EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN PLANT PROTECTION ORGANIZATION
ЕВРОПЕЙСКАЯ И СРЕДИЗЕМНОМОРСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО КАРАНТИНУ И ЗАЩИТЕ РАСТЕНИЙ
ORGANIZATION EUROPEENNE ET MEDITERRANEENNE POUR LA PROTECTION DES PLANTES
Panel on QPF Point 5.1.4
Data Sheets on Forest Pests
Cydia illutana dahuricolana
Name: Cydia illutana ssp. dahuricolana Kuznetsov
Synonyms: Laspeyresia illutana ssp. dahuricolana Kuznetsov
Grapholitha illutana ssp. dahuricolana Kuznetsov
Taxonomic position: Insecta: Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.
Common name: Dahurian larch seed moth, Dahurian larch cone moth, Spruce cone scale moth, Scale moth (English); Лиственничная шишковая листовёртка даурская, листовёртка чешуй еловых шишек, листовёртка чешуй (Russian).
Bayer computer code: …
Cydia illutana ssp. dahuricolana attacks cones of larch, especially Larix gmelinii (= L. dahurica) and L. sibirica, spruce, especially Picea obovata, fir and other coniferous (Pavlovskii et al., 1955; Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968; Maslov, 1988).
EPPO region: Russia (Southern Siberia, south of North – Eastern Siberia, Transbaikalia, Far East).
Asia: Northern China, Japan, Mongolia, Russia (Southern Siberia, south of North – Eastern Siberia, Transbaikalia, Far East) (Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968; Yanovskii, 1979; Yanovskii & Korotkov, 1984; Komai, 1986).
The flight of moths of C. illutana ssp. dahuricolana may occur in different parts of the area of the pest distribution from the end of May till the beginning of July (more often – in June) and lasts 2 – 3 weeks. Females lay eggs 1 to 3 together on young cones under scales. Caterpillars appear in 6 – 10 days. Neonate caterpillars enter into the cone and feed first inside seeds. Since the second instar, they feed on other parts of the cone. Damaged parts of the cone secrete resin, which glues scales together. Damaged cones usually can’t open or fall down. Usually one, seldom 2 or 3 caterpillars develop in one cone. In August – September, caterpillars leave cones and overwinter inside forest floor or moss in white cocoons. The pupation occurs at the place of overwintering in spring (Pavlovskii et al., 1955; Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968; Galkin, 1971; Stadnitskii, 1971; Stadnitskii et al., 1978; Maslov, 1988).
Fig. 1. Cone of spruce damaged by Cydia illutana (Maslov, 1988)
Damaged cones may be easily detected due to the wilt of scales and the presence of pest excrements. The pest doesn’t destroy the centre of the cone, which may be used for the diagnostic of the species, because this particularity is different from other cone pests (Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968; Maslov, 1988).
The larva of C. illutana ssp. dahuricolana is light-grey or sometimes pink, 11 – 13 mm long, covered by small dark spots, with dark-brown head, with well developed legs (Stadnitskii, 1971; Stadnitskii et al., 1978).
The pupa of C. illutana ssp. dahuricolana is brown, 5 – 7 mm long, with developed teeth on the last segment of the abdomen (Stadnitskii, 1971; Stadnitskii et al., 1978).
The adult of C. illutana ssp. dahuricolana is dark-brown with light-metallic and black stripes on front wings (Fig. 2, 3). Its wingspan is 11.5 – 13.0 mm. Front wings are comparatively narrow, their design is much more distinct and more developed than the corresponding design of European Cydia illutana Herrich-Schäffer. Most of wing scales are one-coloured. Bicoloured scales are found very seldom. Back wings are one-coloured dark-brown-grey, with light fringe. The top of the head and the thorax are covered by dark-brown-black scales. The abdomen is grey (Stadnitskii, 1971; Rozhkov et al., 1966; Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968).
Male genitalia of Cydia illutana Herrich-Schäffer (Fig. 4) and female genitalia of Cydia illutana ssp. dahuricolana Kuznetsov (Fig. 5) are shown on pictures (Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968).
Fig. 2. An adult of Cydia illutana (A - Maslov, 1988; B – Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968)
Fig. 3. A wing of Cydia illutana (Rozhkov et al., 1966)
Fig. 4. Male genitalia of Cydia illutana Herrich-Schäffer (Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968)
Fig. 5. Female genitalia of Cydia illutana ssp. dahuricolana Kuznetsov (Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968)
MEANS OF MOVEMENT AND DISPERSAL
C. illutana ssp. dahuricolana can spread with flights of the adult moths. Eggs can be transported with coniferous plant for planting or cut branches with cones moving in trade. Larvae and pupae can be transported with soil, moss and forest litter.
Cydia illutana Herrich-Schäffer doesn’t cause significant damage in Europe at the reason of low level of its populations, which occur in Finland, Austria, European Russia and some other countries. Nevertheless it continues to spread in Europe. It was recorded for the first time from the United Kingdom in southern England in 1984 and in Essex in 1997. Recently it was first recorded from France. The subspecies Cydia illutana ssp. dahuricolana Kuznetsov causes significant damage to seeds and cones of spruce, larch and fir in Siberia. Usual losses of seed production of Siberian larch reach 20 – 30 %. Losses of spruce seed production may reach 70 % and even more. Losses of fir seed production may reach till 60 %. The pest often damage larch cones after Strobilomyia (= Lasiomma) laricicola and/or together with Eucosma impropria (= Petrova (= Semasia) perangustana = Laspeyresia zonovae) and Dioryctria abietella. Together, these pests destroy till 80 – 95% of larch seeds, which may have significant impact on the harvest of seeds for forest nurseries (Rozhkov et al., 1966; Danilevskii & Kuznetsov, 1968; Galkin, 1971; Stadnitskii, 1971; Golutvina, 1973; Stadnitskii et al., 1976, 1978; Kondakov et al. 1979; Yanovskii, 1979, 1995; Yanovskii & Korotkov, 1984; Bradley, 1985; Maslov, 1988; Pleshanov et al., 1988; Chambon et al., 1992; Tuck, 2000).
C. illutana ssp. dahuricolana sometimes causes significant losses of coniferous seed production, either itself or more often together with other seed pests. This reduces possibilities of natural reforestation of these areas. This may result in serious changes of environment over large areas.
Significant control efforts (mainly treatments with chemical and bacterial preparations) against C. illutana ssp. dahuricolana and other pests of coniferous seeds are undertaken during years of outbreaks in Russia and other countries where the pest is present (Galkin, 1971; Maslov, 1988).
C. illutana ssp. dahuricolana is not declared a quarantine pest by any regional plant protection organization. It is considered as a serious pest of coniferous seeds in the countries of its present distribution. It is very likely to be able to establish in many EPPO countries particularly those in the north and centre as well as in mountain areas. Cydia illutana Herrich-Schäffer continues its spread in Europe, which let to believe in capacities of C. illutana ssp. dahuricolana to spread. Coniferous are important forest and ornamental tree in the EPPO region.
To prevent introduction of C. illutana ssp. dahuricolana to other countries, the effective measure would be to prohibit import of coniferous plants for planting and cut branches with cones from the infested areas.
Bradley J. D. (1985) Cydia illutana (Herrich-Schäffer) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) new to Britain. – Entomologist’s Gazette, v. 36, No 2, p. 97 – 101.
Chambon J. P., Roques A., Genestier G. (1992) Observations sur quelques Lépidoptères Tortricidae peu observés ou nouveaux pour la faune de France. Nouvelle Revue d’Entomologie, v. 9, No 2, p. 107 – 117 (in French).
Danilevskii A. S., Kuznetsov V. I. (1968) Tortricids Tortricidae, tribe seed moths Laspeyresiini. In: Fauna of the USSR, new series, No 98, lepidopterous insects, v. V, part 1. Leningrad, “Nauka”. 636 p. (in Russian).
Galkin G. I. (1971) Pests of larch seeds. – “Zashchita rastenii”, No 11, p. 49 – 50 (in Russian).
Golutvina L. S. (1973) New and little-known pests of the family Tortricidae, damaging the reproductive organs of Larix sibirica. Proceedings of the Leningrad Forest-Technical Academy, No 155, p. 11 – 14 (in Russian).
Komai F. (1986) Petrova monopunctata Oku (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) infesting cones and shoots of coniferous trees in Hokkaido. – Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, v. 30, No 4, p. 219 – 224 (in Japanese).
Kondakov Yu. P., Knor I. B. and Petrenko E. S. (1979) Ecological and Economical groups of forest insects of Baikal basin”. In: “Fauna of forests of Baikal lake basin”. Novossibirsk, "Nauka (Siberian Department)", p. 44 – 77 (in Russian).
Maslov A. D. (1988) Guide on Forest Protection against Pests and Diseases. Moscow, "Agropromizdat", 414 p. (in Russian).
Pavlovskii E. N., Shtakelberg A. A. and all. (1955) Forest pests. Guide. Moscow – Leningrad, Edition of Academy of sciences of the USSR, V. 1, 421 p. (in Russian).
Pleshanov A. S., Berezhnykh E. D., Gamerova O. G., Tokmakov A. V., Epova V. I. (1988) Ecological and economical groups of insects in the zone of Baikal – Amur Magistral. – “Lessovedenie”, No 3, p. 21 – 26 (in Russian).
Rozhkov A. S, Raigorodskaya I. A. and Byalaya I. V. (1966) Pests of Siberian larch. Moscow, "Nauka", 320 p. (in Russian).
Stadnitskii G. V. (1971) Pests of spruce seeds. Moscow, “Lesnaïya Promyshlennost’”, 48 p. (in Russian).
Stadnitskii G. V., Golutvina L. S., Grebenshchikova V. I. (1976) Pests of larch seeds in the conditions of seed-producing areas. “Lesnoï Zhurnal”, No 2, p. 151 – 155 (in Russian).
Stadnitskii G. V., Yurchenko G. I., Smetanin A. N., Grebenshchikova V. I., Pribylova M. V. (1978) Pests of cones and seeds of coniferous species. Moscow, “Lesnaïya Promyshlennost’”, 168 p. (in Russian).
Tuck K. R. (2000) Two unusual records of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Essex. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, v. 13, No 1 p. 68 – 69.
Yanovskii V. M. (1979) Ecological and faunistic assessment of dendrophillous insects of Mongolia. In: “Fauna of forests of Baïkal lake region”. Novossibirsk, "Nauka", Siberian department, p. 78 – 92 (in Russian).
Yanovskii V. M. (1995) Ecological faunistics of forest insects. – “Lessovedenie”, No 6, p. 49 – 55 (in Russian).
Yanovskii V. M., Korotkov I. A. (1984) Biocoenotic characteristics of outbreaks of forest pests in Mongolia. – “Lessovedenie”, No 4, p. 35 – 42 (in Russian).