Note: there is more to most of these terms. Study with a partner!!




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NOTE: THERE IS MORE TO MOST OF THESE TERMS. STUDY WITH A PARTNER!!


Hammurabi’s Code
First written law code. Eye for an eye. Fertile crescent

The Nile

Essential for the survival of Egypt. “the gift of the nile”



Fertile Crescent
Made of of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers

Monsoons

Season winds that affect the Indian sub continent



Indus River

Early river valley civilization. Harrappa & mohenjo-daro



mummification
Preservation of Egyptian Pharaohs

Silk Roads
Trade routes connecting Asia and Europe

Mediterranean Sea

Essential trade route for Roman Empire, and Greece




Greek Islands
Archipelago,

Cause sea faring people. Isolation



Athens
Birth place of democracy. Art, philosophy

Sparta
Military state. Men and women had a lot of rights

Pericles
Leader of delian league. Improves democracy in Athens

Alps
Isolating feature of the Italian peninsula

Hinduism
Karma, Dharma, Moksa,

Caste system

Polytheistic

Reincarnation



Buddhism
4 noble truths,

8 fold path

Buddha was born Hindu.

Goal is enlightenment



Bible, Torah, Koran
Holy books of the Ethical monotheistic religions

Zoroastrianism
Earliest known monotheistic religion. Ancient Persian

Confucianism
Ethical belief system. Filial piety. Respect for elder. 5 relationships

Qin Shi Huangdi
Qin dynasty. Unifies China

Uses legalism



Legalism
Harsh laws, strict punishments, rewards

Isolation
Separated from other cultures

Bantu
Migrate through Africa

Mali
Gold and Salt traders. Trans-Saharan trade

Songhai.
Gold and salt traders. Conquer Mali

Samurai
Warriors of feudal Japan

Bushido
Warrior code of Feudal Japan

Chivalry
Knights code of honor. Loosely applied

Roman Republic.
3 branches of government

Justinian’s code
Revamped 12 tables

Julius Caesar
Tries to preserve the republic. Creates empire

Marcus Aurelius
Last emperor of the Pax Romana

Pax Romana
Roman peace. Cultural diffusion through trade

Pax Mongolica
Mongol peace, along silk roads. Allows trade

Pax Sinica (China)
Chinese peace. Han dynasty

Diocletian
Divides Rome in two in an attempt to preserve it

Constantine
Makes capital of Rome in Byzantium. Allows Christianity to be practice

Justinian
Emperor of Byzantines. Preserves Greco-Roman Culture

Byzantine Empire
Preserve Greek and roman culture

Roman Empire
Conquer entire Med. Sea region

Feudalism
Land exchanged for loyalty

Charlemagne
Emperor of Holy Roman Empire

Christianity
Ethical monotheistic religion

Judaism
Ethical monotheistic religion

Islam
Ethical monotheistic religion

Muhammad
Founder of Islam

4 noble truths

There is suffering. Suffering is caused by desire. End suffering = end desire. End desire by following the 8 fold path



5 pillars

Faith, prayer, fasting, alms, pilgrimage



8 fold path
The 8 rights. EX: right though

10 commandments
How to practice Judaism and Christianity

Twelve Tables
Roman law code

Martin Luther
95 theses

Starts reformation



Edict of Worms
GET MARTIN LURTHER !!!

Renaissance
Rebirth of classic cultures

Printing Press
Guttenberg. Print books faster. Spread ideas

Enlightenment
New ideas regarding the purpose of government and law

Scientific Revolution
Empirical method. Major contributions to modern day

Absolute Monarchs
Rulers with all the power

Constitutional Monarchs
Rulers have to follow the laws too

Habeas Corpus
Rights for prisoners. Trials, etc.

Age of exploration
Exploration. Self explanatory

Urban Planning
Harappa and Mohenjo-daro planned their cities

Alexander the Great
Macedonian. Major conquering. See Hellenistic Culture

Hellenistic Culture
Blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, Indian cultures

Greco-Roman Culture
Blend of Greek & Roman cultures

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
S.P.A. is the order. They are Greek philosophers



Mansa Musa
Leader of Mali. Takes pilgrimage to Mecca

Gupta
Golden age of India

Mauryan Empire

Buddhism becomes safe to be practices in India. Religious toleration



Aztecs
Human sacrifice. Advanced.

Inca
Andes mountains. Terrace farming. Mita is labor tribute

Maya
Advanced

Mercantilism
Colonies serve mother country

Tribute
Payment in exchange for “protection”

Aqueducts
Allow the city of Rome to sprawl because water can be piped in

Roads
Allow trade, armies, and ideas to spread easily.

Vikings
Watch out!

Settle Russia



Attila the Hun
Only credible threat to the Romans.

Moveable type/Printing Press
Originally invented by Chinese

Gun Powder
BLAM BLAM Think about how much more friendly the world would be

Neolithic Revolution
First agricultural revolution. People can settle and specialize in labor

Cyrillic Alphabet
Eastern orthodox monk named Cyril makes it for the Russians


Eastern Orthodox Christianity
First break from roman catholic church. Primarily Greek and Russian

Sunni V. Shiite
Sects of Islam. Believe the caliph should either be a descendent of Muhammad (Shiite) or follow his example (Sunni)

Crusades
Most successful failures. Crusaders bring back lost ideas that the Muslims preserved

Black Plague aka Bubonic Plague
Kill nearly 1/3 of Europe. Brought back by the crusaders along the trade routes they reopened

Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince of Portugal. Sets up school for explorers

Human environment interaction
How do people adapt to their environment ( ex: terrace farming)

Lucy
3.5 million years old. Most complete hominid ever found. Lived in Africa

100 years war
Between French and English.

Holy Roman Empire
Key word is HOLY. Pope has power. Crowns emperor



Treaty of Tordesillas
Gives most of “new world” to Spain and some to Portugal

Line of Demarcation
Similar. To Treaty of Tordesillas.

Mandate of Heaven
Authority for Chinese emperor. Similar to devine right in europe

Dynastic Cycle
Cycle for emperors in China. New emperor, things are good, something happens, emperor challenged. Repeat

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