Osteology function of skeleton 1 Protection 2 Support 3 a mechanical basis for movement

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Function of skeleton
1) Protection

2) Support

3) A mechanical basis for movement

4) Formation of blood cells

5) Storage of salts
Basic structure of bones
Bone as a connective tissue consists of bone cells (osteocytes), ground substance + collagenous fibrils (form osteoid) and different salts.

Two types of bone on the basis of the arrangement of its fibrils :

1) woven bone

2) lamellar bone

a) compact bone (substantia compacta)

b) spongy bone (substantia spongiosa)

Architecture of bones

Shape of bones
depends on their function and their position in the body

a) long bones (ossa longa)

b) short bones (ossa brevia)

c) flat bones (ossa plana)

d) sesamoid bones (ossa sesamoidea)

e) pneumatic bones (ossa pneumatica)

f) irregular bones (ossa irregularia)
Growth plate = epiphysial disk

Systematic Anatomy of the Locomotor Apparatus

Vertebral column (columna vertebralis) + ribs (costae) + breast bone (sternum)
7 cervical vertebrae (vertebrae cervicales)

12 thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracicae)

5 lumbar vertebrae (vertebrae lumbales)

5 sacral vertebrae (vertebrae sacrales)sacral bone (os sacrum)

4–5 coccygeal vertebrae (vertebrae coccygeae)coccyx (os coccygis)
Vertebra – general features
body (corpus) – upper and lower terminal facets (facies terminalis superior

et inferior)

vertebral arch (arcus vertebrae); pedicle – (pediculus arcus vertebrae);

vertebral foramen (foramen vertebrale); vertebral notch (incisura vertebrae

superior and inferior); intervertebral foramen (foramen intervertebrale)

7 processes:

4 articular processes (processus articularis superior dexter and

sinister, processus articularis inferior dexter and sinister)

2 transversal processes (processus transversus dexter and sinister)

1 spinous process (processus spinosus)
special features:

Cervical vertebrae

Foramen transversarium – (foramen processus transversi)

Groowe for spinal nerve (sulcus nervi spinalis)

Position of articular processes (processus articulares)

The uncal process (uncus corporis vertebrae)

Anterior and posterior tubercle (tuberculum anterius and posterius ) of the transverse process (processus transversus) ( C6 has carotid tubercle – tuberculum caroticum)
C1 - atlas

Anterior and posterior arches (arcus anterior and posterior atlantis, fovea dentis, anterior and posterior tubercle of atlas – tuberculum anterius and posterius atlantis, vertebral foramen – foramen vertebrae)

Lateral masses – massae laterales (facies articularis superior and inferior,

sulcus arteriae vertebralis)

Transverse processes (Processus transversi with foramen processus transversi)

Axis (C2)

Body of axiscorpus vertebrae + dens axis (facies articularis anterior and posterior dentis, apex dentis)

processus articulares superiores and inferiores

Spinal process of axis – processus spinosus axis

Thoracic vertebrae

costal facets – (foveae costales)

costal facets on the transverse processes (facies costales transversales)

Position of articular processes (processus articulares)in the frontal plane
Lumbar Vertebrae

costal processes (processus costarii)

mammilar processes (processus mammillares)

accessory processes (processus accessorii )

Position of articular processes (processus articulares)in sagittal plane
Sacral vertebrae (S1 – S5) - sacral bone (os sacrum)

basis – superior terminal facet (facies terminalis superior), apex inferior terminal facet (facies terminalis inferior)

facies pelvina (transversal lines (lineae transversales), foramina sacralia pelvina, promontorium

facies dorsalis median sacral crest (crista sacralis mediana), intermediate sacral crests (cristae sacrales intermediae), lateral sacral crests (cristae sacrales laterales), dorsal sacral foramina (foramina sacralia dorsalia),sacral tuberosity (tuberositas sacralis)

lateral parts (partes laterales) with auricular facets (facies auriculares)

sacral canal (canalis sacralis) with hiatus canalis sacralis and cornua sacralia

Coccygeal vertebrae – vertebrae coccygeae, coccyx (os coccygis) Co1 – Co 4-5

basis – superior terminal facet (facies terminalis superior)

horns of coccygeal bone (cornua ossis coccygis)

Ribs – costae

true ribs – costae verae (1-7)

false ribs – costae spuriae (8-10)

floating ribs – costae fluctuantes (11, 12)

Structure of rib (costa)

Bony part (os costae) + costal cartilage (cartilago costae)

Head of rib (caput costae) with articular facet (facies articularis)

2nd –10th ribs with crest – crista capitis costae

Neck of rib (collum costae) with costal tubercle (tuberculum costae) and articular facet (facies articularis tuberculi costae)

Body of rib (corpus costae) with costal angle (angulus costae),

costal crest (crista costae) and costal groowe (sulcus costae)

The 1st rib is small and flattened.

Cranial surface – the scalene tubercle – (tuberculum m. scaleni)

the sulcus of the subclavian artery – (sulcus a. subclaviae)
The 2nd rib – on its cranial surface has the tuberosity for the serratus muscle

(tuberositas m. serrati anterioris)
The 11th and 12th ribs – the costal tubercle (tuberculum costae) and the costal groove (sulcus costae) are absent
Breast bone – sternum

Manubrium sterni

clavicular notch (incisura clavicularis), jugular notch (incisura jugularis), costal notches (incisurae costales 1.,2.)

sternal angle (angulus sterni)

body of sternum (corpus sterni) with costal notches (incisurae costales 3.-7.)

xiphoid process (processus xiphoideus)

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