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Comment

Project: C425

Subclass: A61K

1 October 2003

These are EPO comments on revision project C425 in answer to the question raised at the last session of the IPC revision working group (see paragraph 62 of the document IPC/WG/9/8 and Annex 19 of the Technical Annexes)



1. Database of botanical classification.
Many databases of botanical classification are accessible by Internet.

Our first idea was to propose the use of the taxonomic database of NCBI. This database is accessible for free from the NCBI site, including the access to PubMed (Medline) one of the most searched database in biochemistry. This database is very complete and easy to search ( see http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi or more directly :



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi ).
However, this database is maybe not the most appropriate.

Indeed, as indicated on each search result page of the database:


Disclaimer: The NCBI taxonomy database is not an authoritative source for nomenclature or classification - please consult the relevant scientific literature for the most reliable information
From the other possibilities we have then selected the ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) database (see http://www.itis.usda.gov/ ).

This database is produced under the auspices of the US Department of Agriculture with the partnership of Canada and Mexico.

This database also is very complete, especially for the part covering the angiospermae corresponding to the most important part of the new scheme and searchable on basis of scientific (Latin) names or common English names.

Finally, this site has the following advantages:


1. As indicated on the first page of the site:” Welcome to ITIS, the Integrated Taxonomic Information System! Here you will find authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.”
2. The sites from Canada and Mexico are translated and searchable in French or Spanish respectively, although only a few common names are already translated in French ( see for the French version : http://sis.agr.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxaget?p_ifx=scib&p_lang=fr ) .
We recommend therefore to use the ITIS database as link for the IPC, but we propose to add also as second and unofficial link the Taxonomic database of NCBI, considering that this site offers easy links to Medline and also presents for each answer to a query different links to other botanical classification sites as GRIN, PLANTS, or ITIS itself etc...
2. Hierarchical position of groups 36/47 to 36/478
Starting from the ITIS database, the answer is clear. The Caesalpiniceae family is not recognised as an official family. The specific plants given in the examples are classified in the Fabaceae family.

Starting from the NCBI database the situation is less clear. The Caesalpiniaceae family is not recognised but a term Caesalpinioidae is used as a “sub familiy” of fabaceae.


We propose therefore to delete the entry for the Caesalpiniae family, and to have the groups 36/474 and 36/478 as subgroups of 36/46.

Eventually if considered as needed, an entry for Caesalpinia could be created as a four dots group under 36/46.



3. Creation of a subgroup of 36/062 to cover “yeasts”.
We are not in favour of the creation of such a subgroup.

Indeed from the MeSH database of PubMed, yeast are defined as: “A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding”.


This general term covers Sccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) but also Candida (belonging to the class of Saccharomycetales).

But the term Yeast covers also Trichosporon or Rhodotorula fungi belonging to the basidiomycota division and not to the Ascomycota.



4. Proposed indexing scheme.
As we have already indicated in our previous comments, we are not in favour of the introduction of the proposed indexing scheme.
5a. Note proposed by the International Bureau.
We have no objection against the proposed Note concerning the use of common names in the scheme near to Latin names.
5b. Notes already proposed after group 36/00 (Annex 1 of the project file).
At its last session, the Working group has decided that the last place rule should apply in group 36/00 as in the rest of the subclass A61K.

Therefore the first proposed note relating to the top-to-bottom priority is no longer of application.


The second proposed Note (additional classification for individual components of a composition), is probably not needed, as the classification in this new group will follow the normal classification philosophy in the subclass A61K for this type of compositions.

Therefore the (new) note to be introduced before group 31/00 to replace the existing notes will clearly cover the group 36/00.


The third note will only be needed if an indexing scheme is introduced.

6. Other comments.
6a. Wording of the groups

If the ITIS database is accepted and connected to the classification scheme (but maybe also in other case), it would be preferable to use in the new scheme, terms considered now as the official terminology in the field.

Therefore we propose the following modifications:
36/11 . Pteridophyta or Filicophyta (ferns)
36/03 . Phaeophycota or Phaeophyta (brown algae), e.g. Fucus
36/04 . Rhodophycota or Rhodophyta (red algae), e.g. Porphyra
36/05 . Chlorophycota or Chlorophyta (green algae), e.g. Chlorella
Concerning group 36/18, Angiospermae is a very common name, not accepted or present in many botanical databases. We propose to use for this group also the official Latin name for the division according to:
36/18 . Magnoliophyta (angiosperms)
36/185 .. Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons)
Concerning group 36/13, in addition to the comments for 36/18 applicable for this group also, we do not agree with the proposed subdivision of this entry. Ginkoaceae and Ephedraceae are not officially considered as part of the same division. We propose the following modifications to the scheme.
36/13 . Coniferophyta (gymnosperms)
36/135 .. Cupressaceae (Cypress family) ...
36/155 .. Pinaceae (pine familiy) ...
36/16 . Ginkgophyta, e.g. Ginkgoaceae (Ginkgo family)
36/17 . Gnetophyta, e.g. Ephedraceae (Mormon-tea family) ...

Remark concerning group 36/29: This group is an exception, being the only one grouping two different families without real reason. We propose the creation of two separate groups for the two families.


36/29 . . . Papaveraceae (Poppy family), e.g. bloodroot
26/295 . . . Fumariaceae (Fumitory family), e.g. bleeding heart
26/296 . . . . Corydalis

6b. Order of the groups of families.
At the last meeting it was decided to not present the families of the “angiospermae” in an alphabetic order.

All the botanical classification databases not following an alphabetical order for the presentation of the families, use a presentation wherein the families are always grouped according to their appurtenance to the higher hierarchical level (class, order, division...).


The IPC has no obligation to follow a specific order in the presentation of the groups in the scheme.

However, in the present order (or disorder), families belonging to the same higher level (Order) are frequently separated from each other and the different orders of a same subclass are also split among the scheme.

As a consequence the present scheme will make of IPC a unique botanical classification.
We give here a list of the families regrouped according to the scheme used in other databases, including NCBI and ITIS databases.
In the following tables, the first column indicate the number of the group corresponding to the family in the present scheme
Without to be an obligation, the introduction of higher taxonomic levels (order or subclass) would for a great part limit the number of documents to be classified in the group 36/185.

Indeed in the present scheme this group will attract all documents relating to plants belonging to one of the numerous families not specially specified for in the scheme.



Jean-Marie Moreau





I. Magnoliopsida







SUBCLASS

ORDER

FAMILY













87

Asteridae

Asterales

asteraceae

82




Campanulales

campanulaceae

84




Dipsacales

caprifoliaceae

85







valerianaceae

70




Gentianales

apocynaceae

71







asclepiadaceae

68







gentianaceae

69







loganiaceae

75




Lamiales

boraginaceae

78







lamiaceae

76







verbenaceae

39




Plantaginales

plantaginaceae

83




Rubiales

rubiaceae

81




Scrophulariales

acanthaceae

77







oleaceae

80







orobanchaceae

79







scrophulariaceae

73




Solanales

convolvulaceae

72







cuscutaceae

74







solanaceae

35

Caryophyllidae

Caryophyllales

amaranthaceae

34







cactaceae

33







caryophyllaceae

36




Polygonales

polygonaceae

42

Dilleniidae

Capparales

brassicaceae

26




Dilleniales

paeoniaceae

61




Ebenales

ebenaceae

43




Ericales

ericaceae

59




Salicales

salicaceae

38




Theales

clusiaceae

37







theaceae

86




Violales

cucurbitaceae

40







violaceae

58

Hamamelidae

Juglandales

juglandaceae

31




Urticales

moraceae

30

Hamamelididae

Eucommiales

eucommiaceae

32

Magnoliidae

Aristolochiales

aristolochiaceae

20




Illiciales

schisandraceae

21




Laurales

lauraceae

19




Magnoliales

magnoliaceae

24




Nymphaeales

nymphaeaceae

29




Papaverales

papaveraceae

29




Papaverales

fumariaceae

22




Piperales

piperaceae

23







saururaceae

27




Ranunculales

berberidaceae

28







menispermaceae

25







ranunculaceae

67

Rosidae

Apiales

apiaceae

66







araliaceae

49




Celastrales

celastraceae

60




Cornales

cornaceae

50




Euphorbiales

euphorbiaceae

46




Fabales

fabaceae

57




Fagales

fagaceae

53




Linales

linaceae

48




Myrtales

myrtaceae

41







thymelaeaceae

65




Polygalales

polygalaceae

51




Rhamnales

rhamnaceae

52







vitaceae

44




Rosales

crassulaceae

45







rosaceae

56




Sapindales

aceraceae

62







anacardiaceae

55







burseraceae

63







meliaceae

64







rutaceae

54







sapindaceae







II Liliopsida










SUBCLASS

ORDER

FAMILY

884

Alismatidae

Alismatales

Alismataceae

886

Arecidae

Arales

Acoraceae

888

Arecidae

Arales

Araceae

882

Arecidae

Arecales

Arecaceae

889

Commelinidae

Cyperales

Cyperaceae

890

Commelinidae

Cyperales

Poaceae

894

Commelinidae

Typhales

Sparganiaceae

898

Liliidae

Liliales

Aloeaceae

904

Liliidae

Liliales

Dioscoreaceae

899

Liliidae

Liliales

Liliaceae

900

Liliidae

Liliales

Smilacaceae

902

Liliidae

Liliales

Stemonaceae

906

Liliidae

Orchidales

Orchidaceae

896

Zingiberidae

Zingiberales

Zingiberaceae


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