Pest Plant Alert: Cape Broom (Genista monspessulana) Identification and Control Information Declared Pest Plant under the Pest Plants Local Law 2009, Shire of Bridgetown Greenbushes




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Pest Plant Alert: Cape Broom (Genista monspessulana)
Identification and Control Information
Declared Pest Plant under the Pest Plants Local Law 2009, Shire of Bridgetown Greenbushes.

Compiled by Andrew Matthews, Hazard Reduction Officer, Shire of Bridgetown Greenbushes


Background: Cape broom (or Montpellier broom), (Genista monspessulana), is a woody legume weed with significant current and potential impacts on forestry production, biodiversity of natural ecosystems, grazing systems, access to amenity areas and fire risk. Cape Broom is ranked 37th under the Weeds of National Significance, (WoNS), with a particularly high impact score due to its formation of dense, impenetrable thickets arising from a long-lived soil seed bank. The area infested with Cape Broom has increased from 200 000ha in 2002 to 600 000 in 2010 nationally. Cape Broom is highly prevalent throughout the Manjimup region and is becoming increasingly common across the Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes; it is also present in the Shire of Boyup Brook. If left un-checked, Cape Broom has the potential to become the dominant plant on road verges and Bushland understory across the Southwest.
Common name(s): Montpellier Broom; Cape Broom; Canary Broom.

Distribution: Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania. Alien to Australia, alien to Western Australia but naturalised. Native distribution: Mediterranean. Refer to Table 1 and 2 for known Cape Broom Locations on land managed by the Shire of Bridgetown Greenbushes.
Habitat: Amongst tall trees, low trees, low (sclerophyll) shrubland, grassland; in gravelly soil, sand, loam, wet soil; occupying swamps, riverbanks, road verges; growing on wasteland, in disturbed natural vegetation, on bare areas.
Growth form: Erect, slender shrubs, up to 3.5 m high.
Reproduction: Seed, (pods are spring loaded when dry, sending seeds up to 4.5m from parent plant),
Dispersal: Explosive action, earth moving equipment, vehicles, slashing, soil movement, garden refuse, birds, ants, water.
Time to first flowering: 2 years. Flowers are yellow and appear from August to November, occasionally flowers in Jan-Mar
Fruit: Non-fleshy pods, 19–25(–35) mm long, 4–6 mm wide.
Toxicity: Seeds are poisonous to humans and livestock.
Vegetative regeneration strategy: Resprouts from base.
Seedbank persistence: Long, 10+ years, (anecdotal reports of up to 100 years). Seedbank may contain up to 100 000 seeds/ m2
Fire response: Adult plants may respout following fire. Fire stimulates mass germination of soil-stored seed. Can increase frequency and intensity of fire
Notes: - Looks similar to Tagasaste when less than 1m high. Cape Broom has bright green foliage, yellow flowers and is erect; whilst Tagasaste has silvery, paler green foliage, white flowers and has a weeping form.

- Legume so fixes nitrogen and increases soil fertility

- Forms impenetrable thickets hindering access for weed and fire control personnel

- Rapidly spread along roadsides by Grading



Methods of Management and Control for Cape Broom
Fire Control: Burn infested areas in autumn with a hot fire to heat kill smaller plants and deplete as much soil/leaf litter stored seed as possible. Re-sprouting of larger plants will occur and a proportion of, but not all, soil stored seed will mass germinate over the following 24 months. Control via burning is effective however must be part of a broader integrated weed management plan. Burning depletes the soil seed bank and must be followed up with suitable Manual or/and Herbicide Controls to prevent new plants from flowering and re-establishing the seed bank.
Manual Control: Hand pull or dig out small seedlings ensuring removal of all roots.
Herbicide Control: For mature plants cut and paint with 50% glyphosate or Basal bark with 250 ml Access® in 15 L of diesel.
Thoroughly spray foliage with: Grazon Extra® at a rate of 350ml per100l water plus 200ml/100l non- ionic wetting agent or suitable spray oil.
Or Glyphosate, 2l per 100l water, with 10g Metsulfuron plus 200ml/100l non- ionic wetting agent or suitable spray oil.
Ongoing Management: - Long term monitoring of site for recruitment from seedbank

- Prevent or minimize site soil disturbance by machinery

- Ensure all machinery is cleaned down and is soil free prior to leaving site

- Avoid driving weed or fire control vehicles through infestations during summer when spring-loaded seed pods are dry and contain seed that may lodge on vehicles


Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Management Calendar

Calendar Type

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Comments

Flowering

O

O

 

 

 

 

O

Y

Y

Y

Y

O

 

Fruiting

Y

O

 

 

 

 

 

 

O

Y

Y

Y

 

Germination

 

 

Y

Y

Y

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

 

 

Active Growth

 

 

 

 

O

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

O

 

Optimum Treatment

 

 

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

 

 

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References



  • CRC Weed Management (2008) Weed management guide. Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) and other introduced brooms. CRC for Australian Weed Management.

  • FloraBase. http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/

  • Henry, K., Ivory, S., Lush, L., and Kent, J. (2008) Control of Cape Broom with the Cape broom psyllid, Arytinnis hakani. SARDI 02/10 ISSN 1323-0409, 2010. Control_of_Cape_broom_with_the_Cape_broom_psyllid_Arytinnis_hakani

  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.

  • Regional Weeds Advisory Committee: Southern Tablelands & South Coast Noxious Plants Committee Broom and Gorse Regional Management Plan 2002/07



Cape Broom Identification


Tagasaste Cape Broom Cape Broom Seedlings


3-5 year old Cape Broom Thicket



7-10 year old Cape Broom

Table 1: Known Cape Broom Road Locations within the Shire of Bridgetown Greenbushes

ANGUS

BLACKWOOD TERRACE EAST

BRIDGETOWN-BOYUP BROOK RD

BUNBURY

CAMPBELLS RD

CAMPBELLS ST

CARDINAL

CATTERICK

DALMORE (MAJOR INFESTATION)

DONNELLY MILL (MAJOR INFESTATION)

DOUST (historical)

EEDLE TERRACE

ELPHICK FLEETON (unconfirmed)

ELWIN TAYLOR

ELWINS (MAJOR INFESTATION)

FALNASH (likely)

FLAX (likely)

FORREST

FOX

GIBLETT

GLENLYNN SIDING

GLENTULLOCH (likely)

GRANGE

GREENBUSHES BOYUP BROOK

GREGORY

GREYSTONES

HAY (historical)

HENDERSON

HOVEA CLOSE

JAYES

KANGAROO GULLY

KENDALL

LAVERTY

MASLIN

MAY

MIRIMIRI

MOCKERDILLUP

NOLLE

PETTERSEN (MAJOR INFESTATION)

POLINA

S/WEST HIGHWAY (south of town)

SEATON ROSS (historical)

TAYLORS

TELLURIDE

TOURMALINE

TWEED

WHEATLEY GIBLETT (MAJOR INFESTATION)

WHITTELLS

WILLIAMS (NTH G/BUSHES)

WINNEJUP



Table 2: Bridgetown Greenbushes Shire Reserves with Known Cape Broom Infestations

Maslin

Shire Depot

Bush next to Depot (south)

Bush next to Sports Ground (north)

Wheatly-Giblet Bush

Swimming Pool (rear)

Cemetery

Reporting of Cape Broom Locations
Please report any “New” Cape Broom infestations to the Hazard Reduction Officer

Or via the Shire Office on 97611 555.


  • Please include the Road name and the distance to nearest intersection.




  • If possible, please also include the estimated height and number of plants and any other identifying features that may assist with locating the suspected plants.


Date

Road Name

Distance to Nearest Intersection

Number and Height of Plants

Reported By






















































































































































































































































































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