Orders: Artiodactyla (even-toed), (Handout Ch. 27)

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BIOL 425, Mammalogy

Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Antlers and Horns, Aging (horns & teeth)

Oct. 12, 2010
Orders: Artiodactyla (even-toed), (Handout Ch. 27)

* know to species, know all listed Orders, Suborders, and Families

Order: Artiodactyla

Suborder: Ruminantia

Family: Cervidae

*Cervus elaphus Elk

- antlers have large main beams that sweep back towards posterior

- lower incisors distinctively differentiated in size and form

- canines present (0/3, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3)
*Alces alces Moose

- antlers large and palmate

- lower canines incisor like

- nasals short, premaxillary region greatly lengthened

- dental formula: 0/3, 0/1, 3/3, 3/3

- dewlap present

* Rangifer tarandus Caribou

- maxillary canine usually present

- lower incisors relatively small

- posterior lobe of last molar small

- main hooves large, almost circular when held together

- lateral hooves functional

- dental formula: 0/3, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3
Odocoileus hemionus Mule or black-tail deer

  • black tip on tail

  • dental formula: 0/3, 0/1, 3/3, 3/3

  • antlers branch in separate forks instead of points originating from a main beam as in white-tailed deer

Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer

  • dental formula: 0/3, 0/1, 3/3, 3/3

  • wide distribution through temperate and semi-tropical NA

  • antler points originate from main beam

Hydropotes inermis Chinese water deer

Family: Antilocapridae

*Antilocapra americana Prognhorn (not an antelope!)

- keratinous horn sheaths are shed annually

- fastest New World mammal, 80+ kmph

Family Bovidae

* Bison bison bison

- horns smooth and conical

- paraoccipital process widely separated from condyles

* Oreamnos americanus mountain goat

- lacrimal pits absent

- horns less than 6 inches around at base

* Ovibos moschatus muskox

- horns “parted” and extend ventrally along skull forming “J”


- paraoccipital process not widely separated from condyles

*Ovis dalli Dall’s sheep

- lacrimal pits present

- horns of males may form full curls at maturity, females posses

smaller horns

Suborder Suiformes

Family: Suidae Pigs and warthogs

Phacochoerus aethiopicus warthog

Babyrousa babyrussa babirusa

  • large paraoccipital processes, modified canines form tusks

Family: Tayassuidae

Tayassu tajacu collared peccary or javelina

  • broad zygomatic arch, straight dagger-like canines

Be familiar with the following terms:



Cannon bone


Be able to answer the following:

How do the stomachs of the Suborders differ?

Order: Perissodactyla (odd-toed) (Handout Ch. 26)

* know to species, know all listed Orders, Suborders, and Families

Family: Equidae horses, asses, zebras

Equus caballus domestic horse

  • dental formula: 3/3, 0-1/0-1, 3-4/3, 3/3

  • post-orbital bar present, prominent nasals

Equus burchelli zebra

Family: Rhinocrotidae

Diceros bicornis black rhino

  • nasal “horns” composed of dense, matted keratin fibers (not truly horns because there isn’t a bony core)

  • Family: Tapiridae

  • Tapirus terrestris Brazillian tapir

Be familiar with the following terms:



Should be able to answer the following:

Which Family has a proboscis?

Horns and Antlers (Handout Ch. 5)
Know Order, Family, Genus, and species from horns or antlers of the following:

White-tailed deer

Mule deer

Sitka black-tailed deer




Dall’s Sheep


Musk ox
Be familiar with the following terms:

True horns





Dermal papillae



Brow tine


Bex tine


Be able to answer the following:

What is unique about a pronghorn compared to true horns?

How is a rhino horn different from a true horn?

The female has antlers in which species?

Which male deer (species) doesn’t have antlers?

Which Cervid(s) has/have palmated antlers?

What is the structure and function of Velvet?
Aging (horns and teeth) (Aging handouts)




Annual growth rings (ex. Dall’s sheep)

Jaws and teeth

Incisor replacement, eruption of molars, eruption and loss of premolars, tooth wear (ex. Moose & Caribou)


Daily growth of hoof in neonates (ex. white-tailed deer)

Teeth sections

Examination of cementum annuli

Be able to age a Dall’s Sheep based on annual growth rings.

Be able age a moose or caribou jaw based on tooth replacement.

Be aware of other aging techniques (e.g., hoof growth, cementum annuli, tooth wear).

Cementum Annuli
The basis for cementum aging is the cyclic nature of cementum growth, which results in an annular pattern of "rings" in the tooth like that formed in the wood of trees. A darkly staining ring, or "annulus," is formed during winter. Abundant, lightly staining cementum is formed during the growth seasons of spring and summer. The underlying physiologic/metabolic mechanisms for cyclic cementum growth are not known. Very darkly staining rings are formed in southern regions of North America, but it is generally true that most mammals in these regions have less distinct annuli than their counterparts in more northern regions. Incidentally, human teeth have similar annuli but the deposition pattern is irregular compared to that of most wild mammals.

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