Mars 294 – Spring 2013 Review Sheet First Exam 1I. Ecology

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MARS 294 – Spring 2013

Review Sheet - First Exam

1I. Ecology

  • General definition: habitat, microhabitat

I1I. Physical Environment

  • Physical characteristics of the aquatic environment as they relate to life in the ocean

  • Aquatic environment as a habitat compared to the terrestrial environment

  1. Sunlight: penetration characteristics, temporal variation, spectral attenuation

  2. Temperature: spatial variation, latitudinal gradients, thermoregulation, ectotherms, endotherms

  3. Salinity: seawater vs. fresh and brackish water, osmoregulation, osmoconformers, latitudinal trends

  4. Pressure: trends with depth, biological effects

  5. Density: water vs. air, biological consequences

  6. Gas availability: oxygen minimum zone, biological consequences

  7. Viscosity: adhesion, biological consequences

  8. Surface tension: cohesion, air-water interface

  9. Water vs. air: dehydration

  10. Nutrient availability: depth trends, dissolved material

III. Zonation

  • Pelagic, benthic, neritic, oceanic

  • Pelagic and benthic depth zones: names, depth ranges, physical characteristics

IV. Ocean Circulation

  • Surface currents: wind-driven, gyres, heat transport

  • Vertical circulation: thermohaline, Great Ocean Conveyor, upwelling, downwelling

1V. Marine Microbes

  • Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes, evolutionary relationships among major taxa

A.Viruses: abundance, structure, life cycles, ecological importance

B.Bacteria: shapes, sizes

    1. Autotrophic

      1. Photosynthetic: aerobic vs. anaerobic, cyanobacteria, nitrogen fixation, stromatolites

      2. Chemosynthetic: substrates, symbiotic, ecology

    2. Heterotrophic: decomposers, microbial loop

C.Archaea: appearance, trophic modes, methanogens, extremophiles (types and habitats), bacteriorhodopsin,


5.Fungi: structure, trophic mode, ecological functions

    1. Stramenopiles (Heterokonts): structure, trophic modes

  • General characteristics

      1. Diatoms: structure, distribution, reproduction, ecology (blooms)

      2. Silicoflagellates: structure, distribution

    1. Haptophytes

      1. Coccolithophores: structure, distribution

    2. Alveolates

      • General characteristics

      1. Dinoflagellates: structure, trophic modes, red tides, HABs, toxin, PSP

      2. Ciliates: structure, ecology, tintinnids

    1. Choanoflagellates: evolutionary significance, ecology

    2. Amoeboid protozoans

      1. Foraminiferans: structure, feeding, pelagic vs. benthic forms, distribution, sediments

      2. Radiolarians: structure, feeding, distribution, sediments

VI. Multicellular Algae

  • Evolutionary origins: primary plastid symbiosis, secondary plastid symbiosis

  • General structure: thallus, blade, stipe, holdfast, pneumatocyst, differences between algae and true plants

  • General life history: alternation of generations, haploid gametophyte, diploid sporophyte

  1. Green Algae (Chlorophyta): Structure, pigments, energy storage products, habitats, coralline forms, examples (familiar), life cycle

  2. Red Algae (Rhodophyta): Structure, pigments, energy storage products, habitats, coralline forms, examples (familiar), life cycle

  3. Brown Algae (Phaeophyta): Structure, pigments, energy storage products, habitats, coralline forms, examples (familiar), life cycle

  4. Kelp Forests: Settings, distribution, Pacific vs. Atlantic, important species, ecology (damage, recovery, urchin barrens, top-down regulation)

VII. Plants

  1. Bryophytes: general characteristics, major taxa (Marchantiophyta, Anthocerotophyta, Bryophyta)

  2. Pteridophytes: vascular plants, general characteristics, major taxa (Lycopodiophyta, Pteridophyta)

  3. Seed Plants: general characteristics, major taxa (Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Pinophyta, Gnetophyta)

VIII. Flowering Plants (Anthophyta)

      • True roots, stems, leaves, vascular tissues (xylem, phloem), cell types (parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma)

  1. Seagrasses: structure, pollination, habitat, types, ecological importance

  2. Salt Marsh Plants: facultative halophytes, types, ecology, salt tolerance mechanisms

  3. Mangroves: characteristics (roots, pneumatophores, salt tolerance), distribution, reproduction, ecology, horizontal zonation, succession, vertical zonation

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