Order: trichoptera (caddisflies)




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ORDER: TRICHOPTERA (caddisflies)

with special reference to those found in Utah

Prepared by: From Edmunds, Hanson, and Nelson.

Compiled by: Mortenson, and Tanner 2 Nov 2006

Revised by: Henrichsen 4 Nov 2008
Diagnosing Features, adults:

small to medium-sized, most are dull-colored, slender body

four membranous wings which are very hairy and have scales

wings held tent-like over body(see Photo 1)

antennae long and slender, filiform

chewing mouthparts, well-developed palps but reduced mandibles in adults

Diagnosing Features, larvae:

nearly all aquatic

some build rock or stick cases(see Photo 2)
Habitat: near water
Trophic habits: decomposers and some predators
Metamorphosis: holometabolous
Preservation: alcohol, large adults pinned through mesonotum
trich adult trichoptera larva

Photo 1 Photo 2


All Photos taken by CR Nelson

Suborder: Spicipalpia (Closed-cocoon makers)



Family: Glossosomatidae

trich gloss gloss utah03
Morphology (larvae):

Saddle shaped or tortoise like portable cases.

Anal proleg with at least two hooks or claws: a dorsal accessory hook, the main hook is ventral.

Small cases of pebbles attached to rocks; open at both ends.


Ecology (larvae):

Live in fast flowing streams where they are scrapers.


Utah genera:

Culoptila, from the Green River, near the Dinosaur national monument. With a stout, hook like seta associated with the tarsal claws.

Protoptila, uncommon, found in large rivers and streams. Widespread. With a long, slender seta associated with the tarsal claws.

Agapetus, uncommon, intermediate elevations streams.

Anagapetus, uncommon, small cold mountain streams. Probably widespread in mountains.

Glossosoma, abundant in a variety of cold rocky streams, wide spread.
Family: Hydroptilidae

trich gsenm hydropt 31
Morphology (larvae):

Abdominal segments, greatly expanded.

Builds flat, purse like cases.

Very small!

Small claws on anal prolegs.
Ecology (larvae):

Live in a wide variety of lotic and lentic habitats, different genera and and life stages fit most every functional feeding group including: collectors, scrapers some are piercers of algae. They are free-living through the first four instars and make cases in the final larval instar. Cases are often bivalved and can incorporate mineral and vegetal matter, hung together with silk. Some make their cases completely from silk.


Utah genera:

Hydroptila, common in streams, lakes, rivers or springs. Widespread.

Ochrotrichia, abundant, widespread, in a wide variety of permanent and semi-permanent streams.

Stactobiella, uncommon, in cold streams.

Agraylea, common in ponds, lakes and slow areas of streams, widespread.

Ithytrichia, common, in warmer streams and rivers.

Leucotrichia, warmer waters and springs.

Mayatrichia, in rapid sections of rivers and streams.

Neotrichia, common, in rapid sections of streams and rivers, widespread.

Oxyethira, uncommon, slow current or standing water.

Rioptila, in Utah.
Suborder Annulipalpia (Fixed-retreat makers)

Family: Hydropsychidae

26, hydropsychidae from cr 30, empty net of hydropsychidae
Morphology (larvae):

C shaped gills on underside of abdomen.

Not case builders, but do spin extensive nets.

Dark brown head.




Morphology (adults):

They have a prominent neck and the tips of the wings parted more than many caddis adults.


Ecology (larvae):

Live in a wide variety of streams where they are predators which spin nets to trap prey and debris.

They can be extremely abundant and many are tolerant of silty and murky water.

Constructs nets to capture prey.


Utah genera:

Cheumatopsyche, common in streams and rivers, widespread.

Hydropsyche, abundant in streams and rivers, widespread.

Macrostemum, uncommon in warm rivers, known from Uintah river near Fort Duchesne.

Smicridea, common in a variety of streams.

Parapsyche, common in upper reaches of cold streams of northern Utah.

Arctopsyche, common in cold streams, northern Utah and mountains.
Family: Philopotamidae

tric_philo_chim_s_66_64++
Morphology (larvae):

Labrum expanded and membranous.

Clypeus asymmetrically notched in most Chimarra.

Head reddish brown, abdomen very pale.

Live in silken tubes under rocks.
Morphology (adults):

Most are small and black.


Ecology (larvae):

Live in fast flowing streams where they are predators in silk tubes.


Utah genera:

Dolophiloides common widespread, small mountain streams.

Chimarra, 12 species, some of which are widespread, but uncommon in Utah. Usually in rapid, clear, warm streams. Known from west-central and southern Utah.

Wormaldia, common in cold streams, presumably widespread

Family: Polycentropodidae

tric_poly_nict_i_v_46_55++
Morphology (larvae):

Labrum not expanded, nor membranous.

Sharp, broad and hatchet shaped trochantin.

Round heads.

Head and abdomen pale or light brown.
Ecology (larvae):

Live in a wide variety of fixed retreats on rocks in streams.


Utah genera:

Polycentropus common in lakes, streams and rivers.

Nictyophylax ?!?

Family: Rhyacophilidae

c:\documents and settings\student\desktop\aquatic entomology\trichoptera\08, rhyacophilidae

Morphology (larvae):

Larvae-gills dorsal if present.

Sclerotized plate on dorsum of ninth segment.
Utah genus:

Rhyacophila, abundant in a wide range of streams, widespread. May be green or pink, predaceous and free living.

Suborder Integripalpia (Portable-case makers)

Family: Brachycentridae

c:\documents and settings\student\desktop\aquatic entomology\trichoptera\tric_b~1.jpg

Morphology (larvae):

No humps on abdomen.

Makes a square or round portable case.

Pronotum with deep transverse depression.

Antennae small, closer to mandibles than eyes.
Ecology (larvae):

Brachycentrus attaches its case with silk to the upper side of rocks then hangs out its legs and filter feeds.
Utah genera:

Brachycentrus, abundant, in cool streams and rivers, widespread.

Oligoplectrum, cool streams, widespread.

Micrasema, common. In small cold streams; usually in clumps of moss. Widespread.

Amiocentrus, is in Utah.

Family: Helicopsychidae

c:\documents and settings\student\desktop\aquatic entomology\freshwater aquatic invertebrate id guide\images\tric_ heli.jpg

Morphology (larvae):

Spiral, snail-like portable case.

Truncate head with hypognathous mouthparts.

Anal claw pectinate.

Fore trochantin elongate.

Ecology (larvae):

Usually lotic rarely lentic.

Univoltine, bivoltine, multivoltine.
Utah genus:

Helicopsyche, abundant, in small but warmer streams, also in lakes, widespread.
Family: Lepidostomatidae
Morphology (larvae):

Lateral humps on abdomen (dorsal hump absent).

Mesonotum largely sclerotized.

Short antenna very close to eye.

Portable cases of various types.

No dorsal tubercle on first abdominal segment.


Ecology (larvae):

Lotic.


All univoltine.

Mostly shredders.


Utah genus:

Lepidostoma, common in wide variety of springs, ponds, lakes and slow areas of streams, widespread.

Family: Leptoceridae

c:\documents and settings\student\desktop\aquatic entomology\trichoptera\27, leptoceridae, oecetis

Morphology (larvae):

Antennae very long at base of mandible.

Cased portable, often very long.
Ecology (larvae):

Both lotic and lentic, even within a species.

All food habits.

All univoltine.

Some specialists on sponge.
Utah genera:

Ceraclea, occurs in larger rivers of the Uintah basin.

Leptocerus, 1 species in Texas. I don’t know the distribution. Is it in Utah?

Nectopsyche, common, slow current in warmer streams and in lakes, presumably widespread.

Oecetis, abundant, in a wide variety of streams, rivers and lakes, widespread.

Triaenodes, common, lakes and streams, presumably widespread.

Mystacides, common, slow areas of larger streams and lakes.
Family: Limnephilidae

tric_ limn_hesp.jpg

Morphology (larvae):

Largest family.

Cases variable.

Lateral and dorsal humps on abdomen

Short antenna midway between eye and mandible.

Mesonotum largely sclerotized.

Portable cases of a wide variety of materials.
Ecology (larvae):

Lentic and lotic.

Univoltine and semivoltine.
Notes:

Several families have been split off recently from the Limnephilidae: Goeridae, Rossianidae, Apataniidae, and Uenoidae.


Utah genera:

Apatania, streams at higher elevations.

Amphicosmoecus, uncommon, small, cool streams.

Dicosmoecus, uncommon, rapid streams of various size.

Hesperophylax, common, small streams and cold lakes, widespread.

Neothremma, common in rapid, cool streams, presumably widespread.

Lenarchus, common in cold streams.

Chyranda, uncommon, small spring streams, mountains, presumably widespread.

Oligophlebodes, common, in cold mountain streams, presumably widespread.

Psychoglypha, uncommon, in mountain streams, presumably widespread.

Ecclisomyia, cool mountain streams. Common

Homophylax, small cold streams, rare.

Allomyia, in Utah

Anabolia, marshes, slow streams and temporary pools.

Asynarchus, streams, ponds and temporary pools in mountains.

Clistoronia, ponds and small lakes at higher elevations.

Grammotaulius, small weedy ponds at high altitudes.

Nemotaulius, in Utah

Neophylax, flowing waters.

Onocosmoecus, in cool ponds or slow running waters.

Psychoronia, streams at high elevations.

Family: Phryganeidae

tricho phrygan arbulag mongo 004sm.jpg

Morphology (larvae):

Mesonotum and metanotum membranous.

Sa3 setal cluster on metanotum.

Prosternal horn; large.

Portable case builder, often with prominent spiral arrangement.

Two dark head stripes.


Ecology (larvae):

Lentic and lotic

Univoltine.
Utah genera:

Banksiola, uncommon, lakes, marshes, and sluggish streams.

Agrypnia, uncommon, lakes, marshes, and slow flowing rivers.

Ptilostomis, common locally, in larger streams and lakes, presumably widespread.

Phryganea, uncommon. Marshes and lake margins.
Family: Sericosomatidae

tric_seri_gum_i_s_48_29++.jpg tric_seri_gum_c_s_48_31++.jpg

Morphology (larvae):

Hooked fore trochantin.

Mesonotum sclerotized, metanotum membranous.

Abdominal humps present.

Portable case curved with sand or small rocks.
Ecology (larvae):

Lotic.


Utah genus:

Gumaga, in Utah.




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