|ORDER: TRICHOPTERA (caddisflies)
with special reference to those found in Utah
Prepared by: From Edmunds, Hanson, and Nelson.
Compiled by: Mortenson, and Tanner 2 Nov 2006
Revised by: Henrichsen 4 Nov 2008
Diagnosing Features, adults:
small to medium-sized, most are dull-colored, slender body
four membranous wings which are very hairy and have scales
wings held tent-like over body(see Photo 1)
antennae long and slender, filiform
chewing mouthparts, well-developed palps but reduced mandibles in adults
Diagnosing Features, larvae:
nearly all aquatic
some build rock or stick cases(see Photo 2)
Habitat: near water
Trophic habits: decomposers and some predators
Preservation: alcohol, large adults pinned through mesonotum
Photo 1 Photo 2
All Photos taken by CR Nelson
Suborder: Spicipalpia (Closed-cocoon makers)
Saddle shaped or tortoise like portable cases.
Anal proleg with at least two hooks or claws: a dorsal accessory hook, the main hook is ventral.
Small cases of pebbles attached to rocks; open at both ends.
Live in fast flowing streams where they are scrapers.
Culoptila, from the Green River, near the Dinosaur national monument. With a stout, hook like seta associated with the tarsal claws.
Protoptila, uncommon, found in large rivers and streams. Widespread. With a long, slender seta associated with the tarsal claws.
Agapetus, uncommon, intermediate elevations streams.
Anagapetus, uncommon, small cold mountain streams. Probably widespread in mountains.
Glossosoma, abundant in a variety of cold rocky streams, wide spread.
Abdominal segments, greatly expanded.
Builds flat, purse like cases.
Small claws on anal prolegs.
Live in a wide variety of lotic and lentic habitats, different genera and and life stages fit most every functional feeding group including: collectors, scrapers some are piercers of algae. They are free-living through the first four instars and make cases in the final larval instar. Cases are often bivalved and can incorporate mineral and vegetal matter, hung together with silk. Some make their cases completely from silk.
Hydroptila, common in streams, lakes, rivers or springs. Widespread.
Ochrotrichia, abundant, widespread, in a wide variety of permanent and semi-permanent streams.
Stactobiella, uncommon, in cold streams.
Agraylea, common in ponds, lakes and slow areas of streams, widespread.
Ithytrichia, common, in warmer streams and rivers.
Leucotrichia, warmer waters and springs.
Mayatrichia, in rapid sections of rivers and streams.
Neotrichia, common, in rapid sections of streams and rivers, widespread.
Oxyethira, uncommon, slow current or standing water.
Rioptila, in Utah.
Suborder Annulipalpia (Fixed-retreat makers)
C shaped gills on underside of abdomen.
Not case builders, but do spin extensive nets.
Dark brown head.
They have a prominent neck and the tips of the wings parted more than many caddis adults.
Live in a wide variety of streams where they are predators which spin nets to trap prey and debris.
They can be extremely abundant and many are tolerant of silty and murky water.
Constructs nets to capture prey.
Cheumatopsyche, common in streams and rivers, widespread.
Hydropsyche, abundant in streams and rivers, widespread.
Macrostemum, uncommon in warm rivers, known from Uintah river near Fort Duchesne.
Smicridea, common in a variety of streams.
Parapsyche, common in upper reaches of cold streams of northern Utah.
Arctopsyche, common in cold streams, northern Utah and mountains.
Labrum expanded and membranous.
Clypeus asymmetrically notched in most Chimarra.
Head reddish brown, abdomen very pale.
Live in silken tubes under rocks.
Most are small and black.
Live in fast flowing streams where they are predators in silk tubes.
Dolophiloides common widespread, small mountain streams.
Chimarra, 12 species, some of which are widespread, but uncommon in Utah. Usually in rapid, clear, warm streams. Known from west-central and southern Utah.
Wormaldia, common in cold streams, presumably widespread
Labrum not expanded, nor membranous.
Sharp, broad and hatchet shaped trochantin.
Head and abdomen pale or light brown.
Live in a wide variety of fixed retreats on rocks in streams.
Polycentropus common in lakes, streams and rivers.
Larvae-gills dorsal if present.
Sclerotized plate on dorsum of ninth segment.
Rhyacophila, abundant in a wide range of streams, widespread. May be green or pink, predaceous and free living.
Suborder Integripalpia (Portable-case makers)
No humps on abdomen.
Makes a square or round portable case.
Pronotum with deep transverse depression.
Antennae small, closer to mandibles than eyes.
Brachycentrus attaches its case with silk to the upper side of rocks then hangs out its legs and filter feeds.
Brachycentrus, abundant, in cool streams and rivers, widespread.
Oligoplectrum, cool streams, widespread.
Micrasema, common. In small cold streams; usually in clumps of moss. Widespread.
Amiocentrus, is in Utah.
Spiral, snail-like portable case.
Truncate head with hypognathous mouthparts.
Anal claw pectinate.
Fore trochantin elongate.
Usually lotic rarely lentic.
Univoltine, bivoltine, multivoltine.
Helicopsyche, abundant, in small but warmer streams, also in lakes, widespread.
Lateral humps on abdomen (dorsal hump absent).
Mesonotum largely sclerotized.
Short antenna very close to eye.
Portable cases of various types.
No dorsal tubercle on first abdominal segment.
Lepidostoma, common in wide variety of springs, ponds, lakes and slow areas of streams, widespread.
Antennae very long at base of mandible.
Cased portable, often very long.
Both lotic and lentic, even within a species.
All food habits.
Some specialists on sponge.
Ceraclea, occurs in larger rivers of the Uintah basin.
Leptocerus, 1 species in Texas. I don’t know the distribution. Is it in Utah?
Nectopsyche, common, slow current in warmer streams and in lakes, presumably widespread.
Oecetis, abundant, in a wide variety of streams, rivers and lakes, widespread.
Triaenodes, common, lakes and streams, presumably widespread.
Mystacides, common, slow areas of larger streams and lakes.
Lateral and dorsal humps on abdomen
Short antenna midway between eye and mandible.
Mesonotum largely sclerotized.
Portable cases of a wide variety of materials.
Lentic and lotic.
Univoltine and semivoltine.
Several families have been split off recently from the Limnephilidae: Goeridae, Rossianidae, Apataniidae, and Uenoidae.
Apatania, streams at higher elevations.
Amphicosmoecus, uncommon, small, cool streams.
Dicosmoecus, uncommon, rapid streams of various size.
Hesperophylax, common, small streams and cold lakes, widespread.
Neothremma, common in rapid, cool streams, presumably widespread.
Lenarchus, common in cold streams.
Chyranda, uncommon, small spring streams, mountains, presumably widespread.
Oligophlebodes, common, in cold mountain streams, presumably widespread.
Psychoglypha, uncommon, in mountain streams, presumably widespread.
Ecclisomyia, cool mountain streams. Common
Homophylax, small cold streams, rare.
Allomyia, in Utah
Anabolia, marshes, slow streams and temporary pools.
Asynarchus, streams, ponds and temporary pools in mountains.
Clistoronia, ponds and small lakes at higher elevations.
Grammotaulius, small weedy ponds at high altitudes.
Nemotaulius, in Utah
Neophylax, flowing waters.
Onocosmoecus, in cool ponds or slow running waters.
Psychoronia, streams at high elevations.
Mesonotum and metanotum membranous.
Sa3 setal cluster on metanotum.
Prosternal horn; large.
Portable case builder, often with prominent spiral arrangement.
Two dark head stripes.
Lentic and lotic
Banksiola, uncommon, lakes, marshes, and sluggish streams.
Agrypnia, uncommon, lakes, marshes, and slow flowing rivers.
Ptilostomis, common locally, in larger streams and lakes, presumably widespread.
Phryganea, uncommon. Marshes and lake margins.
Hooked fore trochantin.
Mesonotum sclerotized, metanotum membranous.
Abdominal humps present.
Portable case curved with sand or small rocks.
Gumaga, in Utah.