos) tal vez han matado a los dinosaurios y destruyeron a las civilizaciones. Grupos de estrellas son galaxias. Nuestra galaxia se llama la Via Lactea, y es mas grande que la mayoria de las galaxias.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Black_hole_quasar_NASA.jpg
There are novas, quasars and black holes. A black hole as big as the earth’s orbit around the sun is at the center of our galaxy. It is where gravity draws in all matter and light in its vicinity. A quasar is light from matter before it enters a black hole.
Hay novas, quasares y agujeros negros. Un agujero negro tan grande como la orbita de la Tierra alrededor del sol esta al centro de nuestra galaxia. Es donde la gravidad tira adentro de su mismo toda la materia y la luz en la vecenidad. Un quasar es luz de la materia antes de que entra en un agujero negro.
There is much dark matter between stars and galaxies. Some huge parts of the universe are dark because there is no matter. Possibly 80% of all matter is invisible dark matter. Scientists speak of matter and anti-matter, energy and dark energy. Many stars have planets. Some planets have water. Perhaps some also have organisms.
Hay mucha materia oscura entre estrellas y galaxias. Hay partes grandes del universo que son obscuras porque no hay materia. Posiblemente 80% de toda materia es materia obscura e invisble. Los cientificos hablan de materia y anti-materia, la energia y energia obscura. Muchas estrellas tienen planetas. Algunos planetas y lunas tienen agua. Tal vez algunos tambien tienen organismos.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080307182745.htm
The following information is from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) of NASA. It came after a study lasting five years.
La informacion que sigue es de. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) de NASA. Vino de una investigacion que duro cinco años.
dark matter dark energy atoms photons neutrinos TIME

materia oscura energia oscura atomos fotones neutrinos TIEMPO

63%

-.001%

12%

15%

10%

380,000 years after universe began...

años desque de cuando empezo el universo

23%

72%

4.6%

not available

-1%

2008 A.D.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080307182745.htm
It appears for example that originally our universe had more dark matter and atoms. Today there is more dark energy. In fact it is 72% of the entire universe. There are not as many photons and neutrinos now either.
Parece por ejemplo que originalmente el universo tuvo mas materia oscura y atomos. Hoy hay mas energia oscura. En realidad es 72% del universo entiro. No hay tanto de fotones y neutrinos hoy tambien.
Some scientists use giant radar systems to search for signs of intelligent life on other planets. We call this process SETI. Humans have gone to Earth’s moon, and robots have explored Mars. A theory by Stephen Hawkings and other scientists is that our universe is only one of many universes which together form a multiverse.
Algunos cientificos usan sistemas grandes de radar para buscar senales de vida inteligente en otras planetas. Llamamos este proceso SETI. Humanos han ido a la luna de la Tierra, y robotas han explorado marte. Una teoria por Stephen Hawings y otros cientificos es que nuestro universo es solamente uno de muchos universos que juntos forman un multiverso.



New galaxies; courtesy of nasa.gov
We know that our universe has countless stars with planets. We also know some of these other planets, called exoplanets, have water. This means there may be living organisms on some of them. Many scientists think probably most stars have some planets or earth-like planets, according to Wesley Traub a NASA scientist. 55 Cancri has at least five planets. It’s 41 light years away. Gigantic stars may also have planets with life forms.
Sabemos que nuestro universo tiene innumerable estrellas con planetsas. Sabemos tambien que unos de las otros planetas, llamados los exoplanetas, tienen agua. Esto significa que tal vez hay organimsos vivos en unos de ellos. Muchos cientificos creen que problamente la mayoria de las estrellas tienen unos planetas o planetas como la tierra, segun el Wesley Traub un cientifico de NASA. 55 Cancri tiene a lo menos cinco planetas. Esta 41 años-luz lejos. Estrellas giganticas tal vez tienen formas de vida tambien.



Pleides; courtesy of nasa.gov
Some NASA scientists think there may also be water on Mars. In ancient times some of the water may have come from its interior. Also, some NASA scientists say there may be planets with trees that in general are purple, yellow or red. For example see this pretty CalTech illustration by Doug Cummings.
Unos cientificos de NASA creen que tal vez hay agua en Marte. En antiguos tiempos tal vez algun agua venia del parte interior del planeta. Ademas de esto, unos cientificos de NASA dicen que tal vez hay planetas con arboles que en general tienen el color morado, amarillo u rojo. Por ejemplo vean esta ilustracion hermosilla CalTech por Doug Cummings
http://spaceflightnow.com/news/n0704/11planetcolors/
The star closest to our own solar system is Epsilon Eridani, about 10.4 light years away. It is younger, a little smaller, cooler and fainter than our sun. It has two asteroid belts. Epsilon Eridani is closer to Earth and more like our sun overall. Its age is about 800 million years old, only one-fifth the age of our sun. It may have three planets and possibly more.
La estrella mas cercano nuestra propia esistema solar es Epsilon Eridani, casi 10.4 años de luz lejos. Es mas jovena, un poco mas pequeña, frigida y apenas visible que nuestro sol. Tiene dos cinturones de asteroides. Epsilon Eridani es mas cercano a la Tierra y mas como nuestro sol en general. Su edad es casi 800 millones de años, solamente quinto de la edad de nuestro sol. Tal vez tiene tres planetas y posiblemente mas.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081027121317.htm



Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Space exploration will continue. On the Moon’s surface are probably 1.1 million metric tons of Helium 3. About 25 tons of it can supply the U.S. with all the energy it needs for a year. It would cost $100 billion or $4 billion per ton. About one-fourth of the Helium 3 is in the maria, large dark areas formed by ancient volcanoes. To mine it will require heating it to remove oxygen.

La exploracion del espacio exterior continuara. En la superficie de la luna hay probablemente 1,1 toneladas metricas de Helio 3. Casi 25 toneladas de eso puede proveer a los EEUU todo la energia que necesita para un año. Costaria $100 mil millones o $4 mil millones por una tonelada. Casi un cuarto de Helio 3 esta en la maria lunar, areas obscuras y grandes formadas por volcanes antiguos. A minarlo requiere la calentar para eliminar el oxigeno.

China’s Ouyang Ziyuan says China will mine Helium 3 on the moon then send it to Earth to use it as energy three times a year. Many say China will mine more gold than South Africa in 2012, and Helium 3 is more rare than gold.

Ouyang Ziyuan de China dice que China va a minar Helio 3 en la luna entonces enviarlo a la Tierra para usarla como energia tres veces cada año. Muchas personas dice que China minara mas oro que SudAfrica en 2012, y Helio 3 es mas raro que oro.

There is also a military reason. The nation which has weapons above the weapons of its foes can destroy the weapons of it foes. Therefore the U.S. wants to return to the moon, China and Russia have plans for moon bases, India and Japan are also doing much in outer space, and doubtlessly other nations and private companies will go there.

Hay tambien una razon militar. La nacion que tiene armas por encima de las armas de sus enemigos puede destruir las armas de los enemigos. Por lo tanto los EEUU quiere regresar a la Luna, China y Rusia tienen planes para bases lunares, India y Japon tambien hace mucho en cuanto al espacio exterior, y sin duda otras naciones y compañias van a ir por alli.
An Astronomical Unit is the distance from the sun to the Earth. From Neptune outwards about 50 Astronomical Units is the Kuiper Belt. There are many small bodies or planets in this region including Pluto.
Una Unidad Astronomical es la distancia del sol a la Tierra. De Neptuno afuera a eso de 50 Unidades Astronicales es el Cinturon Kuiper. Hay muchos cuerpitos o chiquitos planetas en esta area incluyendo Pluton.
LEARN MORE
http://news.independent.co.uk/sci_tech/article2758835.ece

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/070711_water_planet.html

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/mars_tharsis_011009-1.html

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/mars_science_findings_000622.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars

http://spaceflightnow.com/news/n0704/11planetcolors/

http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070823/ap_on_sc/universe_hole

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6933841.stm

http://www.astronomynow.com/

http://www.space.com/

http://media-newswire.com/release_1057210.html

http://www.nationalufocenter.com/artman/publish/article_191.php

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helium_3

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_1598005.html?menu=

http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/02/20/mars-ocean-water.html

FUTURE EXPLORATIONS FOR SETI





http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/3f/Keplerpacecraft.019e.jpg

NASA’s Kepler mission will search for extra-solar planets
Copyright 2008

By Mason Emerson
The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) continues. The American Association for the Advancement of Science met in early 2008 in Boston, Massachusetts. Scientists there suggested that 20 to 60% of stars like our own sun may have planets with life. They also suggested there may be many planets or moons of other planets in our own solar system with life.
For example they have used NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope to study heat from dust around stars like our own but of different ages. Hot dust implies that large rocky bodies are colliding and forming into new planets. Such dust has also been found one to five times the distance from our sun to Earth. The dust also appears in young stars but not in stars older than 300 million years.

They believe our solar system may have hundreds or thousands more of very small objects or planets like Pluto, but we cannot see them because they are in a distant region of space around our sun which is called the Kuiper belt. Evidence is growing that the Kuiper Belt has several planets the size of Earth or Mar planets and possibly 42 tinier bodies sometimes called dwarf planets or minor planets.

For example Eris, also known as UB313, was discovered in 2003, and it is larger than Pluto. It has a moon named Dysnomia. Lila and Santa were found in 2006. Lila was found about 97 billion miles from Earth. Santa is about 930 miles in diameter and has a moon.

Besides a lot of such dwarf planets, the Kuiper Belt may also have some planets the size of Mars and Earth or the gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn. The dwarfs are probably made of just rock and ice. The larger planets in the distant Kuiper Belt may have gas envelopes, and some may have wet warm interiors. Scientists think Pluto, Jupiter’s moon Europa, and many moons around other planets probably have an interior ocean.
They will be looking for planets in other solar systems that are in the Goldilocks Zone. It is an area which is not too hot or too cold to support life. The raw materials for life are common, and water is probably the most common molecule in the universe. Organic molecules are already known to be common in all parts of the universe. One possibility is that meteors fall upon a planet, depositing the organic seeds of life, the pan-spermia theory.
The Allen Telescope Array located about 290 miles northeast of San Francisco will be helping in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence, other alien life forms, and astronomy in general. Professor Glenn White of Open University has noted that a European Space Agency mission called Darwin, will launch a flotilla of telescopes in 2018, to scan 500 stars over five years within a distance of 60 light years.

Prof Glenn White of Open University said a European Space Agency mission called Darwin will be launched in 2018 as a flotilla to scan 500 stars over five years within a distance of 60 light years. He added that aliens could now be hearing wave transmissions from Earth that began in 1927 now gone out over 80 light years away, meaning aliens on hundreds of habitable planets may be listening to us.

One recently found planet is 20.5 light years from Earth in the Libra constellation, 1 ½ times the size of Earth, may have water on its surface and temperatures zero and 40°C. It is 14 times closer to its star Gliese 581 than Earth is the our sun but its star is much cooler. It was found by a European team using a giant telescope on a mountain top at La Silla, Chile.

Scientists first found water on a planet outside Earth’s solar system in 1999. The planet named Osiris is some 150 light years away. It was also the first known exo-planet to have an atmosphere. Instruments on Earth measured how much water was being absorbed into Osiris’ atmosphere by how much light was reflected. It is classed as a "hot Jupiter" because made of gas and orbits so close to its parent star in the Pegasus constellation that its atmosphere is boiling away into space at 1,100C.

Dr Seth Shostak of the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence group has said: "We'll know we are not alone between the years 2020 and 2025. His group is building 350 telescopes to listen for ETs. Shostak believes aliens could already be listening to Earth and alien life may have landed in clumps of bacteria cells.

One planet found near the centre of the Milky Way, is known as OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb, is 20,000 light years away, and it has a surface temperature estimated at no more than -173°C. It orbits a star one-fifth the size of our sun, has a thin atmosphere like ours, but its frozen seas likely cover a rocky surface. It was found by the "microlensing," a technique noted by Albert Einstein in 1912 which is where a star's light is used as a lens.

Scientists at UCSC want to closely investigate Alpha Centauri B. Computer simulations show it may have one or more planets with the right temperature for water and life. In 2005 an extrasolar planet under three suns was discovered in the constellation Cygnus. Scientists plan to also search for life on planets orbiting stars that are giants compared to our own sun during NASA’s Space Interferometry Mission (SIM).
LEARN MORE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SETI

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/02/080219-planets-life_2.html

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_2363460.html?menu=

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_2303615.html?menu=

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_2282433.html?menu=

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_2134313.html?menu=

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_1782710.html?menu=

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_1707760.html?menu=

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UB313

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_1698131.html?menu=

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_1598005.html?menu=

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_1483410.html?menu=

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/08/030804075326.htm

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/07/050715222557.htm

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080307121613.htm

ASTRONOMY AND FUTURE PREDICTIONS


We can make some reasonable predictions about the future of our planet Earth and the universe by knowing the past. Scientists at Cardiff Centre for Astrobiology, including Professor William Napier, used a computer model of our solar system's movement. They found that every 35 to 40 million years as it moves up and down through the plane of the galaxy, it passes through the densest part of the plane. There gravitational forces from the surrounding giant gas and dust clouds cause comets to plunge into the solar system.
Podemos hacer algunas predicciones razonables sobre el futuro de nuestra planeta la Tierra y del universo por medio de saber el pasado. Los científicos en el Centro para Astrobiologia en Cardiff, incluyendo el profesor Guillermo Napier, utilizaron un modelo de computadora para el movimiento de nuestra Sistema Solar. Encontraron que cada 35 a 40 millones de años como se mueve hacia arriba y hacia abajo a través del plano de la galaxia, pasa a través de la parte más densa del plano. Allí las fuerzas gravitacionales de gas y nubes de polvo gigantes hacen que los cometas hunden en la Sistema Solar.

Some collide with our planet the Earth. This is possibly why most dinosaurs died about 65 million years ago. Earth is now close to another such period of time. Comet impacts both destroy life but also throw micro-organisms into space and across the universe.
Algunos chocan con nuestro planeta la Tierra. Éste es posiblemente la razon para que la mayoría de los dinosaurios murieron hace cerca de 65 millones de años. La Tierra ahora es cerca de otro tal período de tiempo. Los impactos de cometas ambos destruyen la vida pero también lanzan microorganismos en espacio y a través del universo.
The 2005 Deep Impact mission found organic and clay particles in the comet Tempel 1. One theory for the beginning of life is that clay particles helped change simple organic molecules into more complex structures. The 2004 Stardust Mission to Comet Wild 2 found different types of complex hydrocarbon molecules from which life may begin.
La Misión Profunda de Impacto 2005 encontró partículas orgánicas y de arcilla en el cometa Tempel 1. Una teoría para el principio de la vida es que las partículas de arcilla ayudaron a cambiar las moléculas orgánicas simples en estructuras más complejas. La Misión 2004 de Stardust al Cometa Salvaje 2 encontró diversos tipos de moléculas complejas de hidrocarburo de las cuales la vida tal vez pudó comenzar.
Radioactive elements can keep water in liquid form in comets millions of years, and the billions of comets in our solar system and across the galaxy have much more clay than early Earth had. The mathematical probability that life began on Earth instead of in a comet are only one in one trillion trillion.
Elementos radiactivos pueden mantener el agua en forma líquida en cometas para millones de años, y los mil millones de cometas en nuestra Sistema Solar y a través de la galaxia tienen mucho más arcilla que la Tierra temprano tenía. La probabilidad matemática que la vida comenzó por la Tierra en vez de en un cometa es solamente uno en un trillón de trillones.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05/080502092145.htm
Research by University of Toronto astronomers including Professor Ray Jayawardhana shows planets can begin not only around stars but also objects called planemos that are not much larger than Jupiter or 100 times less massive than our sun. Some planets that circle planemos even have their own moons. Disks of dust and gas that are forming into planets are also common around failed stars called “brown dwarfs.”
Investigaciones por astrónomos de la Universidad de Toronto incluyendo profesor Ray Jayawardhana muestran que los planetas pueden empezar no solamente alrededor de las estrellas pero también de objetos llamados los planemos que no son mucho más grandes que Júpiter o 100 veces menos masivas que nuestro sol. Algunos planetas que circundanlos planemos aun tienen sus propias lunas. Los discos de polvo y gas que se están formando en lplanetas son también comunes alrededor de las estrellas falladas llamadas los "enanos marrones."
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/06/060605190412.htm
Cosmology is the study of how the universe began and what will happen to it in the future. There are different scientific theories. The Big Bang theory is that the universe began with an explosion called the Big Bang and it will expand forever. Eventually even the atoms will separate. The Oscillating Universe theory is that the universe repeatedly forever expands in a Big Bang, collapses, expands in a Big Bang and collapses.
Cosmología es el estudio de cómo el universo comenzó y de qué le sucederá en el futuro. Hay diversas teorías científicas. La teoría de Big Bang es que el universo comenzó con una explosión llamada la Gran Explosión y se ampliará para siempre. Eventualmente los átomos se separarán. La teoría del Universo Oscilante es que el universo para siempre se amplía en varias ocasiones en una explosión grande, se derrumba, se amplía en una explosión grande y se derrumba.
Some scientists believe our universe is only one of possibly an infinite number of universes which are called a Multiverse. In this theory it is possible there have been and will be an infinite number of Earths or almost Earths. Of course, there are many other theories about the future and past of the universe or multiverse.
Algunos científicos creen que nuestro universo es posiblemente solamente uno de un número infinito de universos que se llaman un Multiverso. En esta teoría es posible que ya habian sido y será un número infinito de Tierras o casi-Tierras. Por supuesto, hay muchas otras teorías sobre el futuro y pasado del universo o del multiverso.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmology
A PHOTO BOOK

Inner planets

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Terestial_planets_comparisons.jpg


Mercury

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Reprocessed_Mariner_10_image_of_Mercury.jpg




Venus

http://observe.arc.nasa.gov/nasa/gallery/image_gallery/solar_system/graphics/mgn_venus_globes.jpg


Mars – From Nasa.gov




Green Aurora at Lake Superior

http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp/outreach/images/Aurora/2big.gif


This shows Jupiter.

http://observe.arc.nasa.gov/nasa/gallery/image_gallery/solar_system/graphics/jupiter_gany.jpg


Saturn

http://observe.arc.nasa.gov/nasa/gallery/image_gallery/solar_system/graphics/saturn.jpg


Uranus

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/image/uranus_voy2.jpg


Neptune

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/image/neptune_voy2.jpg


Pink and blue Aurora
http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp/outreach/images/Aurora/4bg.gif



Horsehead Nebula – From Nasa.gov


Spiral Galaxy M83 – from Nasa.gov


Star Factory Messier 17 – from Nasa.gov
Trifid Nebula – from Nasa.gov


NGC 2442 Galaxy In Volans - from Nasa.gov


Spaceshuttle - from Nasa.gov
WORDFIND ... BUSCAPALABRAS

astronomy; the study of; objects beyond; atmosphere; ancient humans; used their eyes; stars and; with a telescope; Mercury; Venus; Jupiter; Saturn; Uranus; rings of rock; around them; between; asteroids; galaxies; novas quasars; blackholes; dark matter; radar; SETI; Hawkings; mutiverse; exoplanets; purple

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