# Multiwavelength Universe

 Дата канвертавання 24.04.2016 Памер 86.79 Kb.

Activity Outline
This is a brief introduction to the “Multiwavelength Universe” classroom activity. There is at least 2-2.5 hours of material here, so pick and choose accordingly, or split across wavelengths and cover in multiple sessions. Slides are provided for the teacher to illustrate all the sections.
Introduction

• What is EM radiation? (5-10 minutes)

• Inc. list of wavelengths in EM spectrum (few minutes)

• Wavelength and frequency

• Optional extra: Herschel introduction (variable length)

• Black Body Radiation (A-level only – 10-15 mins)

• Inc. Wein’s displacement law

• Optional extra: Draw Black Body curves on the board

• Optional extra: telescope resolutions (A-level only – 10-15 mins)

• Introduce ~/D

• Calculate resolution for e.g. Hubble, Lovell, Spitzer, Herschel

Spectrum activities (optional)

• Emission examples at each wavelength (15-20 mins)

• Fill in wavelength summary sheet

• Frequency and temperature suggested for A-level students only

• Ask for examples in real life

• Ask and/or give examples in astronomy

Wavelength matching activity (recommended)

• Match objects at different wavelengths (30 mins)

• In their groups of 2-3, or individually

• Optional extra: report back to class

• Optional extra: design poster about objects (template available in package)

For any questions, or to get more details, please contact:

Chris North

School of Physics and Astronomy

Cardiff University

Email: chris.north@astro.cf.ac.uk

Tel: 02920 870 537
Or visit http://herscheltelescope.org.uk/education
Multiwavelength Objects
For the objects below, write down the numbers of the corresponding images at other wavelengths.
Crab

X-ray Ultraviolet

Centaurus A

X-ray Mid-Infrared

Antennae

X-ray Mid-Infrared

Cassiopeia A

X-ray Mid-Infrared

Large Magellanic Cloud

X-ray Ultraviolet

Triangulum

X-ray Ultraviolet

Orion

X-ray Near-Infrared

Mid-Infrared Far-IR
M81

X-ray Ultraviolet

M87

X-ray Mid-Infrared

Sombrero
X-ray Near-Infrared
M82

X-ray Mid-Infrared

Andromeda

X-ray Ultraviolet

Below are links to the various objects. The codes in brackets are the name you may find it under.
Links are given for finding the object in Chromoscope, as well as a few other links to more details.
Using Chromosope:

• Click the link to open Chromoscope with the object centred.

• Use the “+” and “-” keys (or buttons on the screen) to zoom in and out, and drag the sky around to explore the region.

• Turn on and off constellation labels buy pressing “L”

• Use the slider in the top right to fade between wavelengths shown.

• You can re-order the wavelengths by dragging their names in order to easily compare different wavelengths.

• For more help, press the “h” key.

Crab (M1)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-175.4429&b=-5.7847&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_Nebula

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m1.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/1999/0052/

Spitzer: http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/mediaimages/sig/sig05-004.shtml

Herschel: http://herschel.cf.ac.uk/results/crab-nebula
Centaurus A (NGC 5128)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-50.4844&b=19.4172&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaurus_A

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/cenA.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2008/cena/

Herschel: http://herschel.cf.ac.uk/results/centaurus

Antennae (NGC 4038)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-73.0444&b=42.4614&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antennae_Galaxies

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/ant.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2000/0120/

Spitzer: http://spitzer.caltech.edu/images/1266-ssc2004-14a%20-Fire-Within-the-Antennae-Galaxies
Cassiopeia A (Cas A)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=111.7353&b=-2.1299&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassiopeia_A

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/casA.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2006/casa/

Spitzer: http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/releases/ssc2005-14/release.shtml
Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-79.5344&b=-32.8887&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_Magellanic_Cloud

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/lmc.html

Herschel: http://herschel.cf.ac.uk/results/centaurus
Triangulum (M33)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=133.6106&b=-31.3308&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangulum_Galaxy

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m33.html

Spitzer: http://spitzer.caltech.edu/images/2625-sig09-003-Multispectral-Triangulum-Galaxy-3-Channel

Orion (M42)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-150.9866&b=-19.3813&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_Nebula

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/orion/

Spitzer:

http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/releases/ssc2006-21/ssc2006-21a.shtml

Vista: http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1006/
M81
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=142.0920&b=40.8999&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_81

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m81.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2008/m81/

Spitzer: http://spitzer.caltech.edu/images/2126-sig07-009-Multiwavelength-M81
M87
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-76.2224&b=71.4990&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_87

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m87.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2008/m87/
Sombrero (M104)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=-61.5396&b=51.1494&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sombrero_Galaxy

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m104.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/sombrero/

Spitzer: http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/releases/ssc2005-11/release.shtml

M82
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=141.4094&b=40.5667&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_82

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m82.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2006/m82/
Andromeda (M31)
Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/?l=121.1741&b=-21.5727&w=2.00&o=g,x,v,a,f,m,r&z=6

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andromeda_Galaxy

Cool Cosmos: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m31.html

Chandra: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2006/m31/

Spitzer: http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/releases/ssc2005-20/release.shtml

Herschel: http://herschel.cf.ac.uk/results/andromeda-galaxy

Further Research

1) What object are you looking at? Describe what it looks like at first sight.

2) Describe where it is in the sky. Is it in the Northern or Southern hemisphere as seen from Earth? Are there any nearby constellations?

3) How far away is it? Is that inside or outside our Galaxy?

4) Describe what type of object it is. Can you find any other pictures of it?

5) Does it look particularly different in any particular wavelengths? Does that tell you anything about it?

6) What can you learn by comparing the appearance of the object at different wavelengths? What is it made of?

7) What is happening to the object? Is it doing anything?

Wavelength Summary Table

 Spectral regime Wavelength Frequency Temperature Types of objects Gamma Ray <20 pm >1500 PHz >15,000,000 K X-ray 0.02- 10 nm 30- 1500 PHz 300,000- 15,000,000 K Ultraviolet (UV) 10- 400 nm 0.75- 30 PHz 7000- 300,000 K Visible 400- 800 nm 375-750 THz 3500- 7000 K Near-Infrared (NIR) 0.8- 3 m 100- 375 THz 1000- 3500 K Mid-infrared (MIR) 3- 30 m 10- 100 THz 100- 1000 K Far-infrared (FIR) 30- 300 m 1- 10 THz 10- 100 K Sub-mm and millimetre 0.3- 3 mm 0.1- 1 THz 1- 10 K Microwave 3- 30 mm 10- 100 GHz 0.1- 1K Radio >30 mm <10 GHz <0.1 K

For the objects below, write down the numbers of the corresponding images at other wavelengths.

Crab

X-ray X4 Ultraviolet U5

Far-Infrared F7 Radio R9
Centaurus A

X-ray X3 Mid-Infrared M7

Far-Infrared F8 Radio R7
Antennae

X-ray X5 Mid-Infrared M6

Far-Infrared F1 Radio R8
Cassiopeia A

X-ray X6 Mid-Infrared M2

Far-Infrared F2 Radio R11
Large Magellanic Cloud

X-ray X1 Ultraviolet U4

Far-Infrared F3 Radio R10
Triangulum

X-ray X8 Ultraviolet U1

Mid-Infrared M4 Radio R2

Orion

X-ray X2 Near-Infrared N1

Mid-Infrared M3 Far-IR/Microwave F9
M81

X-ray X12 Ultraviolet U2

Far-Infrared F5 Radio R1
M87

X-ray X9 Mid-Infrared M5

Far-Infrared F4 Radio R4
Sombrero
X-ray X10 Near-Infrared N2
Mid-Infrared M1 Radio R3
M82

X-ray X11 Mid-Infrared M8

Far-Infrared F6 Radio R5
Andromeda

X-ray X7 Ultraviolet U3

Far-Infrared F10 Radio R6

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