Multiwavelength Universe




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Activity Outline
This is a brief introduction to the “Multiwavelength Universe” classroom activity. There is at least 2-2.5 hours of material here, so pick and choose accordingly, or split across wavelengths and cover in multiple sessions. Slides are provided for the teacher to illustrate all the sections.
Introduction

  • What is EM radiation? (5-10 minutes)

    • Inc. list of wavelengths in EM spectrum (few minutes)

    • Wavelength and frequency

  • Optional extra: Herschel introduction (variable length)

  • Black Body Radiation (A-level only – 10-15 mins)

    • Inc. Wein’s displacement law

  • Optional extra: Draw Black Body curves on the board

  • Optional extra: telescope resolutions (A-level only – 10-15 mins)

    • Introduce ~/D

    • Calculate resolution for e.g. Hubble, Lovell, Spitzer, Herschel


Spectrum activities (optional)

  • Emission examples at each wavelength (15-20 mins)

    • Fill in wavelength summary sheet

    • Frequency and temperature suggested for A-level students only

    • Ask for examples in real life

    • Ask and/or give examples in astronomy


Wavelength matching activity (recommended)

  • Match objects at different wavelengths (30 mins)


Additional research (optional)

  • In their groups of 2-3, or individually

  • Use links provided to find more information about objects (30 mins)

  • Optional extra: report back to class

  • Optional extra: design poster about objects (template available in package)

For any questions, or to get more details, please contact:



Chris North

School of Physics and Astronomy

Cardiff University

Email: chris.north@astro.cf.ac.uk

Tel: 02920 870 537
Or visit http://herscheltelescope.org.uk/education
Multiwavelength Objects
For the objects below, write down the numbers of the corresponding images at other wavelengths.
Crab


X-ray Ultraviolet


Far-Infrared Radio
Centaurus A


X-ray Mid-Infrared


Far-Infrared Radio
Antennae


X-ray Mid-Infrared


Far-Infrared Radio
Cassiopeia A


X-ray Mid-Infrared


Far-Infrared Radio
Large Magellanic Cloud


X-ray Ultraviolet


Far-Infrared Radio
Triangulum


X-ray Ultraviolet


Mid-Infrared Radio


Orion


X-ray Near-Infrared


Mid-Infrared Far-IR
M81


X-ray Ultraviolet


Far-Infrared Radio
M87


X-ray Mid-Infrared


Far-Infrared Radio
Sombrero
X-ray Near-Infrared
Mid-Infrared Radio
M82


X-ray Mid-Infrared


Far-Infrared Radio
Andromeda


X-ray Ultraviolet


Far-Infrared Radio

Links to Objects
Below are links to the various objects. The codes in brackets are the name you may find it under.
Links are given for finding the object in Chromoscope, as well as a few other links to more details.
Using Chromosope:


  • Click the link to open Chromoscope with the object centred.

  • Use the “+” and “-” keys (or buttons on the screen) to zoom in and out, and drag the sky around to explore the region.

  • Turn on and off constellation labels buy pressing “L”

  • Use the slider in the top right to fade between wavelengths shown.

  • You can re-order the wavelengths by dragging their names in order to easily compare different wavelengths.

  • For more help, press the “h” key.



Crab (M1)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-175.4429&b=-5.7847&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_Nebula

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m1.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/1999/0052/

Spitzer: http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/mediaimages/sig/sig05-004.shtml

Herschel: http://herschel.cf.ac.uk/results/crab-nebula
Centaurus A (NGC 5128)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-50.4844&b=19.4172&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaurus_A

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/cenA.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2008/cena/

Herschel: http://herschel.cf.ac.uk/results/centaurus

Antennae (NGC 4038)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-73.0444&b=42.4614&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antennae_Galaxies

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/ant.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2000/0120/

Spitzer: http://spitzer.caltech.edu/images/1266-ssc2004-14a%20-Fire-Within-the-Antennae-Galaxies
Cassiopeia A (Cas A)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=111.7353&b=-2.1299&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassiopeia_A

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/casA.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2006/casa/

Spitzer: http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/releases/ssc2005-14/release.shtml
Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-79.5344&b=-32.8887&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_Magellanic_Cloud

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/lmc.html

Herschel: http://herschel.cf.ac.uk/results/centaurus
Triangulum (M33)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=133.6106&b=-31.3308&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangulum_Galaxy

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m33.html

Spitzer: http://spitzer.caltech.edu/images/2625-sig09-003-Multispectral-Triangulum-Galaxy-3-Channel

Orion (M42)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-150.9866&b=-19.3813&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_Nebula

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/orion/

Spitzer:

http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/releases/ssc2006-21/ssc2006-21a.shtml

Vista: http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1006/
M81
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=142.0920&b=40.8999&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_81

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m81.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2008/m81/

Spitzer: http://spitzer.caltech.edu/images/2126-sig07-009-Multiwavelength-M81
M87
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-76.2224&b=71.4990&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_87

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m87.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2008/m87/
Sombrero (M104)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-61.5396&b=51.1494&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sombrero_Galaxy

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m104.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/sombrero/

Spitzer: http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/releases/ssc2005-11/release.shtml

M82
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=141.4094&b=40.5667&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_82

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m82.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2006/m82/
Andromeda (M31)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=121.1741&b=-21.5727&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andromeda_Galaxy

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m31.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2006/m31/

Spitzer: http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/releases/ssc2005-20/release.shtml

Herschel: http://herschel.cf.ac.uk/results/andromeda-galaxy

Further Research

1) What object are you looking at? Describe what it looks like at first sight.


2) Describe where it is in the sky. Is it in the Northern or Southern hemisphere as seen from Earth? Are there any nearby constellations?

3) How far away is it? Is that inside or outside our Galaxy?

4) Describe what type of object it is. Can you find any other pictures of it?

5) Does it look particularly different in any particular wavelengths? Does that tell you anything about it?

6) What can you learn by comparing the appearance of the object at different wavelengths? What is it made of?

7) What is happening to the object? Is it doing anything?

Wavelength Summary Table


Spectral regime

Wavelength

Frequency

Temperature

Types of objects

Gamma Ray

<20 pm

>1500 PHz

>15,000,000 K



X-ray

0.02-

10 nm


30-

1500 PHz


300,000-

15,000,000 K





Ultraviolet (UV)

10-

400 nm


0.75-

30 PHz


7000-

300,000 K





Visible

400-

800 nm


375-750 THz

3500-

7000 K




Near-Infrared (NIR)

0.8-

3 m


100-

375 THz


1000-

3500 K




Mid-infrared (MIR)

3-

30 m


10-

100 THz


100-

1000 K




Far-infrared (FIR)

30-

300 m


1-

10 THz


10-

100 K




Sub-mm and millimetre

0.3-

3 mm


0.1-

1 THz


1-

10 K




Microwave

3-

30 mm


10-

100 GHz


0.1-

1K




Radio

>30 mm

<10 GHz

<0.1 K



Multiwavelength Objects (Answers)
For the objects below, write down the numbers of the corresponding images at other wavelengths.

Crab


X-ray X4 Ultraviolet U5


Far-Infrared F7 Radio R9
Centaurus A


X-ray X3 Mid-Infrared M7


Far-Infrared F8 Radio R7
Antennae


X-ray X5 Mid-Infrared M6


Far-Infrared F1 Radio R8
Cassiopeia A


X-ray X6 Mid-Infrared M2


Far-Infrared F2 Radio R11
Large Magellanic Cloud


X-ray X1 Ultraviolet U4


Far-Infrared F3 Radio R10
Triangulum


X-ray X8 Ultraviolet U1


Mid-Infrared M4 Radio R2


Orion


X-ray X2 Near-Infrared N1


Mid-Infrared M3 Far-IR/Microwave F9
M81


X-ray X12 Ultraviolet U2


Far-Infrared F5 Radio R1
M87


X-ray X9 Mid-Infrared M5


Far-Infrared F4 Radio R4
Sombrero
X-ray X10 Near-Infrared N2
Mid-Infrared M1 Radio R3
M82


X-ray X11 Mid-Infrared M8


Far-Infrared F6 Radio R5
Andromeda


X-ray X7 Ultraviolet U3


Far-Infrared F10 Radio R6


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