Name: Lab Worksheet Lab Topic 16 Plant Diversity II: Seed Plants Biology 211 Fall 2005




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Lab Worksheet

Lab Topic 16 Plant Diversity II: Seed Plants

Biology 211

Fall 2005
Use the following as a resource as you complete the lab assignment.
ATLAS FIGURES AND COLOR PLATES IN LAB MANUAL

Exercise 16.1 Gymnosperms

Lab Study A Divisions of Gymnosperms Atlas pages 74-81; Color plates 38, 39, 40, 41 and 42.



Exercise 16.2 Angiosperms

Lab Study A Flower Morphology: Atlas pages 92-96; Color plate 43, and 44,

Lab Study C Angiosperm Life Cycle: Atlas page 82; Color plate 48 (ovule) and 49 (pollen tube).

Lab Study D Fruits and Dispersal: Atlas pages 97-98; Color plate 44, 45, 46, and 47.


IN-LAB ASSIGNMNENT

Exercise 16.1 Gymnosperms

Lab Study A Divisions of Gymnosperms (1.25 pt)

  1. Review Introduction section, page 428. Complete Procedure, Results and Discussion sections, p. 429. Use the following resources:

a) live material on display

b) Color plates at the back of the lab manual (see list above)

c) Following web sites
Cycads

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0803.htm#cycads



http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/401/Cycadophyta/Zamiaceae/Dioon/Dioon_holmgrenii_MC.html

http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/401/Cycadophyta/Stangeriaceae/Stangeria/S_eriopus_DW.html

http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/401/Cycadophyta/Zamiaceae/Dioon/Dioon_spinulosum/Dioon_spinulosum_habit_DW.html

Gingkos

http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/401/Ginkgophyta/Ginkgoaceae/Ginkgo_biloba/

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0803d.htm (Picture of Ginkgos on OSU campus!)

Gnetophyta --

Ephedra http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/401/Gnetophyta/Ephedra/E_nevadensis_habit_DW.html

Gnetum

http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/courses/systematics/Phyla/Gnetophyta/Gnetophyta.html

Welwitschia

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/welwit.htm



http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/401/Gnetophyta/Welwitschia_mirabilis/

Table 16.2 Divisions of Gymnosperms

Divisions

Examples

Sketch of examples; include any reproductive structures





























Discussion



1.



  • (0.25 pt) Identify one of the conifers on display using the taxonomic key found on OSU tree identification website: http://oregonstate.edu/trees/ (Just for fun, identify one of the mystery trees found on the website!).

Conifer number: _____ Species name: ____________

Exercise 16.2 Angiosperms

Lab Study A Flower Morphology (1.75 pts)

  1. Review Introduction, p. 433-434. Note that the correct general term for the female part is pistil, not carpel.

  2. Complete procedure and results, pp. 435-436.


Table 16.3 Flower Morphology and Pollinators

Features




Plant names

1. Peruvian lily

2. Snapdragon

3. composite

Number of petals










Number of sepals










Number of stamens










Number of pistils










Monocot or dicot










Sketch of the ovules in the ovary










The ovules develop into what?










The ovary develops into what?










Color










Scent (+/-)










Nectar (+/-)










Shape (including corolla shape: tubular, star, etc.)










Special features (landing platform, guidelines, nectar spur, etc.)










Predicted pollinator (Hint: use the key on p, 438)











Lab Study B Pollinators (Skip this exercise).

Lab Study C Angiosperm Life Cycle (2.00 pts)

A. Complete Procedure, Results and Discussion sections, p. 439-442.

Results

1.


2. a) Labeled sketch of your prepared microscope slide from procedure 1.
b) Labeled sketch of your prepare microscope slide from procedure 2.
3.

Table 16.4 Results of Pollen Germination Studies

Plant name

30 min (+/-)

60 min (+/-)










Challenge question (0.5 pt)

Pollen germinates in the lab for some species and not at all for others. In some species, a biochemical signal is required from the stigma to initiate germination. If the pollen has not germinated after 30 minutes, design an experiment to test the hypothesis that a substance in the stigma is necessary for pollen germination.




Discussion

1.


2.

B. Once your group feels that it understands the angiosperm life cycle, get together with another group and teach the angiosperm life cycle to the other group, which will listen and evaluate your presentation. Instructor’s initials ______________


Lab Study D Fruits and Dispersal (0.75 pt)

  1. Complete Procedure and Results sections, p. 443. NOTE: Use the modified Key to Fruits found on the last page this worksheet, instead of the one in you lab manual.

  2. Turn in Table 16.5. Work with a second group and identify three dry fruits, and three fleshy fruits. Hint: review Results 3, p.443.


Table 16.5 Fruit Types and Dispersal Mechanisms




Plant name

Fruit type

Dispersal Methods

  1. dry fruit




  1. dry fruit




  1. dry fruit




  1. fleshy fruit



  1. fleshy fruit



  1. fleshy fruit














Challenge question (0.5 pt)

The history of life has been punctuated by several extinctions, based on evidence from the fossil record. The impact of a meteorite may have wiped out the dinosaurs and many forms of marine lifer at the end of the Cretaceous period. Fossils indicate that plants were much less severely affected by this and other mass extinctions. Speculate on what adaptations may have enabled plants to withstand these disasters better than animals? Justify your hypotheses.



Practice exam questions

1. Microspore is to ______________________ as _______________________ is to embryo sac.


2. Important terrestrial adaptations that evolved exclusively in seed plants include all the of the following except

a. pollination

b. transport of water through vascular tissue

c. retention of the gametophyte plant within the sporophyte

d. dispersal of new plants by seeds

e. retention of spores by the parent sporophyte



Clean and reorganize your workspace for the next lab group. Remove slides from microscopes and turn nosepiece to lowest objective. _____________ Instructor’s initials

Just for Fun

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0601.htm


  1.  The World's Oldest Living Thing
     
    The Oldest Germinated Seed

  2.  The World's Oldest Living Fossil

  3.  The World's Most Massive Living Thing

  4.  The World's Tallest Tree

  5.  The World's Hardest & Heaviest Wood

  6.  The World's Smallest Flowering Plant

  7.  The World's Smallest And Largest Fruit

  8.  The World's Largest Hitchhiking Fruit

  9.  The World's Largest Vegetable

  10.  The World's Smallest And Largest Seed

  11.  The World's Smallest And Largest Leaves

  12.  The World's Largest Flying Seed

  13.  Longest Distance Traveled By Drift Seed

  14.  World's Fastest Reproducing Plants

  15.  The World's Fastest Growing Plants

  16.  The Fastest Trapdoor On A Plant

  17.  The World's Deadliest Plants

  18.  Most Painful Botanical Encounters

  19.  World's Most Valuable Plant Jewels

  20.  Dislaimer: Authenticity Of Coconut Pearls

  21.  Most Complex Plant-Insect Relationship

  22.  The World's Largest Stinking Flowers

  23.  Plant & Animal Adaptation Hyperlinks

  24.  Go To Diversity Of Flowering Plants



KEY TO COMMON FRUITS

1A. Simple fruits (one ovary)

1a. Fruits fleshy

2a. Fruits with a single seed enclosed in a hard pit...............................................................DRUPE

2b. Fruits with more than one seed, the seeds are not enclosed in a hard pit

3a. Fruits derived from the ovary only; endocarp fleshy or slimy..................................BERRY (berries with a thin skin are called TRUE BERRIES; berries with leathery skin containing oil are called HESPERIDIUMS= citrus family)

3b. Fruits derived from the ovary plus other parts of the flower; therefore, ovary wall seen as “core” around seeds.

4a. Fruits with relatively hard rind (= squash family).................................................PEPO

4b. Fruits without a hard rind.................................................................................... POME

1b. Fruits dry

5a. Fruits not splitting at maturity

6a. Fruits with a wing................................................................................... .............SAMARA

6b. Fruits without a wing

7a. Fruits with a hard shell surrounding the seed .........................................................NUT

7b. Fruits without a hard shell

8a. Fruit wall fused to the seed coat.............................. ....... ..GRAIN (CARYOPSIS)

8b. Fruit wall with seed loosely attached.......................................................ACHENE

5b. Fruits splitting in various ways at maturity

9a. Fruits splitting through multiple seams or forming a cap that come off or has a row of pores near the top.................................................................................................CAPSULE

9b. Fruits splitting along lengthwise along the edges

10a. Fruits splitting along one edge only............................................................FOLLICLE

10b. Fruits splitting along both edges...................................................................LEGUME

1B. Compound fruits Imore than one ovary)

11a. Fruit formed from ovaries of many flowers........................................... ............MUTIPLE FRUIT



11b. Fruit formed from several ovaries in one flower ........................................AGGREGATE FRUIT

Revised 9/2005


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