Maria ruth r. Edradan




Дата канвертавання15.04.2016
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Possibility of Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract to

Increase Platelet Count

In partial fulfillments of the curriculum of

Caraga Regional Science High School


AMABAO, Nichole

BERNADEZ, Hyra Leigh G.

DUMADAG, Zalea Mae D.



MARIA RUTH R. EDRADAN

Research Adviser


CARAGA REGIONAL SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL

SAN JUAN, SURIGAO CITY

CHAPTER 1 – Introduction

Background of the Study

Nowadays, many people especially children under the age of 15 are suffering from dengue hemorrhagic fever with about 2.5 billion (2/5 of the world population) are at risk and 50 million are infected worldwide annually, and a mortality rate ranging from 1 percent to 2.5 percent, for those who receive treatment. For those without treatment, the death rate could be 20 percent or higher. This viral illness is cause by a bite from a female Aedes Aegypti which lives in places that store water such as in the tires, bottles and cans. Dengue lowers the number of platelets in the blood and it may lead to bleeding or death since it cannot supply clotting due to thrombocytopenia (lower than normal number of platelets in the blood).

In the Philippines, dengue is now one of the leading causes of the increase of mortality rate. It is the seventh leading cause of death in the country with more than 60,000 cases hospitalized and nearly 500 others died as of the year 2010 and it is said that it was the highest percentage ever recorded in the history of this problem in the country. It is thought to increase until the present time especially that today, weather is changing and El Niño phenomenon is occurring very often.

Hence, the researchers came up of an idea on how to increase the number of platelets using papaya leaf extract because based on the researchers’ finding, the papaya as well as its leaf contains vitamins and minerals that could possibly raise the number of platelets in the blood for platelets such vitamins and minerals in order for them to multiply.


Statement of the Problem

This study delves to prove the effectiveness of papaya (Carica papaya) leaf extract as an agent to increase platelet count. Specifically, this aims to answer the following questions:



  1. How many percent will the number of platelets increase with the use of papaya leaf extract?

  2. How many milliliters (mL) of water and grams (g) of papaya leaf will be needed to be able to raise the number of platelets in the blood?



Significance of the Study

Dengue is now one of the major problems of the society. It poses a great threat to a person’s health. In fact, 2.5 billion individuals worldwide are now at risk of dengue fever.

Based on Health Experts in the Philippines, finding an agent to increase platelet count is widely accepted apart from blood donation since, dengue fever caused high mortality rate and because of this, only few blood donations are available.

This study would be a great help to out community for it provides a cheaper agent to increase platelet count rather than purchasing blood of high costs from blood banks.


Scope and Limitation

This study will prove the effectiveness of Papaya (Carica papaya) leaf extract as an agent to increase platelet count. Application of leaf extracts from papaya as a source to increase platelet count will be done with the help of experts. Furthermore, this study is limited only to platelet count analysis from the Albino mice as the basis for determining the number of platelet count and the effectiveness of the sample.


Definition of Terms

  • Dengue – an acute viral disease of humans characterized by fever, rash, prostration, and lymphadenopathy; transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

  • Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever - a severe, potentially deadly infection spread by certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). It is similar to dengue fever but its symptoms are irritable, being sweaty and restless followed by a shock-like state.

  • Thrombocytopenia - any disorder in which there is an abnormally low amount of platelets. Platelets are parts of the blood that help blood to clot. This condition is sometimes associated with abnormal bleeding.


Review of Related Literature

Plants are one of the alternative remedies that are used to control the flow of blood throughout the body and preventing hemorrhage. Numerous plants with the capability to control and produce blood in the body were examined through different kinds of methods and were proven to help increase the number of platelets for clotting. Papaya (Carica papaya) increased the number of platelets with more than 50%. Other extracts were found to be dependent to their concentration. Results depend on the type of method and extraction for the product to be effective.

Papaya (Carica papaya) is known as “A Powerhouse of Nutrients.” It is known as Paw Paw in Australia but commonly known as Papaya in other various parts of the world. Its different parts are known for its different uses:


        • The juice is used as beverage;

        • The leaves and young stems are steamed and served as vegetable;

        • The fruit yields an enzyme, papain, best known as a digestive aid;

        • The latex is used as a freckle remover;

        • The seed is used as an antibacterial action against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, etc. and;

        • The leaves have been used as a substitute for soap, and for dressing wounds

Aside from this information about the uses of papaya, the researchers found other facts about the uses of papaya. Papaya as well as the leaf is a good source of Vitamins A (Carotene), B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), C (Ascorbic acid), and E, Niacin, minerals such as Calcium, Iron, Phosphorus, Potassium, proteins, fats, calories, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fibers, and folate that helps boost the number of platelets present on the blood. Aside from increasing the number of platelets, Vitamin C helps prevent cataract formation, pulmonary disease, and possibly, hypertension.

Because of these abundant nutrients, it was reputably called “The Fruit of Angels” by Christopher Columbus in the 20th century. Today, papaya is considered one of the famous fruits in the world.

CHAPTER 2 – Methodology


MATERIALS


          • Beaker

          • Medicine dropper

          • Approximately 150mL of distilled water

          • Approximately 150g of papaya leaves

          • Bunsen burner

          • Graduated cylinder

          • Stirring rod

          • Gloves

          • 12 Albino mice


PROCEDURE
Selection of a Plant That Has the Potential to Increase Platelet Count

From the list of plants present in the country, papaya (Carica papaya) will be chosen as the plant with the ability to increase the number of platelets. Basis for this selection are the vitamins (Thiamine, Carotene, Niacin, Riboflavin) found in papaya and the carbohydrates, calcium, iron and fibers which help control the number of platelets in the blood.


Preparation of the Papaya Leaf Extract

All the needed materials will be prepared and all the glassware will be sterilized. Leaf extracts from the plant will be obtained through water concoction method for it is the most common traditional method used by many using alternative or herbal medicine.

For treatment one, 30 grams of papaya leaves will be cut into strips and will be added to 30mL of distilled water in a beaker and will be made to boil until only 10mL of water and juice will be left.

The same goes with 35 and 40 grams of leaves will be boiled with 30mL of water until only 10mL of water and juice will be left for treatments 2 and 3 respectively.


Preparation of the Specimen

12 albino mice will be obtained from Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology (MSU-IIT) and will be placed in individualized labeled cages. There will be four treatments in the study with three replicates each.

The first treatment is the control (with no treatment), the second is the 30 grams of papaya leaf extract, the third and fourth are the 35 and 40 grams of leaf extract respectively.
Treatment of the Leaf Extract to the Specimen

Before the application of the leaf extract, an initial platelet reading will be made to the albino mice with the CBC (Complete Blood Count) method at Caraga Regional Hospital Laboratory. After which, each mouse except one set as the control, will be orally fed with the 30, 35, and 40 grams of leaf extracts.

After 2 hours, platelet reading will be done to each mouse to find out the result and effect of the papaya leaf extract.
Table 1

Treatment Preparation




Treatment 1

(Control)

Treatment 2

Treatment 3

Treatment 4

Papaya Leaves

(g)


-

30 g

35 g

40g

Distilled Water

(mL)


-

30 mL

30 mL

30 mL

PROCEDURE FLOWCHART

Selection of Plants with the Ability to Increase the Number of Platelets

Preparation of Leaf Extract through Water Concoction

Preparation of the Specimen



Initial Platelet Count Reading

Orally Feeding the Specimen with the Leaf Extract

Platelet Count Reading after 2 Hours


BUDGET


ACTIVITY

ESTIMATED BUDGET

Fair to MSU-IIT


3,000 php

12 albino mice


5,000 php

Papaya


1,000 php

Hospital Bill (for CBC)


1,000 php

TOTAL

10,000 php


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