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PROCEEDINGS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS

GEOLOGY AND EXPLORATION
1/2015

Main editor’s column

Lisov V.I. Stimulation of investments in subsoil use of Russia ….............................. 3

Geology
Moloshnikov S.V. The stratigraphic distribution of antiarch remains (Pisces, Placodermi) in Devonian deposits of southern regions of Russia………………………………………………………………………………….6

The stratigraphic distribution of antiarch remains in the Middle-Upper Devonian of central, southern and east-south regions of East European Platform (EEP), western slope of South Urals and Siberia has been analyzed. Along the endemic forms of antiarchs in the Devonian ichthyocomplexes of these regions there are many finds of wide spread antiarchs, which allow using their remains in the stratigraphic correlation of Devonian in the different regions such as EEP and flexures of c fold zones . The Upper Devonian placoderm zonations of the north-west and central parts of East European platform and Minusinsk trouth are also discussed.

Key words: placoderms, antiarchs, Middle-Upper Devonian, placoderm zonation, southern regions of Russia, South Urals, Siberia.

Mineralogy, petrography, lithology
Utenkov V.A., Fesenko M.A. Conditions of crystallization of granites and pegmatites of Tarbaganakhsky massif (Kuluarsky ridge, Verkhoyanye) …………………………..12

Compression during granite crystallization in the anticline arch leads to the formation of fluid- gneiss structures and separation of remnant pegmatite melt with its further moving to the periphery of the complex. Two-staged crystallization is enhanced by presence of Ca in the melt. The early stage is chemical deanortization of plagioclase, the later one – molecular (incongruent) crystallization of K feldspar. The separation of fluid-salt melt (with F, B and water) leads to adiabatic heat of remnant silicate melt and formation of elongated pegmatite veins. The product of the final stage of the granite crystallization and the composition of magmatic base of pegmatite are identical (Q and K feldspar). The primitive composition of magmatic stage of pegmatites (Fe- orthoclase) is in contrast with abundant and aggressive imposing of later minerals during temperature decrease. Mass albitization is the result of Na transfer to the fluid along the incomplete deoxidation of plagioclase. The abundance of muscovite and quartz is paired with Mg outflow in pegmatite tourmalines and chlorite rocks, with Ca and Fe – to the zones of pyroxenization and amphibolization of bearing silts.


Key words: granite, pegmatite, deanortization, adiabatic decompression, fluid-salt melt.

Useful minerals, methods of their prospecting and exploration
Maraev I.A. The use of geostatistics to estimate the distribution of the reserves of one of the bauxite deposits of the Republic of Guinea……………………………………22

To assess the content of Al203 in the exploration block of one area of Sangaredi bauxite field (the Republic of Guinea, West Africa), the one of geostatistics methods – discrete Kriging – has been applied. The use of discrete Kriging in these terms allows making provision of tightly controlled value be more reliable, namely, not less than 48 % Al2O3 content in the concentrate, when shipping it with concentrator on bulk carriers. This problem becomes urgent nowadays, because the rich oil areas of the field are becoming less.

Key words: Kriging, variogram, de Wijs's model, increment’s dispersion, reserves distribution.

Geophysical methods of prospecting and exploration
Fomenko N.E. Diagnostics of pond dams conditions by electrical exploration technologies………………………………………………………………………….26
The efficiency of the implementation of a complex of modern electric exploration methods of the expressive non-destructive diagnostics of the hydraulic works of small forms has been demonstrated on the example of Krasnokrymsk ground dam, located in the Myasnikovsky district of the Rostov region. The tasks of moisture saturation and dam’s leakage, the presence and direction of filtration processes have been solved by means of electro potential tomography sounding, the median gradient in the variant of spatial electric filtration, natural electric sources and by georadar studies.

Key words: pond dams, electrical exploration technologies, specific electric resistivity, potentials of natural electric field, radarogramms.



Geological exploration technique

Bazanov L.D. The meaning of the correct use of the terms, concerning the drilling of geological-exploration holes…………………………………………………………..33

The paper discusses the problem of the use of main terms and definition of notions, used in the branch of technology and technics of holes drilling during exploration of mineral deposits. The analysis of terms use in relation of drilling holes while exploring all types of mineral sources is presented. The terminology, regarding drilling of wells of different direction, is considered. The proposed classification of terms consists of three groups.

Key words: wells drilling, drill pipe, hole drilling rig, the weight of the drill, axial load, rotation speed; the consumption of cleaning agent; pressure of flushing fluid, drilling speed, depth (length) of well.
Geoecology

Exzaryan V.N., Rukavitsin V.V. The method of estimation of the ecosystems stability level by use of automatic learning ……………………………………………………38

This work deals with the automation of ecosystem stability level assessment. Until now, carrying out such assessment has been available only to high-class experts. That has complicated broad use of this estimation. However application of machine learning for processing of initial information on the basis of the decision-making logic permits to automate this procedure and make it quicker and more available for a wide range of experts. The article presents the practical description of using a technology of automation of forecasts, making it possible to determine risks for the population residence in a particular area. The article also presents a constructed model of ecosystems stability in Russia. Model accuracy was more than 80%. The best algorithm of the data processing and its best parameters have been found for the computer assessment of the ecosystem stability level. It allows automation of the complicated process of the expert area classification. This technology can be applied at the pre-design stage for any construction, and included into the information system of the enterprise in terms of the decisions support mechanism.

K e y w o r d s: modeling, ecosystem stability, machine learning, automation, congenital morbidity
Lyashenko V.I. The increase of ecological safety in the Uranium production area of influence ……………………………………………………………………………43

The increase of ecological safety in the zone of Uranium production on the base of scientific justification, implementation and use of rehabilitation measurements for minimization of negative evidences on the environment and men’s health from the radiative factors.

Radioecological research included: measurements of the power of exposure dose of γ–radiation with grid of 100х100 m и 20х10 m (walking γ–observation) on the 40 km2 square; analysis of the soils for the radioactive nuclides; water probe for the Radium and Uranium content assessment; definition of sum α– и β–activity of the soil; definition of the radon gas concentration in living rooms. The system of radiative monitoring of Uranium objects on the base of instruments and automatic systems of new generation.

K e y w o r d s: radioecology, Uranium production, pollution, environmental measures, population; radiative and social defense



Mineral and Geological Exploration Economics
Kozlovsky E.A. Mineral resources in the world and Russian economics. Part 1. Mineral complex of the world and Russia…………………………………………..53

Based on the analysis of different countries economical indexes, their economy is shown to be linked tightly with the mineral resources and possibilities of the countries to build their own independent policy. Russia is concluded to have lack of thought-out and scientifically proven state strategy of development and use of mineral resources, based on the model of self-maintenance with required degree of export and limited import. Such situation puts the national safety of the country under threat and leads to the loss of geopolitical priorities in the world mineral sector. The number of measures of the principal break in the state policy in the sphere of geological studying of the subsurface, reproduction of the mineral base, management of the geological investigations has been proposed. While development of the new concept of the low «Аbout subsurface» it's needed to take into account the main thing — economical safety of the country.

Key words: mineral base, economical safety of country, geological research of the subsurface, new low «About subsurface»
Mautina A.A., Popov I.V. The revaluation of previously discovered reserves under the modern economical conditions……………………………………………………....60

The necessity of conducting the geological and economic revaluation of previously discovered reserves under the modern conditions for the maintenance and development of mineral resource base of the country is justified. Nickel and cobalt deposits are shown as an example how changing the values of the techno-economic parameters in time can affect the indexes of the performance of the deposit. Geological-economic estimation of reserves will help to clarify the status of mineral resource base in today's dynamic market conditions of mineral raw materials, which affect the indexes of the efficiency of the field development.

Key words: mineral-raw material base; geological-economic reappraisal; explored; feasibility study; condition; the price of mineral raw materials; the state balance of reserves; the state cadaster of deposits and occurrences.

Legal Issues in Mineral Resources Exploitation

Smirnov O.V. Democratization of the economic government on the basis of societal-state-private partnership as means of opposition to take-over of enterprise…………65

The urgent necessity of the democratization of the economic government is detected and justified for the mineral enterprises on the basis of strategic integrative interaction of stake-holders to make consistent decisions, preventing unfriendly take-over and raiding of economics objects. The complex of counter-raiding procedures has been characterized on the basis of successful Russian and world, e.g. Canadian, experience

Key words: mineral use sphere, unfriendly take-over, raiding, democratization of economical government, involvement of workers to the enterprise management, democratic management, societal-state-private partnership

Brief reports
Alentyev Yu.Yu., Lisenkov A.B. To the estimation of the ground waters pollution danger on the basis of studying of water balance elements (on the data of water-balance station Malaya Istra)………………………………………………………………….69

The possibility of the use of information about the conditions of formation of water balance elements for the estimation of the potential danger of ground waters pollution is justified. The modeling of average elements of water balance for many years on the territory of Istrinsky district has been implemented in the program SurfBal. Under the modeling, the meteorological data for the average daily temperature, atmospheric deposits and sunny radiation for many years period, obtained on the forest meteostation of water-balance station Malaya Istra, has been taken into account as well, as the value of flow, calculated due to the vegetation and lithological composition, and the index of snow melting, the index of leaf surface growth and other data. In result the estimate values of balance elements on the territory of forest massifs were obtained, which were used in the estimation of the possibility of water pollution. The investigation is especially actual due to the situation of the decrease of the forest areas in Moscow region under the natural reasons, fires, sanitary cutting and for building purposes



Key words: water balance elements, evaporation, surface and ground flow, atmospheric deposits, meteorological data, ground waters pollution, water-balance station

Critics and bibliography
Outstanding prospectors of the subsurface…………………………………………72
Geological-exploration enterprises as financial-economical assessment…………….73
A new book of E.A. Kozlovsky……………………………………………………..75

Chronics
The first Russian scientific lithology school “Virtual and real lithological models”...76


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