Morocco: Protected Areas Management Project




Дата канвертавання20.04.2016
Памер86.18 Kb.








ANNEX A

Morocco: Protected Areas Management Project

Key:




= Implementation Responsibility







DREF = Regional Offices of the Administration des Eaux et Forêts et de la Conservation des Sols







SIBE = Site of Biological and Ecological Interest




Protected Area Range

Size

(ha)

Popu-lation

Biological Importance/GEF Justification

Current Status

Main Threats

Proposed Actions




DREF - HIGH ATLAS




TOUBKAL NATIONAL PARK

38,000

32,000 (outside park)

  • Rainfall, isolation and altitude contribute to wide range of ecosystems, including at least 145 endemic species (24 strictly endemic), several species of fauna of global importance

  • National Park

  • IUCN Reserve: II

  • Livestock grazing (even in the integral reserve during droughts)

  • Wood collection

  • Erosion is a growing problem, though poaching is under control

  • Feral dogs found in integral reserve

  • Speed restoration of ecosystems and animal populations through increased public awareness and participatory approach of park users, development of ecotourism efforts and direct conservation




Tamga (SIBE)

8,500

Many douars in and around the site

  • Pine tree forest Pinus halepensis associated with juniper tree Juniperus phoenicea

  • One of the last sites where Leopard Panthera pardus panthera was seen in Morocco

  • Rare or endemic mammal species, and 31 bird species

  • Very high degree of endemism

  • Government forestry land with land use rights; no legal status at present

  • Overutilized oak forest

  • Overgrazing (more than 3,000 shepherds) use the site

  • Preparation of management plan,

  • Zoning and conservation of key areas

  • Oak forest restoration

  • Control of pasture

  • Survey of leopards’ existence

  • Participatory activities with local populations




Aghbar (SIBE)

6,500

20 douars nearby

  • Unique site of the strictly endemic Atlas cypress Cupressus atlantica, with Juniperus phoenicea.

  • Otter Lutra lutra may still survive in rivers

  • Of 79 bird species are of major significance, as are 19 reptile and amphibians

  • 12 mammals, including the caracal Felis caracal still exist there

  • Government forestry land with land use rights; no legal status at present

  • Heavy overgrazing (estimated at 10 times carrying capacity)

  • No forest regeneration

  • Clear felling of forests

  • Fructification loss due to cutting of branches and treetops to feed goats

  • Heavy loss of soil and landsides

  • Establishment of management plan

  • Control of resource overutilization

  • Development of alternative livelihoods for local communities

  • Protection and regeneration of undergrowth

  • Introduction of rotational grazing




DREF - MIDDLE ATLAS




Ifrane Natural Park (including Aguelman Afenourir, SIBE and RAMSAR site)

54,000

600

  • Forests in park essentially based on cedar Cedrus atlantica

  • Only 5 of 11 observed Carnivora species described remain, including wild cat Felis lybica

  • 142 bird species; however, their populations are low, and 33 Reptiles (6 endemic)

  • Important role in watershed conservation

  • National Park

  • Lake Afenourir is a Ramsar site

  • IUCN Reserve: I, VIII

  • Delimitated and un-delimitated Government forestry land with land use rights; decree to create park in preparation

  • Overgrazing reduces number of endemic plants, favoring invasive or nonpalatable species

  • Use of strychnine or agricultural pesticides have caused several rare or endangered species to disappear

  • Creation of park management unit an absolute priority; this also requires establishment of a negotiation structure

  • Priority focus on restoration of lake Afenourir area

  • Sustainable management of resources and development of alternative livelihoods




EASTERN High Atlas National Park

52,500

18,500

  • Very large variety of ecosystems and large span of endemic species

  • Associated sub-ecosystems host more than 50 rare and endemic species, some endemic to the park

  • May be one of few remaining sanctuaries for highly endangered leopard Panthera pardus, last seen in 1993

  • National Park

  • IUCN Reserve: II

  • Delimitated and undelimitated Government forestry land with land use rights; decree to create park in preparation

  • Current human practices threaten forests, including branch and treetop cuttings for livestock and firewood

  • Traditional pasture rotation may be unsustainable due to flock and human population growth

  • Strychnine use to control jackals and hyenas has caused disappearance of larger birds of prey

  • Institutional support needed to establish park, management procedures (esp. sustainable management and resource use by local populations)

  • Disappearance of birds of prey must be tackled at the national level

  • Conservation and restoration efforts, including strengthening of public awareness and participatory measures







Protected Area Range

Size

(ha)

Popu-lation

Biological Importance/GEF Justification

Current Status

Main Threats

Proposed Actions

personalJbel Bou Naceur (SIBE)

14,000

3,000 shepherds by right

  • High altitude grasslands and spiny xerophytes with high vegetative endemism: 60 species, 19 subspecies and 13 varieties of plants endemic to Morocco

  • 9 of 25 mammal, 23 of 69 bird and 8 of 20 amphibian species, of global interest, including caracal Felis caracal algira, mountain gazelle Gazella cuvieri, and shrew Crocidura russula and several birds of prey

  • Government forestry land, both delimitated and non-delimitated

No legal status at moment, although southern portion belongs to Royal Reserve of Outat el Hadj

  • Overutilization of natural resources

  • Overgrazing in higher zones

  • Forest clearing for wood production and absence of forest regeneration

  • Ecosystem as a whole is seriously disturbed and requires immediate conservation and management

  • Soil degradation and erosion

  • Preparation of a management plan

  • Zoning and conservation of key areas (altitude grasslands and spiny xerophytes)

  • Anti-erosion activities

  • Pasture management plan

  • Participatory activities with local populations

Jbel Tichoukt (SIBE)

12,500

100 shepherds

  • High level of vegetation endemic to the site or to Morocco: forests of cedar Cedrus atlantica, with undergrowth of Buxus balearica, common juniper Juniperus communis (rare in Morocco)

  • Rare or endemic animal species: 7 of 21 mammal species, 28 of 62 birds, and 15 reptiles/amphibians of at least 19; e.g., an endemic shrew Crocidura russula yebalensis

  • Delimitated Government forestry land with land use rights

  • The SIBE has no legal status at present

  • Cedar forest degeneration due to overgrazing by 7,000 sheep and goats

  • Oak forest still in good shape, although threatened by increasing demand for firewood

  • Hunting is practiced on 3,000 ha

  • Preparation of management plan

  • Zoning and conservation of key areas (forest, xerophytes)

  • Restoration and management of oak forest for firewood production

  • Participatory activities with local populations

  • Reintroduction of Barbary sheep

Bou Iblane (SIBE)

12,000

10 villages, 200 herders

  • Part of site covered with cedar forest Cedrus atlantica mixed with green oak Quercus rotundifolia and part with juniper tree Juniperus thurifera

  • 16 mammal species, including leopard Panthera pardus panthera last seen in 1993 and an endangered bat Pipistrellus savii

  • 15 rare amphibian or reptile species, including Alytes obstetricans maurus, Discoglossus pictus sovazzi and Lacerta andeanskii

  • 37 (of 99) rare or interesting bird species-both of northern and Saharan influences-such as the cascara duck Casarca ferruginea, an endemic woodpecker Dendrocops major mauritanicus and an endemic blackbird Turdus merula mauritanicus

  • Delimitated Government forestry land with land use rights and presumed collective land

  • No legal status at present

  • Juniper forest is degrading from overgrazing

  • Lack of forest regeneration due to tramping and grazing

  • Young cedar plants being uprooted for winter livestock feed

  • Soil baring and erosion a local problem

  • Incidences of poaching

  • Preparation of management plan

  • Zoning and conservation of key areas (cedar and juniper)

  • Participatory activities with local populations, especially for pasture management and improvement of pasture resources

  • Tourist information and public awareness

DREF - RIF

Talassemtane

Nature Park



64,600

18,500

  • Situated between Atlantic and Mediterranean bioclimates, range of altitude and ecosystems

  • Major forest types: oak forests Quercus coccifera, Q. faginea, Q. rotundifolia, Q. suber under 1,400 m. From 1,400 -1,800 m is the unique station of the Moroccan fir tree Abies maroccana, a strict endemic species

  • Fauna heavily depleted: large predators and birds of prey have largely disappeared

  • 30 species of reptile and amphibians including 3 endemic species (Chalcides polylepis, C. colosii, and Blanus tingitanus and 3 rare species (Alytes obstetricans, Emys orbicularis and Natrix natrix)

  • National Park

  • IUCN Reserve: I, VIII

  • Delimitated and undelimitated Government forestry land with land use rights and presumed collective lands

  • Decree for creation of park in preparation

  • Population density 36 people/km2 living within its proposed boundaries

  • Intensive use of its forest resources

  • Lower altitude forest has been degraded into matorral or grasslands

  • Browse and tramping hampers forest regeneration

  • Clandestine marijuana Cannabis cultivation in deep forests

  • Incidences of poaching, mostly at abundant species, although some hunters shoot birds of prey

  • Institutional support needed to establish park, management procedures (esp. sustainable management and resource use by local populations)

  • Control of degradation causes

  • Negotiations with local populations

  • Conservation and restoration efforts, after initiation of public awareness activities and participatory measures with local communities




Protected Area Range

Size

(ha)

Popu-lation

Biological Importance/GEF Justification

Current Status

Main Threats

Proposed Actions

Jbel Moussa (SIBE)

4,000

Village in winter becomes summer tourist area

  • Many endemic species found here, including the rare Drosophyllum lusitanicum, found only around the Strait

  • The SIBE is fundamental for the crossing of small bird species, as it is the narrowest path across the Gibraltar Strait (14 km)

  • Small colony of Barbary macaca Maccaca sylvanus survives

  • Largest known colony of white-headed gull Larus cachinnans on the small Leila Islet

  • Delimitated and undelimitated Government forestry land with land use rights and presumed collective lands

  • Decree for creation of park in preparation

  • No legal status for park at present

  • Eggs of the white-headed gull are collected and sold, endangering the colony

  • Goats on the Leila islet threaten vegetation (dwarf palm Chamerops humilis)

  • Garbage disposal damages some sites (caves, littoral)

  • Poor control of deep-sea diving and fishing

  • Establishment of a management plan with a participatory approach

  • Regulation of gull eggs collection

  • Removal of goat herd from Leila Islet

  • Control of garbage disposal

  • Enforcement of diving regulations

Protected Area Range

Size

(ha)

Popu-lation

Biological Importance/GEF Justification

Current Status

Main Threats

Proposed Actions

DREF - RIF

Jbel Bouhachem (SIBE)

8,000

No homes inside, but livestock pasture

  • Among the best oak forests (Quercus faginea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber) left in Morocco, with very high floristic diversity: Maghreb mountain pine Pinus pinaster maghrebiana which is endemic there and the Atlas cedar Cedrus atlantica are found there

  • 11 of 32 mammal, 32 of 91 bird, 8 of 29 reptile and 8 of 9 amphibian species are of major significance

  • Delimitated and undelimitated Government forestry land with land use rights

  • No legal status for site at present

  • Forest clearing for culture extension threatens the lower areas (Quercus pyrenaicus)

  • Impact by browsing by goats (95% of all livestock) needs to be assessed

  • Establishment of a management plan

  • Control of clearing

  • Establishment of managed fodder utilization and browse

DREF - ORIENTAL

Jbel Krouz (SIBE)

60,000

Un-known, but 20,000 livestock graze during some periods of the year

  • Mainly steppe vegetation, with alfa Stipa tenacissima and rosemary Rosmarius officinalis and scattered juniper Juniperus phoenicea forest

  • 17 mammal species, including two cats Felis lybica and F. margarita, and three threatened species: the dorcas gazelle Gazella dorcas, the mountain gazelle Gazella cuvieri and Barbary sheep Ammotragus lervia

  • 61 known and 17 probable bird species, of whom 25 are rare or endemic, including several large birds of prey (the griffon Gyps fulvus may still breed in the area) and many species endemic to the Sahara

  • 5 species of amphibians and reptiles, including the strict endemic Bongersma’s frog Bufo brongersmai, the Maghreb’s cobra Naja haje legionis and the uromastyx Uromastyx acanthinurus acanthinurus

  • Overgrazing and browsing depletes the alfa cover and threatens the juniper forest regeneration

  • Juniper trees cut down for firewood

  • Hunting (poaching) is prevalent, especially on gazelles

  • Preparation of management plan

  • Zoning and conservation of key areas

  • Reintroduction and reinforcement of key animal species

  • Participatory activities with local populations,

  • Potential for tourism

  • Consideration of upgrade to s National Park

Chekhar (SIBE)

10,000

10 douars

  • Biodiveristy here not well known

  • Transition vegetation mostly, including thuya Tetraclinis articulata and termes oak Quercus coccifera, green oak Q. rotundifolia, and alfa steppe Stipa tenacissima

  • Large man-made plantations of Aleppo pine Pinus halepensis

  • Dorcas gazelle Gazella dorcas and the houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata still found on site

  • Undelimitated Government forestry land with land use rights by nomadic shepherds

  • No legal status for SIBE at present

  • Overutilization of the pasture threatens the alfa steppe and the regeneration of the forests

  • Ecosystem is heavily degraded

  • Preparation of management plan

  • Zoning and conservation of key areas

  • Participatory activities with local populations,

  • Program of pasture management




Protected Area Range

Size

(ha)

Popu-lation

Biological Importance/GEF Justification

Current Status

Main Threats



DREF - NORTH EAST

Al Hoceima National Park

31,000

14,800

  • Semi-arid to arid mediterranean bioclimatic zone covered by a matorral of Berber thuya Tetraclinis aticulata and alfa Stipa tenacissima

  • Although status of mammals, reptiles and amphibians is not known, birdlife is varied and of utmost importance: two of the most endangered mediterranean fauna, the osprey Pandion haliaetus and the Audoin’s gull Larus audouinii, nest in the park

  • Peregrine falcon Falco pergrinus brookei, imperial eagle Aquila heliaca, Bonelli’s eagle Hiraetus fasciatus and red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax are also found there

  • Marine life of international importance: monk seal Monachus monachus, and several species of dolphin and sea turtles frequent these waters

  • Major fish breeding grounds, including the grouper Epinephelus guaza, a rare species

  • National Park

  • IUCN Reserve: III, VIII

  • Undelimitated Government forestry land with land use rights by nomadic shepherds

  • No legal status for SIBE at present

  • Intensive fishing may deplete breeding stock

  • Illegal techniques (e.g., dynamite, trawl nets near coast) disturb breeding grounds of fish and birds

  • Uncontrolled tourism, urbanization and growing pollution threaten the coast

  • Erosion due to rock and sand extraction at several sites

  • Unsustainable collection rates of natural resources

  • Overgrazing

  • 4,000 ha hunting grounds in the proposed park

  • Protection and restoration of the habitat, especially the Berber thuya Tetraclinis aticulata and green oak Quercus rotundifolia ecosystems

  • Clean-up of illegal garbage dumps

  • Conservation of marine ecosystems and species

  • Development of a controlled tourist development program

  • Sustainable management and use of resources by local populations and development of substitution activities

Lagune de Khnifiss (SIBE)

20-60,000

No village, but mining town of 10,000 is planned if mining starts

  • One of the most exceptional sites in Morocco for biodiversity due to varied ecosystems

  • Vegetative diversity is high, and many species are strict endemic, both terrestrial and aquatic ones: Zostera noltii, Inula lozanoi, Limonium asperrimum, or Limoniastrum weygandiorum

  • 2 of the 6 strict endemic mammals of Morocco are found here: the gerbil Gerbillus occiduus and the shrew Crocidura tarfayensis and 25 other mammals species are found here

  • Major breeding and/or wintering sites for several bird species (179 species, of which 56 breeders reside there): slender-billed gull Larus genei, Audouin’s gull Larus audouinii, Pierregarin stern Sterna hirundo, and crested cormorant Phalacrocorax aristotelis

  • 17 amphibians and reptiles are found here, including 2 Moroccan endemics: the Bongersma’s frog Bufo brongersmai, and the Bohme’s gecko Tarentola boehmi

  • Snail Theba chaudeaui is only found here, and aquatic invertebrates include 18 Polychetae, 74 Crustaceae and 50 Molluscae

  • Ramsar site

  • Undelimitated Government forestry and non-forestry land, with land use rights.

  • The SIBE has no legal status at the moment

  • Rapid, uncontrolled tourism and touristic infrastructures developing nearby.

  • Entry but not activities within the area is controlled

  • Exploitable bituminous schists exist (unexploited at the moment, but experimental activities have been conducted)

  • Salt exploitation in the sebkhas

  • Fishing in the lagoon or along the beaches

  • Preparation of a management plan

  • Delimitation, zoning and conservation of the key areas.

  • Coordination with the other SIBEs of the Drâa valley and along the Atlantic coast (frequent interactions)

  • Participatory activities with local populations to control the use and limit the negative impact of exploitation.

  • Control of mining

o:\mor\gef\pam\pcd1197\anxa



November 18, 1997 10:48:14 AM







База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка