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FINAL REPORT SUBMITTED
TO

LORI D. CLARK


REGARDING

THE RE-INVENTORY OF THE LICHEN BIOMONITORING PROGRAM AND BASELINE

FOR
SELECTED SITES IN THE ANADCONDA-PINTLER, CABINET MOUNTAINS, AND SELWAY BITTERROOT WILDERNESS AREAS, MONTANA AND IDAHO

(ORIGINALLY COLLECTED IN JULY-AUGUST 1992, 1993, and 1994)

AND

ESTABLISHMENT OF LICHEN BIOMONITORING PROGRAMS AND BASELINES IN THE GATES OF THE MOUNTAINS, MISSION MOUNTAINS, AND BOB MARSHALL WILDERNESS AREAS, MONTANA

SUBMITTED BY
LARRY L. ST. CLAIR, Ph.D.

PROFESSOR OF INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY &

CURATOR OF NONVASCULAR CRYPTOGAMS

BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY, PROVO, UTAH 84602
SAMUEL B. ST. CLAIR

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE

DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY

STATE COLLEGE, PENNSYLVANIA 16803



AND

BENJAMIN D. ST. CLAIR

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE

SPRINGVILLE, UTAH 84663


APRIL 15, 2005



INTRODUCTION


In accordance with the objectives of our research proposal we are submitting this interim report summarizing our efforts to date concerning the re-evaluation of the lichen air quality biomonitoring baseline in the Anaconda-Pintler, Selway Bitterroot, and Cabinet Mountains wilderness areas in western Montana. This report also contains preliminary information concerning the establishment of a lichen air quality biomonitoring baseline and program in the Gates of the Mountains Wilderness Area. The information in this report is based on our 2000 - 2003 summer field collections. Included is a detailed location description for each reference site, as well as a list of the sensitive indicator species collected for elemental analysis from each reference site. A total of 111 elemental analysis samples have been collected from the Anaconda Pintler (18), Cabinet Mountains (6), Selway Bitterroot (45), Gates of the Mountains (7), Mission Mountains (9), Bob Marshall (28) wilderness areas. The sites in the Anaconda Pintler and Cabinet Mountains wilderness areas were originally collected during the summer of 1992 and the sites in the Selway Bitterroot Wilderness Area were collected over three summers (1992,1993,and 1994). The summer 2000 - 2002 collections represent the first evaluation of the baseline in the Anaconda Pintler, Selway Bitterroot, and Cabinet Mountains wilderness areas since they were originally established. Data from the Gates of the Mountains, Mission Mountains, and Bob Marshall wilderness areas represent a major extension of the original lichen air quality biomonitoring baseline and program. The final report will compare elemental analysis data from both the baseline samples (1992, 1993, and 1994) and the reevaluation samples (2000 - 2002). The final report will also include a general reevaluation of the air quality biomonitoring baseline. The final report will also include all of the baseline information for the new sites (Gates of the Mountains, Mission Mountains, and Bob Marshall wilderness areas).
METHODS
COLLECTION OF SENSITIVE INDICATOR SPECIES FOR ELEMENTAL ANALYSES: All elemental analysis samples were collected using a ceramic knife to avoid metal contamination. At each reference site sufficient material of 1-3 sensitive indicator species was collected for elemental analyses (3-6 grams dry weight). All elemental analysis material was air dried and placed in Nasco sterile plastic bags (to avoid contamination) and transported back to the BYU Herbarium of Nonvascular Cryptogams. Excess material is permanently stored in Nasco sterile plastic bags in the Archival Collection of Elemental Analysis Samples at the BYU Herbarium of Nonvascular Cryptogams. This material is available for additional testing upon request.
DETERMINATION OF POLLUTANT ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN TISSUES OF SENSITIVE INDICATOR SPECIES: In the herbarium, surface debris and substrate material were removed from all elemental analysis samples. Clean one gram samples of at least one sensitive indicator species from each reference site were then delivered to the Elemental Analysis Laboratory at Brigham Young University.

Samples were prepared for PIXE analysis using the methods of Duflou et al. (1987). Samples were placed in Teflon containers with a Teflon coated steel ball, cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature, powdered by brittle fracture techniques using a Braun Mikro-Dismemberator II, and then dried in an Imperial IV Microprocessor Oven for 14 hours at 80o C. Sub-samples weighing 150 mg were then placed in Teflon containers and spiked with 1 ml of a 360 ppm Yttrium solution. The samples were then oven dried again for 14 hours at 80o C. Samples were then homogenized using the Mikro-Dismemberator. Approximately 1 mg of powdered lichen tissue was then carefully weighed out onto a thin polycarbonate film in an area of 0.5 cm2. A 1.5% solution of polystyrene in toluene was used to secure the sample to the film.

Samples were analyzed using a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator with a 2.28 MeV proton beam which passed through a 1.1 mg/cm2 pyrolytic graphite diffuser foil. The proton beam was collimated to irradiate an area of 0.38 cm2 on the sample. Typically, 10-100 nA proton beam currents were used. X-rays were detected using a Tracor X-ray Spectrometer (model TX-3/48-206) with a 10 mm2 by 3 mm thick Si(Li) detector positioned at 90o to the proton beam. Samples were analyzed twice using different X-ray absorbers between the samples and the detector. One was a 49 mg/cm2 Mylar absorber with a 0.27 mm2 pinhole (2.8% of detector area) backed with a 8.5 mg/cm2 Beryllium foil. A 98 mg/cm2 Mylar absorber was also used.

To insure adequate quality control, samples of NIST SRM 1571 orchard leaves and other standards were prepared and analyzed using the same protocol.


RESULTS
REFERENCE SITES: During the summer of 1992 a total of 10 reference sites were established in or near the Anaconda Pintler Wilderness Area along with three sites in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness Area. In addition, 16 reference sites were established in or near the Selway Bitterroot Wilderness Area during the summers of 1992, 1993, and 1994. Baseline sensitive indicator species samples were collected and analyzed from each reference site. The original reference sites were recollected during the summers of 2000 - 2002 in order to detect any changes in the pollutant element loads in the tissues of sensitive indicator species from the respective wilderness areas. In addition, during the summers of 2000 - 2003 three baseline reference sites were established in or near the Gates of the Mountains Wilderness Area; four in or near the Mission Mountains Wilderness Area, and 12 in or near the Bob Marshall wilderness areas. Specifically, over the course of this study (1992-1994 and 2000-2003) collections have been made at the following locations:
Reference sites re-collected in or near the Anaconda Pintler Wilderness Area:

Site No. 1: 19 July 2000 (originally collected: 25 July 1992). Montana, Ravalli County, Anaconda Pintler Wilderness Area, vicinity of McCart Lookout; GPS reading: 45 53.081 north latitude, 113 43.004 west longitude; elevation: 7115 feet (2169 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from Lodgepole Pine) and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY c-38120.
Site No. 2: 19 July 2000 (originally collected 25 July 1992). Montana, Ravalli County, Anaconda Pintler Wilderness Area, along East Fork of the Bitterroot River (U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 433); GPS reading: 45 54.468 north latitude, 113 42.024 west longitude; elevation: 5500 feet (1676 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from Douglas Fir). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 3: 20 July 2000 (originally collected 27 July 1992). Montana, Deerlodge County, Anaconda Pintler Wilderness Area, Pintler Creek Trailhead (along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 37); GPS reading: 45 51.737 north latitude, 113 26.367 west longitude; elevation: 6400 feet (1951 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from Douglas Fir), Umbilicaria americana (from rock), and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 4: 20 July 2000 (originally collected 28 July 1992). Montana, Deerlodge County, Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area, along U.S. Forest Service Road No. 2483; GPS reading: 45 59.847 north latitude, 113 02.971 west longitude; elevation: 6400 feet (1951 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from deadwood). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-38124-38125.
Site No. 5: 20 July 2000 (originally collected 28 July 1992). Montana, Deerlodge County, Beaverhead National Forest, at Tenmile Creek Crossing along U.S. Forest Service Road No. 2483; GPS reading: 46 00.043 north latitude, 113 03.956 west longitude; elevation: 6600 feet (2012 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (fromdeadwood). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-38121-38123.
Site No. 6: 20 July 2000 (originally collected 28 July 1992). Montana, Deerlodge County, Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area, along Cabbage Gulch, about 1.5 km from SR 274; GPS reading: 46 04.150 north latitude, 112 55.018 west longitude; elevation: 5700 feet (1737 m). Elemental analysis material collected: none available. Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 7: 20 July 2000 (originally collected 28 July 1992). Montana, Deerlodge County, private property, about 16 km southwest of SR 1, along SR 274, basalt dike, in rocky area above SR 274; GPS reading: 46 03.387 north latitude, 112 58.925 west longitude; elevation: 6300 feet (1920 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 8: 21 July 2000 (originally collected 30 July 1992). Montana, Granite County, Anaconda Pintler Wilderness Area, Goat Flat; GPS reading: 46 03.256 north latitude, 113 16.580 west longitude; elevation: 9400 feet (2865 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from branches of Potentilla sp.), Flavocetraria nivalis (from alpine sod), and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (from rock). Note: an additional elemental analysis collection (site 8a) was made along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 41, in a hanging valley below Storm Lake Pass and above and south of Storm Lake, Letharia vulpina (from Engelman Spruce). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-38126-38130.
Site No. 9: 21 July 2000 (originally collected 31 July 1992). Montana, Granite County, Anaconda Pintler Wilderness Area, Middle Fork of Rock Creek Trailhead (along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 28); GPS reading: 45 59.213 north latitude, 113 31.808 west longitude; elevation: 6640 feet (2024 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from conifer lignum), Alectoria sarmentosa (from conifer lignum). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 10: 22 July 2000 (originally collected 29 July 1992). Montana, Deerlodge County, Deerlodge National Forest, Fourmile Basin; GPS reading: 46 05.680 north latitude, 113 13.918 west longitude; elevation: 8000 feet (2438 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from conifer lignum) and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Reference sites re-collected in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness Area:

Site No. 11: 23 July 2000 (originally collected 2 August 1992). Montana, Sanders County, Kootenai National Forest, Cabinet Mountains Wilderness Area, East Fork of the Bull River (along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 646); GPS reading: 48 07.322 north latitude, 115 41.885 west longitude; elevation: 3200 feet (975 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Lobaria pulmonaria (from bark of Thuja plicata) and Alectoria sarmentosa (from bark of Tsuga heterophylla). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-38131-38133.
Site No. 12: 24 July 2000 (originally collected 3 August 1992). Montana, Sanders County, Kootenai National Forest, Cabinet Mountains Wilderness Area, vicinity of Milwaukee Pass and Chicago Peak; GPS reading: 48 04.437 north latitude, 115 41.011 west longitude; elevation: 6600 feet (2012 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from conifer bark/wood) and Umbilicaria americana (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 13: 24 July 2000 (originally collected 4 August 1992). Montana, Sanders County, Kootenai National Forest, Cabinet Mountains Wilderness Area, along Engel Peak Trail; GPS reading: 48 00.497 north latitude, 115 38.801 west longitude; elevation: 6400 feet (1951 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from conifer bark/wood) and Alectoria sarmentosa (from conifer bark/wood). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-38135.
Reference sites collected in or near the Gates of the Mountains Wilderness Area:

Site No. 14: 26 July 2000 (new collection site). Montana, Lewis and Clark County, Helena National Forest, Gates of the Mountains Wilderness Area, at Meriwether Canyon, along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 253; GPS reading: 46 52.151  north latitude, 111 54.017  west longitude; elevation: 3800 feet (1158 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from Douglas Fir) and Usnea hirta (from Douglas Fir). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair and Samuel B. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-38136-38187.
Site No. 15: 30 July 2001 (new collection site). Montana, Lewis and Clark County, Helena National Forest, Gates of the Mountains Wilderness Area, at Refrigerator Canyon, along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 260; GPS reading: 46 50.891´ north latitude, 111 44.259´ west longitude; elevation: 5300 feet (1615 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from conifer bark), Usnea sp. (from conifer bark), and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-38958-38998 and 39043-39076.
Site No. 16: 30 July 2001 (new collection site). Montana, Lewis and Clark County, Helena National Forest, Gates of the Mountains Wilderness Area, at Hunter’s Gulch, along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 255; GPS reading: 46 49.355´ north latitude, 111 48.898´ west longitude; elevation: 4200 feet (1280 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from conifer lignum) and Usnea sp. (from conifer bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-38999-39042.
Reference sites re-collected in or near the Selway Bitterroot Wilderness Area:

Site No. 17: 31 July 2001(originally collected 27 July 1993). Idaho, Idaho County, Nez Perce National Forest, Selway River, along Race Creek Trail (U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 4); GPS reading: 46 02.552´ north latitude, 115 16.599´ west longitude; elevation: 2460 feet (750 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Lobaria pulmonaria (from Thuja plicata) and Alectoria sarmentosa (from Douglas Fir). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 18: 31 July 2001 (originally collected 28 July 1993). Idaho, Idaho County, Nez Perce National Forest, vicinity of Indian Hill, along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 621; GPS reading: 45 59.252´ north latitude, 115 14.459´ west longitude; elevation: 6100 feet (1859 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from Douglas Fir), Alectoria sarmentosa (from conifer branches), and Umbilicaria americana (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none. Note: an additional elemental analysis sample was collected 5 miles above the bridge (across the Selway River), along Indian Hill Road (site 18a).
Site No. 19: 31 July 2001 (originally collected 29 July 1993). Idaho, Idaho County, Nez Perce National Forest, vicinity of Fog Mountain saddle, along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 693; GPS reading: 46 06.842´ north latitude, 115 12.179´ west longitude; elevation: 5900 feet (1798 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from Douglas Fir) and Umbilicaria hyperborea (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 20: 1 August 2001 (originally collected 23 July 1992). Montana, Ravalli County, Bitterroot National Forest, vicinity of Nez Perce Pass; GPS reading: 45 43.012´ north latitude, 114 30.110´ west longitude; elevation: 6600 feet (2012 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Bryoria fremontii (from Lodgepole Pine), Letharia vulpina (from Douglas Fir), and Parmelia saxatilis (from rock; note: this sample (20a) was collected at the Castlerock turnout). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 21: 1 August 2001 (originally collected 14 July 1994). Idaho, Idaho County, Bitterroot National Forest, along U.S. Forest Service Road No. 468 (half way between “Observation Point” and Salmon Base Camp); GPS reading: 45 39.558´ north latitude, 114 48.950´ west longitude; elevation: 7800 feet (2377 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from conifer lignum), Bryoria fremontii (from Subalpine Fir), and Umbilicaria hyperborea (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 22: 1 August 2001 (originally collected 13 July 1994). Idaho, Idaho County, Bitterroot National Forest, vicinity of Mac Gruder Ranger Station, along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 4 (south of Ranger Station); GPS reading: 45 42.129´ north latitude, 114 42.887´ west longitude; elevation: 4500 feet (1372 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from Douglas Fir), Bryoria fremontii (from Douglas Fir), Alectoria sarmentosa (from Douglas Fir), and Umbilicaria americana (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: 39077.
Site No. 23: 1 August 2001 (originally collected 12 July 1994). Idaho, Idaho County, Bitterroot National Forest, along White Cap Creek Trail (U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 24); GPS reading: 45 52.035´ north latitude, 114 43.818´ west longitude; elevation: 3000 feet (914 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from Ponderosa Pine), Bryoria fremontii (from Ponderosa Pine), Lobaria pulmonaria (from Douglas Fir), Alectoria sarmentosa (from Douglas Fir), and Umbilicaria americana (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 24: 2 August 2001 (originally collected 16 July 1994). Idaho, Idaho County, Clearwater National Forest, at Wilderness Gateway Trailhead (U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 211); GPS reading: 46 20.117´ north latitude, 115 18.869´ west longitude; elevation: 2100 feet (640 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Bryoria fremontii (from Douglas Fir), Bryoria capillare (from Douglas Fir), Alectoria sarmentosa (from Douglas Fir), Usnea sp. (from Douglas Fir), and Xanthoparmelia coloradoensis (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 25: 2 August 2001 (originally collected 15 July 1994). Idaho, Idaho County, Clearwater National Forest, vicinity of Walton Lakes Trailhead; GPS reading: 46 26.550´ north latitude, 114 43.362´ west longitude; elevation: 7400 feet (2256 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Bryoria fremontii (from Subalpine Fir), Letharia vulpina (from lignum), and Umbilicaria hyperborea (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 26: 2 August 2001 (originally collected 16 July 1994). Idaho, Idaho County, Clearwater National Forest, vicinity of Eagle Mountain Trailhead; GPS reading: 46 25.765´ north latitude, 115 08.018´ west longitude; elevation: 2400 feet (732 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Alectoria sarmentosa (from Douglas Fir), Lobaria pulmonaria (from Douglas Fir). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 27: 2 August 2001 (originally collected 17 July 1994). Idaho, Idaho County, Clearwater National Forest, along U.S. Forest Road No. 362, south of fish hatchery (old growth forest); GPS reading: 46 30.391´ north latitude, 114 40.868´ west longitude; elevation: 3700 feet (1128 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Bryoria fremontii (from Douglas Fir), Alectoria sarmentosa (from Douglas Fir), and Lobaria pulmonaria (from Thuja plicata). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 28: 3 August 2001 (originally collected 21 July 1992). Montana, Ravalli County, Bitterroot National Forest, vicinity of Bear Creek Pass; GPS reading: 46 06.976´ north latitude, 114 29.552´ west longitude; elevation: 6562 feet (2000 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from lignum) and Umbilicaria hyperborea (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.

Site No. 29: 3 August 2001 (originally collected 21 July 1992). Montana, Ravalli County, Bitterroot National Forest, Lost Horse Canyon at Tenmile Creek; GPS reading: 46 08.524´ north latitude, 114 24.458´ west longitude; elevation: 5577 feet (1700 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from lignum) and Umbilicaria americana (from rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 30: 3 August 2001 (originally collected 21 July 1992). Montana, Ravalli County, Bitterroot National Forest, Lost Horse Canyon, vicinity of South Fork of Lost Horse Creek; GPS reading: 46 06.455´ north latitude, 114 16.982´ west longitude; elevation: 4757 feet (1450 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from lignum). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Site No. 31: 3 August 2001 (originally collected 24 July 1992). Montana, Ravalli County, Bitterroot National Forest, St. Mary’s Peak; GPS reading: 46 30.42´ north latitude, 114 14.326´ west longitude; elevation: 9300 feet (2835 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (from Pinus albicaulis) and Umbilicaria virginis (from rock). Collectors: Samuel B. St. Clair and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none. Note: An additional elemental analysis sample (31a) was collected along the trail (U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 116) to St. Mary’s Peak (Letharia vulpina from lignum).
Site No. 32: 15 July 2002 (originally collected 22 July 1992). Montana, Missoula County, Bitterroot National Forest, vicinity of Carlton Lake; GPS reading: 46º 41.703´ north latitude, 114º 12.560´ west longitude; elevation 8000 feet (2462 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (on conifer bark). Collectors: Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Katherine S. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: none.
Reference sites collected in or near the Mission Mountains Wilderness Area:

Site No. 33: 16 July 2002 (new collection site). Montana, Missoula County, Mission Mountains, vicinity of Glacier Lake Trailhead (along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 690); GPS reading: 47º 22.657´ north latitude, 113º 47.509´ west longitude; elevation 5160 feet (1588 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina and Alectoria sarmentosa (on Douglas Fir bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Katherine S. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C- 39180-39203 and 39268-39294.

Site No. 34: 16 July 2002 (new collection site). Montana, Missoula County, Mission Mountains, vicinity of Beaver Creek at Crystal Lake Trailhead (U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 351); GPS reading: 47º 20.036´ north latitude, 113º 43.742´ west longitude; elevation 5100 feet (1569 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina and Alectoria sarmentosa (on conifer wood). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Katherine S. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-39204-39267.
Site No. 35: 17 July 2002 (new collection site). Montana, Lake County, Mission Mountains, vicinity of Cedar Lake/Fatty Lake Trailhead; GPS reading: 47º 41.313´ north latitude, 113º 55.330´ west longitude; elevation 5400 feet (1662 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina and Usnea sp. (on Sub-alpine Fir bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Katherine S. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-39295-39329.
Site No. 36: 17 July 2002 (new collection site). Montana, Missoula County, Mission Mountains, vicinity of Cold Lakes Trailhead (U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 121); GPS reading: 47º 33.619´ north latitude, 113º 51283´ west longitude; elevation 5100 feet (1569 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (On Spruce) and Alectoria sarmentosa (on Sub-alpine Fir). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Katherine S. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-39330-39371.
Reference sites collected in or near the Bob Marshall Wilderness Area:

Site No. 37: 18 July 2002 (new collection site). Montana, Missoula County, along Holland Falls Trail (U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 416), near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 47º 26.983´ north latitude, 113º 36.053´ west longitude; elevation 4100 feet (1262 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina and Alectoria sarmentosa (on Douglas Fir bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Katherine S. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-39372-39472.
Site No. 38: 18 July 2002 (new collection site). Montana, Powell County, vicinity of Pyramid Pass Trailhead, near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 47º 15.589´ north latitude, 113º 25.470´ west longitude; elevation 5300 feet (1631 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina and Alectoria sarmentosa (on Douglas Fir bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Katherine S. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-39473-39536.
Site No. 39: 19 July 2002 (new collection site). Montana, Powell County, vicinity of Lodgepole Creek Trailhead, near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 47º 13.409´ north latitude, 113º 11.686´ west longitude; elevation 5300 feet (1631 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina and Alectoria sarmentosa (on Lodgepole Pine bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Katherine S. St. Clair, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-39537-39558 and 39737-39778.
Site No. 40: 7 July 2003 (new collection site). Montana, Missoula County, Flathead National Forest, vicinity of Smith Creek Trailhead (U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 29), near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 47º 32.979´ north latitude, 113º 40.009´ west longitude; elevation 4400 feet (1354 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina and Usnea sp. (on Douglas Fir bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Kathryn B. Knight, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-39962-39999 and 48560-48610.
Site No. 41: 7 July 2003 (new collection site). Montana, Lake County, Flathead National Forest, along U.S. Forest Service Road No. 10502, vicinity of intersection with No Name Creek, near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 47º 46.570´ north latitude, 113º 41.766´ west longitude; elevation 4500 feet (1385 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Alectoria sarmentosa and Usnea sp. (on Cottonwood bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Kathryn B. Knight, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-48611-48683.
Site No. 42: 8 July 2003 (new collection site). Montana, Flathead County, Flathead National Forest, vicinity of Silvertip Trailhead (U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 83), near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 47º 56.185´ north latitude, 113º 18.446´ west longitude; elevation 5800 feet (1785 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina, Bryoria fremontii, and Alectoria sarmentosa (on Lodgepole Pine bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Kathryn B. Knight, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-48684-48740.
Site No. 43: 8 July 2003 (new collection site). Montana, Flathead County, Flathead National Forest, vicinity of Meadow Creek Trailhead, near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 47º 50.019´ north latitude, 113º 25.152´ west longitude; elevation 4000 feet (1231 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina, and Alectoria sarmentosa (on Lodgepole Pine bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Kathryn B. Knight, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-48741-48819.
Site No. 44: 10 July 2003 (new collection site). Montana, Pondera County, Blackfeet Indian Reservation, along Eagle Creek, north of Swift Reservoir, near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 48º 9.691´ north latitude, 112º 54.043´ west longitude; elevation 5000 feet (1539 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (on Spruce bark), Usnea sp. (on Douglas Fir bark), and Xanthoria elegans (on rock). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Kathryn B. Knight, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-48820-48881.
Site No. 45: 10 July 2003 (new collection site). Montana, Teton County, Lewis and Clark National Forest, vicinity of West Fork of the Teton Campground, near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 47º 57.542´ north latitude, 112º 48.216´ west longitude; elevation 5600 feet (1723 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina (on Spruce bark), Usnea sp. (on dead conifer wood). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Kathryn B. Knight, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-48882-48950.
Site No. 46: 10 July 2003 (new collection site). Montana, Teton County, Lewis and Clark National Forest, vicinity of South Fork Teton Trailhead, near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 47º 50.849´ north latitude, 112º 46.872´ west longitude; elevation 5800 feet (1785 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina, Usnea sp., and Alectoria sarmentosa (on Sub-alpine Fir bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Kathryn B. Knight, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-48951-49013.
Site No. 47: 11 July 2003 (new collection site). Montana, Teton County, Lewis and Clark National Forest, vicinity of Mortimer Gulch Trailhead, near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 47º 36.408´ north latitude, 112º 46.022´ west longitude; elevation 4900 feet (1508 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina and Usnea sp. (on Douglas Fir bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Kathryn B. Knight, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-49014-49078.
Site No. 48: 11 July 2003 (new collection site). Montana, Lewis and Clark County, Lewis and Clark National Forest, vicinity of South Fork Sun River Trailhead (along U.S. Forest Service Trail No. 202), near boundary of Bob Marshall Wilderness Area; GPS reading: 47º 30.196´ north latitude, 112º 53.261´ west longitude; elevation 5200 feet (1600 m). Elemental analysis material collected: Letharia vulpina, (on Lodgepole Pine bark) and Usnea sp., (on Spruce bark). Collectors: Larry L. St. Clair, Samuel B. St. Clair, Laura S. Cooper, Kathryn B. Knight, and Benjamin D. St. Clair. Herbarium Numbers: BRY C-49079-49138
STATUS OF ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS COLLECTIONS: Sensitive indicator species samples were collected for elemental analyses. Archival material is currently stored in Nasco Whirlpak plastic bags (to avoid contamination). These samples are permanently housed in the Elemental Analysis Archive Collection at the Herbarium of Nonvascular Cryptogams at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. Sub-samples of all elemental analysis samples are currently being analyzed using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques. Concentrations of 23 potential pollutant elements will be determined for each sample.
LICHEN MATERIAL COLLECTED FOR ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS: During the summers of 2000 - 2003 a total of 113 samples including two growth forms (foliose and fruticose) 14 species in 11 genera from four substrates (rock, lignum, bark,and alpine sod) were collected for elemental analysis. Below is a list of the elemental analysis samples indicating sample number, species, substrate, and collection site (the first number represents the storage drawer and the second number indicates the bag number). Reference site numbers correspond to the numbers listed in the site description section of this report.
Sample No. Taxa Substrate Reference Site

53-784 Rhizoplaca melanophthalma Rock 1

53-785 Letharia vulpina Bark 1

53-786 Letharia vulpina Lignum 4

53-787 Letharia vulpina Bark 5

53-788 Letharia vulpina Lignum 5

53-789 Letharia vulpina Bark 3

53-790 Rhizoplaca melanophthalma Rock 3

53-791 Umbilicaria americana Rock 3

53-792 Rhizoplaca melanophthalma Rock 7

53-793 Letharia vulpina Bark 2

53-794 Letharia vulpina Lignum 9

53-795 Alectoria sarmentosa Lignum 9

53-796 Flavocetraria nivalis Alpine sod 8

53-797 Letharia vulpina Bark 8

53-798 Rhizoplaca melanophthalma Rock 8

53-799 Letharia vulpina Lignum 8a

53-800 Rhizoplaca melanophthalma Rock 10

53-801 Letharia vulpina Lignum 10

53-802 Alectoria sarmentosa Lignum 11

53-803 Lobaria pulmonaria Bark 11

53-804 Letharia vulpina Bark/lignum 12

53-805 Umbilicaria americana Rock 12

53-806 Letharia vulpina Bark/lignum 13

53-807 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark/lignum 13

53-808 Usnea hirta Bark 14

53-809 Letharia vulpina Bark 14

53-838 Bryoria fremontii Bark 27

53-839 Lobaria pulmonaria Bark 27

53-840 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 27

53-841 Umbilicaria hyperborea Rock 25

53-842 Bryoria fremontii Bark 25

53-843 Letharia vulpina Lignum 25

53-844 Bryoria fremontii Bark 24


Sample No. Taxa Substrate Reference Site

53-845 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 24

53-846 Usnea sp. Bark 24

53-847 Bryoria capillare Bark 24

53-848 Xanthoparmelia coloradoensis Rock 24

53-849 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 26

53-850 Lobaria pulmonaria Bark 26

53-851 Letharia vulpina Bark 23

53-852 Umbilicaria americana Rock 23

53-853 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 23

53-854 Lobaria pulmonaria Bark 23

53-855 Bryoria fremontii Bark 23

53-856 Letharia vulpina Lignum 21

53-857 Bryoria fremontii Bark 21

53-858 Umbilicaria hyperborea Rock 21

53-859 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 22

53-860 Bryoria fremontii Bark 22

53-861 Umbilicaria americana Rock 22

53-862 Letharia vulpina Bark 22

54-864 Letharia vulpina Bark 18a

54-865 Umbilicaria americana Rock 18

54-866 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 18

54-867 Letharia vulpina Bark 18

54-868 Lobaria pulmonaria Bark 17

54-869 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 17

54-870 Umbilicaria hyperborea Rock 19

54-871 Letharia vulpina Bark 19

54-872 Umbilicaria virginis Rock 31

54-873 Letharia vulpina Bark 31

54-874 Letharia vulpina Lignum 31a

54-875 Letharia vulpina Bark 20

54-876 Bryoria fremontii Bark 20

54-877 Parmelia saxatilis Rock 20a

54-878 Umbilicaria hyperborea Rock 28

54-879 Letharia vulpina Lignum 28

54-880 Letharia vulpina Lignum 30

54-881 Letharia vulpina Lignum 29

54-882 Umbilicaria americana Rock 29

54-883 Letharia vulpina Bark 15

54-884 Rhizoplaca melanophthalma Rock 15

54-885 Usnea sp. Bark 15

54-886 Letharia vulpina Lignum 16

54-887 Usnea sp. Bark 16

54-921 Letharia vulpina Bark 32

54-922 Letharia vulpina Bark 33

54-923 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 33



Sample No. Taxa Substrate Reference Site

54-924 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 36

54-925 Letharia vulpina Bark 36

54-926 Letharia vulpina Bark 37

54-927 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 37

54-928a Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 38

54-928b Usnea sp. Bark 38

54-929 Letharia vulpina Bark 38

54-930 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 39

54-931 Letharia vulpina Bark 39

55-984 Letharia vulpina Bark 45

55-985 Usnea sp. Bark 45

55-986 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 46

55-987 Usnea sp. Bark 46

55-988 Letharia vulpina Bark 46

55-989 Usnea sp. Bark 41

55-990 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 41

55-991 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 43

55-992 Letharia vulpina Bark 43

55-993 Usnea sp. Bark 47

55-994 Letharia vulpina Bark 47

55-995 Xanthoria elegans Rock 44

55-996 Usnea sp. Bark 44

55-997 Letharia vulpina Bark 44

55-998 Letharia vulpina Bark 42

55-999 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 42

55-1000 Bryoria fremontii Bark 42

55-1001 Letharia vulpina Bark 40

55-1002 Usnea sp. Bark 40

55-1003 Usnea sp. Bark 48

55-1004 Letharia vulpina Bark 48

56-1046 Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 34

56-1047 Letharia vulpina Bark 34

56-1048 Letharia vulpina Bark 35

56-1049a Usnea sp. Bark 35

56-1049b Alectoria sarmentosa Bark 35

PRELIMINARY CHECKLIST OF THE LICHENS FROM SELECTED SITES IN THE GATES OF THE MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS AREA, HELENA NATIONAL FOREST, MONTANA

(Note: site numbers refer to the numbers listed in the site description section of this report)




Taxa BRY C No. Substrate Growth form Site

Acarospora cervina 38175 Rock Squamulose 14

Acarospora glaucocarpa 38159 Rock Squamulose 14

Amandinea punctata 38183, 38964 Bark Crustose 14, 15

Anaptychia setifera 38166 Moss over rock Foliose 14

Aspicilia calcarea 38173 Rock Crustose 14



Taxa BRY C No. Substrate Growth form Site

Aspicilia cinerea 38980 Rock Crustose 15

Aspicilia desertorum 39001 Rock Crustose 16

Aspicilia hispida 39042 Soil Fruticose 16

Bryoria fremontii 39065 Dead conifer branches Fruticose 15

Bryoria fuscescens 38142, 39038, 38962 Bark, lignum Fruticose 14, 15, 16

Candelariella rosulans 38994 Rock Crustose 15

Candelariella vitellina 39005 Soil over rock Crustose 16

Cladonia cariosa 38958 Decomp. wood Squamulose 15

Cladonia chlorophaea 39041 Lignum Squamulose 16

Cladonia coniocraea 38177, 38959 Decomp. wd. Squamulose 14, 15

Cladonia fimbriata 38158, 38975 Moss over rock, soil Squamulose 14, 15

Collema cristatum 38991 Rock Foliose 15

Collema fuscovirens 38160, 38970 Rock, moss over rock Foliose 14, 15

Cyphelium tigillare 39012 Lignum Crustose 16

Dermatocarpon miniatum 38161, 39010, 38977b Rock Foliose 14, 15, 16

Dermatocarpon reticulatum 38977a Rock Foliose 15

Diploschistes actinostomus 39025 Rock Crustose 16

Diploschistes muscorum 39039 Decomp. wd Crustose 16

Hypocenomyce scalaris 38150 Bark Squamulose 14

Hypogymnia imshaugii 38181, 39034, 39054 Bark, lignum Foliose 14, 15, 16

Hypogymnia physodes 38149, 39053 Bark, lignum Foliose 14, 15

Lecanora argopholis 39029 Rock Crustose 16

Lecanora dispersa 39027b Rock Crustose (scant) 16

Lecanora garovaglii 39028 Rock Crustose 16

Lecanora hageni 38145a Bark Crustose (scant) 14

Lecanora impudens 38978 Bark Crustose 15

Lecanora meridionalis 39047 Bark Crustose 15

Lecanora muralis 38156, 39000 Rock Crustose 14, 16

Lecanora saligna 39014 Lignum Crustose 16

Lecanora varia 39033 Bark Crustose (scant) 16

Lecidea tessellata 39009, 38998 Rock Crustose 15, 16

Lecidella stigmatea 38985 Rock Crustose 15

Leptogium intermedium 39002 Moss over rock Foliose 16

Leptogium lichenoides 38174 Moss over rock Foliose 14

Leptogium saturninum 38976, 39073 Moss over rock & bark Foliose 15

Letharia columbiana 39050 Bark Fruticose 15

Letharia vulpina 38186, 39011, 39051 Bark/lignum Fruticose 14, 15, 16

Lobothallia praeradiosa 39004 Rock Crustose 16

Melanelia exasperatula 39076 Bark Foliose 15

Melanelia subelegantula 39006 Rock, moss over rock Foliose 16

Melanelia subolivacea 39035, 39046 Bark, lignum Foliose 15, 16

Melanelia tominii 39008 Rock Foliose 16

Mycobilimbia berengeriana 38179, 38966 Detritus Crustose 14, 15

Parmelia sulcata 38137, 39037, 38961 Bark, lignum, rock Foliose 14, 15, 16

Parmeliopsis ambigua 38147 Bark Foliose 14

Peltigera aphthosa 38990 Moss over soil Foliose 15

Peltigera canina 38968 Moss over rock Foliose 15

Peltigera elisabethae 38169, 39056 Moss over rock, soil Foliose 14, 15

Phaeophyscia sciastra 38155, 39016, 38971 Moss over rock, rock Foliose 14, 15, 16

Physcia adscendens 38140 Bark Foliose 14

Physcia albinea 38983 Rock Foliose 15

Physcia caesia 38152, 38965, 38981 Rock, bark Foliose 14, 15

Physcia dubia 39018, 38984 Rock Foliose 15, 16

Physconia muscigena 38164, 38974 Moss over rock Foliose 14, 15

Psora himalayana 38162b Moss over rock Squamulose 14

Psora tuckermanii 38162a, 39026 Soil over rock Squamulose 14, 16

Rhizocarpon disporum 38999, 38988 Rock Crustose 15, 16

Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca 38993 Rock Foliose (umbilicate) 15

Rhizoplaca melanophthalma 38992 Rock Foliose (umbilicate) 15

Thyrea confusa 39024 Rock Foliose 16

Taxa BRY C No. Substrate Growth form Site

Toninia sedifolia 38163, 38967 Moss over rock Squamulose 14, 15

Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla 38138, 38963 Bark, lignum Foliose 14, 15

Tuckermannopsis fendleri 38139 Bark Foliose 14

Tuckermannopsis platyphylla 38184, 39043 Bark Foliose 14, 15

Umbilicaria hyperborea 38986 Rock Foliose (umbilicate) 15

Usnea hirta 38136a, 39032, 39049 Bark, lignum Fruticose 14, 15, 16

Usnea subfloridana 38136b, 38960 Bark, lignum Fruticose 14, 15

Vulpicida pinastri 38178 Decomp. wd. Foliose 14

Xanthoparmelia coloradoensis 39022, 38996 Loosely attached to rocks Foliose 15, 16

Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia 39020 Rock Foliose 16

Xanthoparmelia plittii 39007 Rock Foliose 16

Xanthoparmelia wyomingica 39003 Over gravelly soil Foliose 16

Xanthoria elegans 38153, 39019, 38979 Rock Foliose 14, 15, 16

Xanthoria fallax 38141 Bark Foliose 14

Xanthoria montana 39069 Bark Foliose 15



Xanthoria sorediata 38168 Rock Foliose 14


GATES OF THE MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS AREA LIST OF POLLUTION SENSITIVE INDICATOR SPECIES BY REFERENCE SITE
Meriwether Canyon:

Bryoria fuscescens (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Cladonia coniocraea (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Cladonia fimbriata (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Collema fuscovirens (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to ozone)

Hypocenomyce scalaris (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Hypogymnia imshaugii (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Leptogium lichenoides (Sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Letharia vulpina (Intermediately sensitive to ozone)

Parmelia sulcata (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to ozone; intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide; sensitive to fluoride)

Parmeliopsis ambigua (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Phaeophyscia sciastra (Sensitive to ozone)

Physcia adscendens (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide; sensitive to fluoride)

Physcia caesia (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla (Sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Usnea hirta (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Usnea subfloridana (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Vulpicida pinastri (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Xanthoria elegans (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Xanthoria fallax (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide; sensitive to Nox and PAN)
Refrigerator Canyon:

Bryoria fremontii (Sensitive to sulfur and ozone)

Bryoria fuscescens (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Cladonia coniocraea (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Cladonia fimbriata (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Collema cristatum (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to ozone)

Refrigerator Canyon (cont.):

Collema fuscovirens (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to ozone)

Hypogymnia imshaugii (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Leptogium saturninum (Sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Letharia columbiana (Intermediately sensitive to ozone)

Letharia vulpina (Intermediately sensitive to ozone)

Melanelia exasperatula (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Melanelia subolivacea (Intermediately sensitive to ozone)

Parmelia sulcata (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to ozone; intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide; sensitive to fluoride)

Peltigera aphthosa (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Peltigera canina (Sensitive to ozone)

Phaeophyscia sciastra (Sensitive to ozone)

Physcia caesia (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Physcia dubia (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to fluoride)

Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca (Sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (Sensitive to sulfur dioxide; sensitive to Nox and PAN)

Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla (Sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Usnea hirta (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Usnea subfloridana (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Xanthoria elegans (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Xanthoria montana (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)
Hunter’s Gulch:

Bryoria fuscescens (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Candelariella vitellina (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide; sensitive to fluoride)

Hypogymnia imshaugii (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Lecanora saligna (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Letharia vulpina (Intermediately sensitive to ozone)

Melanelia subelegantula (Sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Melanelia subolivacea (Intermediately sensitive to ozone)

Parmelia sulcata (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to ozone; intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide; sensitive to fluoride)

Phaeophyscia sciastra (Sensitive to ozone)

Physcia dubia (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to fluoride)

Usnea hirta (Sensitive to intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia (Sensitive to sulfur dioxide)

Xanthoria elegans (Intermediately sensitive to sulfur dioxide)
PRELIMINARY CHECKLIST OF THE LICHENS FROM SELECTED SITES IN THE MISSION MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS AREA, MONTANA

(Note: site numbers refer to the numbers listed in the site description section of this report)



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