Performance of new day-neutral strawberry varieties




Дата канвертавання19.04.2016
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Doc 1 Day-Neutral Variety
PERFORMANCE OF NEW DAY-NEUTRAL STRAWBERRY VARIETIES

Kathy Demchak*, Willie Lantz**, and Harry Swartz**

*Penn State University, 102 Tyson Building, University Park, PA 16802

** Maryland Cooperative Extension and the University of Maryland


From 2006-2008, a series of experiments on day-neutral strawberry production took place in Maryland and Pennsylvania as part of a NE-SARE funded project. In this project, plants were grown in an annual raised-bed plasticulture system, with various aspects of production such as nutrition, plant type, and plastic type being investigated. The portion of the project discussed in this talk covers cultivar trials that were conducted in PA and MD, but focuses to a somewhat greater extent on the PA trial.

For both cultivar trials, the main plant source used was plug plants which were grown in Maryland, originating as dormant plants that were trimmed and grown in plug plant trays. With the cultivar Evie 2 in the PA trial, dormant plants were also planted for comparison to plug plants. Due to wet soil conditions, plants in Pennsylvania were planted on June 6, 2008 which is late relative to a normal or desirable planting date, though the MD planting date of May 7 was more typical. In PA, plants were planted into a field that was amended with compost applied at a rate that was calculated to provide 60 lb of nitrogen per acre for the first year assuming a 10% mineralization rate. This rate also provided 190 lb/a of P2O5 and 270 lb/a of K2O, which exceeded the recommended amounts by 140 and 160 lb/a, respectively as based on soil test results. No additional fertigation of nutrients was used. In MD, plants were fertilized with MicroStart60 Pelleted Poulty Litter to provide 60 lb/a of N, and were also fertigated with 20-20-20 to provide 1 lb of N/acre/week. Plants were planted into raised beds mulched with black plastic. Plants were grown in staggered double rows with 12” between rows within each bed and between plants. Yield are given as pounds per plant, but can be converted to lbs per acre, assuming beds on 6’ centers (the spacing used in PA), by multiplying by 14,520. In PA, blossoms were removed from the plants until July 3.

The cultivar used as the standard was ‘Seascape’ in both states, with ‘Tristar’ also included in Maryland. Other named cultivars tested were ones which have been tried on only a limited basis. Several advanced selections from 5 Aces Breeding, one from the USDA, and one from North Carolina State University were also included (Table 1). The three “GDT” selections have Fragaria moschata in their background, which imparts a wide range of flavors to the fruit.

Yields in general were a bit low, which in PA could have been in part due to the late planting date, very hot temperatures soon after planting, and a somewhat shortened fall harvest season compared to previous years. Seascape yields, for instance, were only about half as high as has been obtained on average during 3 other years on this site. Growing the plants on aluminized plastic rather than black also might have increased yields. Even so, considerable information was obtained on relative yield potential, fruit size, and soluble solids, a measurement of sugar levels (Table 1). Data was also collected on plant growth characteristics and disease and insect susceptibilities (Table 2).

Table 1. Yield and fruit quality parameters.


Cultivar

Mkt. Yield

(lb/plant)


Mean Berry

Wt. (g)


Mkt.

Fruit


(%)

Soluble Solids

(%)


Background information




PA

MD

PA

MD

PA

PA




Seascape

0.65

0.59

9.2

12.5

68.4

8.3

1990, Univ. of Calif. Selva x Douglas. Included as current standard for the NE.

Albion

0.68

0.29

16.3

14.3

79.5

7.6

2006, Univ. of California. Diamante x Cal. 94.16-1. A major cultivar in CA.

Everest

1.16

0.37

10.3

9.7

74.0

6.9

1998, Edward Vinson Plants Ltd. Evita x Irvine. Leading cultivar in the U.K.

Evie 2 (plugs)

0.52

0.41

15.0

14.2

65.0

7.0

2001, Edward Vinson Plants, Ltd. Everglade x J92D12.

Evie 2

(dormant plants)



0.48

---

14.7

---

67.0

7.3

Same as above.

Evie 3

1.01

0.20

9.6

10.3

66.9

7.5

2003, Edward Vinson Plants, Ltd.

Tristar

---

0.40

---

8.9

---

---

1981, USDA-Beltsville.

GDTv14

0.17

0.36

9.5

10.3

55.1

9.4

Advanced selection from 5 Aces Breeding, Fragaria moschata in background

GDTv25

0.40

0.16

6.9

7.4

43.7

9.9

Same as above.

GDTv26

0.68

0.24

8.9

8.9

65.4

8.7

Same as above.

EMF-F3

0.31

0.43

15.0

11.9

57.9

7.0

Advanced selection from 5 Aces Breeding.

USDA-1082

---

0.34

---

12.3

---




Advanced selection from K. Lewers, USDA-Beltsville.

NCL 05-87

0.22

---

14.4

---

83.6

7.2

Advanced selection from J. Ballington, NC State Univ.

* To convert yield/plant to lbs per acre, assuming beds are on 6’ centers, multiply by 14,520.
Seascape: The current standard cultivar for day-neutral production in the eastern U.S. and Canada. Seascape is typically very productive, and produces medium-sized medium-red fruit with notable sweetness, but yields were low in this trial. Powdery mildew has been a problem in grower fields in some years.

Albion: Performed better in PA than in MD. If you’re familiar with the cultivars Camarosa or Diamante, you have an idea of what this berry is like. Similar to Camarosa in firmness, or just slightly softer. Perfect red color, with acceptably good, but not great, flavor when fully ripe. Despite vigorous plants, the size and fast picking of this berry makes it worth a try at least in small quantities. One potential problem is production of large numbers of runners.

Everest: Produced very high yields in PA. The main problems with this berry are a smaller size, very soft fruit, and it can be fairly tasteless in warmer weather. Color a bit light. Flavor improved during cool fall conditions, and some growers have the quality to be acceptable. Produced the lowest number of runners of all cultivars and selections.

Evie 2: Improved berry size and flavor compared to Everest, but not higher yields. Other characteristics (softness, shape, and light color) were very similar to those of Everest.

Evie 3: Produced high yields in PA similar to Everest. Quality was nearly identical to Everest, except slightly sweeter, but still soft with fairly small berries.

Tristar: Only grown in MD trial. Average yields with small berries.

GDT series: The soluble solids (sugar) readings for all of these selections were the highest of all cultivars in both PA and MD (data not presented for MD). Their unique flavors made them favorites for some taste testers, but also made them unacceptable to others. Insects also seemed to have a preference for GDTv14 and GDTv25. Of these selections, only GDTv26 in PA produced yields that would be high enough to be commercially acceptable. GDTv26 had a somewhat flattened shape.

EMF-F3: Large berries were a plus, but yields were fairly low.

USDA 1082: Unfortunately, there were only enough plants for the MD trial. Good shape, color, and flavor. Large size. Did not begin to produce significant fruit until the fall, resulting in fairly low yields. Would like to see this one again for more data or possibly in tunnels to extend the late season.

NCL 05-87: Extremely vigorous plants that remained vegetative and produced numerous runners well into the fall, which could have been a carryover effect due to being rushed out of tissue culture. Was loaded with fruit when the really cold weather hit, so we can’t discount this one yet until we have another look.
Table 2. Vegetative growth characteristics, and insect and disease susceptibility.

Cultivar

Plant

Vigor


(1=low)

Runners

(no. per plant)



Japanese Beetle Damage

(1=none)


Leafhopper

Burn (1=none)



Powdery

Mildew


(1=none)




PA

PA

PA

MD

MD



















Seascape

3.5

3.0

2.0

2.5

3.1

Albion

4.2

10.0

2.8

2.7

2.5*

Everest

3.7

0.2

3.2

2.3

2.1

Evie-2 (plugs)

4.5

5.4

2.2

2.3

3.4

Evie-2

(dormant plants)



4.5

7.7

3.2

---

---

Evie-3

2.7

2.5

2.0

1.4

1.6

Tristar










3.5

3.2

GDTv14

3.8

14.2

3.8

3.9

3.9

GDTv25

4.5

15.6

2.3

3.1

4.3

GDTv26

3.0

4.4

2.0

1.9

2.3

EMF-F3

4.7

7.7

3.2

2.8

3.4

USDA1082

---

---

---

1.9

3.4

NCL 05-87

5.0

13.1

3.5

---

---

*Late season (Oct.) powdery mildew noted on this cultivar in PA.
This research is part of the project “An Integrated Approach to Developing a Day-Neutral Strawberry Production Industry”, LNE06-241 and is funded through NE SARE.

Kathleen Demchak is a Senior Extension Associate in the Department of Horticulture at Penn State University. Her responsibilities are 75% extension and 25% research in the area of berry production. Current research projects include blueberry, blackberry and day-neutral strawberry cultivar trials, and work on strawberry black root rot and high tunnel bramble production. She earned a B.S. in Horticulture from Penn State and an M.S. in Horticulture from Virginia Tech. Kathy is originally from Clearfield Co., Pennsylvania. She and her husband Steve are the parents of two boys, Tim and Jeff. (2009)


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