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LATVIJAS LAUKSAIMNIECĪBAS UNIVERSITĀTE LAUKSAIMNIECĪBAS

FAKULTĀTE

Dārzkopības katedra

LATVIA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE

Department of Horticulture
Mg. agr. Kaspars Kampuss

UPEŅU UN JĀŅOGU (RIBES L.) ĢENĒTISKO RESURSU IZPĒTE LATVIJĀ



RESEARCH OF BLACK, RED AND WHITE

CURRANT (RIBES L.) GENETIC RESOURCES

IN LATVIA
Promocijas zinātniskā darba kopsavilkums

Lauksaimniecības zinātņu doktora grāda iegūšanai



Summary of Ph. D. Thesis

Jelgava, 2005

INTRODUCTION

Horticultural production in northern latitudes, including Latvia, is limited by climatic factors, therefore it is necessary to develop local plant breeding programs in Nordic and Baltic countries, based on maximum use of all available genetic material. Thorough research of this material enables faster breeding of cultivars for different purposes, as well as better use of traditional and new technologies in plant breeding.

Black, red and white currant genetic material in Latvia is formed of local wild forms as well as introduced species and cultivars. Large number of species and cultivars were brought from Western Europe, including Scandinavia, from Eastern Europe and Siberia. Moreover, a 30-year-long intense breeding work at the Latvian National Botanical Garden is resulted in a wide range of inter-specific blackcurrant hybrids, which is an invaluable material for further breeding. However, characterization and evaluation of the black, red and white currant genetic material has been absent so far, thus limiting both scientific and practical use of this material.

An objective of this research is to characterise black, red and white currant genetic resources, gathered at the Dobele State Horticultural Plant Breeding Research Station (Dobele HPBRS), in the agro-climatic conditions of Latvia, and to evaluate their suitability for breeding.



Tasks of the research are:

  • to characterise black, red and white currant genotypes according to their morphological, agronomical, and biochemical properties;

  • to evaluate suitability of the genotypes to different breeding purposes, including development of cultivars for fresh consumption, processing, fresh storage, and functional food;

  • to recommend the most valuable genotypes of Latvian origin for including in genetic resources collections and breeding programs.

Research was done at the Dobele HPBRS in years 1999 - 2003. In total, 86 black currant and 25 red/white currant (Ribes L.) cultivars, hybrids and species were characterized. An extended biochemical analysis, including aroma, of 12 blackcurrant genotypes with different origin and berry quality was done at Aarslev Research station, Denmark, in 2001.

Novelty of the research. For the first time, local and introduced black, red and white currant genotypes were characterized and evaluated in the agro-climatic conditions of Latvia. As a result, new potential donors of several important traits for breeding were found, and recommendations of conservation of local genotypes in genetic resources collections were given.
The results of this research can be used in:

  • developing of Ribes L. genetic resources database;

  • establishment of genetic resources collections;

  • selection of parents for the breeding of cultivars for different purposes;

  • selection of cultivars for berry production.

Evaluation of genotypes will speed up the breeding process of black, red and white currants for Latvia, because this evaluation is done in Latvian agro-climatic conditions, and will allow including the valuable genotypes of Latvian origin in breeding programs. The described genetic material is particularly useful for breeding cultivars with higher content of functionally active compounds - ascorbic acid and anthocyanins, and higher yield potential. Especially remarkable are blackcurrant genotypes with exceptionally high number of flowers per cluster.

Progress and results of the research are presented in 8 local and 10 international scientific conferences, workshops and symposiums. The results are reported in 9 international and 6 local publications (see Page 47).


MATERIALS AND METHODS

Place and object of research

The research of black, red and white currant genetic resources was done at Dobele HPBRS from 1999 to 2003. In total, 86 blackcurrant genotypes were examined, including 38 genotypes from Latvia, 14 from Russia, 10 from Sweden, 6 from Lithuania, 5 from Ukraine, 3 from Belarus, 5 from Great Britain, 2 from Germany, and 1 from the Netherlands. Altogether, 7 different Ribes species were used to develop these genotypes. In total, 25 red/white currant genotypes were examined, including 3 cultivars from Latvia, 6 from Russia, 5 from the Netherlands, 4 from Germany, 3 from Estonia, and 2 from Hungary; altogether, 5 Ribes species were used to develop these cultivars.



Methods of observations

Averages from estimates of separate bushes were calculated for morphological traits, productivity, and damages of diseases, pests, and unfavourable weather conditions. A common representative sample of each genotype was taken to examine the berry quality and biochemical composition. Traits were estimated either in scores from 1 to 9, according to UPOV (TG/40/6, 1989-10-06 for blackcurrants and TG/52/5, 1990-10-12



for red/white currants) and IPGRI descriptors, or in metric scale. Genotypes were examined for the following traits.
Plant morphology:

  • Bush height measured in centimetres from soil surface to the top of the highest branch;

  • Number of basal shoots estimated in scores from 1 to 9, where 1 - no basal shoots and 9 - an extremely large number of basal shoots;

  • Bush habit estimated in scores from 1 to 9, where 1 - very upright; 3 -upright (reference cultivar for blackcurrants is 'Zagadka'); 5 -
    bushy (reference - blackcurrant cultivar 'Polar'); 7 - broad bushy
    (reference - blackcurrant cultivar 'Brodtorp'); and 9 - prostrate.



  • Phenological traits:

  • Bud burst time is determined as a number of days after 1st March;

  • Beginning time of flowering, when 10 % of flowers are opened, is determined as the number of days after 1st April;

  • Flowering duration is counted in days. To calculate this trait, termination time of flowering, when 90 % of flowers are fade, is determined as the number of days after 1st April;

  • Berry ripening time, when 90 % of berries are ripe, determined as the
    number of days after 1st June.


Yield components:

  • Predominant number of flower clusters per bud estimated in
    blackcurrants in scores 1 - one to two flower clusters per bud, and 9 -more than two clusters per bud;

  • Average berry weight measured in grams;

  • Average number of flowers per cluster;

  • Productivity estimated visually as "coverage" of branches with
    berries in scores from 1 to 9, where 1 - no yield, 5 - average yield,
    and 9 - abundant yield. Intermediate estimates in whole numbers
    were allowed.


Yield quality:

  • Uniformity of berry ripening is estimated in scores 1 - uniform (at least 90 % of berries ripen together) or 9 - not uniform;

  • Berry size uniformity is estimated in scores: 1 - uniform size (at least 90% of berries have roughly uniform size) or 9 - not uniform;

  • Berry separation from stalk is estimated in scores, where 1 - very bad (all of berries separate with juicy wounds), 5 - average (a number of berries separates with wounds, but no more than 10 % of berries have juicy wounds), and 9 - very good (all of berries separate without wounds);



  • Thickness of fruit skin estimated in scores, where 1 - thin, 5 -medium thick, and 9 - thick skin.

  • Berry specific Ribes nigrum var. europaeum flavour in blackcurrants estimated in scores 1 - no specific flavour, or 9 - specific flavour;

  • Berry astringent taste in blackcurrants estimated in scores I - no astringent taste or 9 - astringent taste.

Biochemical composition of berries:

  • Total anthocyanin content determined with the spectrophotometric method;

  • Content of ascorbic acid in berries determined with the iodine titration method;

  • Soluble solid content (%) determined in homogenized berry samples with refractometer at temperature 20 oC.

Extended biochemical composition analyses of selected blackcurrant genotypes were carried out at the Aarslev Research Station, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences. In total, 12 blackcurrant genotypes with very diverse pedigrees and berry quality were analysed: 'Zagadka' and 'Katyusha' (recommended for commercial gardens in Latvia); 'Yadrenaya' (large berries), 'Chernii Zhemchug' (high yielding), 'Joniniai' (tasty and large berries), 'Mara' (large berries), 'Selechenskaya' (early ripening, very tasty berries), 'Lentyai' (late ripening, large berries), No.67 (perspective hybrid after preliminary research), 'Stor Klas' (widespread in Sweden), AA-98 (strong specific Ribes nigrum var. europaeum flavour, recommended as donor for excellent taste) and No. 3579 (R. nigrum x R. petiolare hybrid with uncharacteristic taste and aroma, potential donor for many flowers per cluster). Performed were both analysis, done in Latvia (the contents of anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, soluble solids), and total acid and aroma composition analysis:

  • Total acids determined with potentiometric titration;

  • Ascorbic acid determined with potentiometric titration (2,6-dichlorindophenole method)

  • Aroma composition determined in puree from frozen berries with gas chromatography (GC). There was used column Chrompack (50 m 0.25 mm) CP-WAX 52 CB, input temperature 200 °C, and detection temperature 230 °C. Total analyse time was 84.17 minutes. Initial temperature was 32 °C and it was increased by 3 °C per minute up to 220 °C. Quantity of aroma compounds was calculated from comparison with an internal standard. Aroma compounds were identified by comparison of retention times in previous analysis and verified by gas chromatography - mass-spectrometry (GC-MS).


Resistance to diseases and pests:

  • Diseases: American gooseberry mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae Berk), septoria leafspot (Mycosphaerella ribis Lind.), leafspot (Pseudopeziza ribis Kleb.) and blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Dietr.). Disease damage of vegetative parts was examined according to IPGRI descriptors at the end of vegetation, when damage is the most remarkable, but for berries at their harvesting time. Proportion (%) of damaged surface of leaves, shoots, and fruits were estimated visually and transformed into scores, where 1 - no damage (0%), 2 -very small damage (<5%), 3 - small (5-25%), 5 - medium (26-50%), 7 - large (51-75%) and 9 - very large damage (76-100%).

  • Pests: bud gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis Westw. in blackcurrants
    and Cecidophyopsis selachodon van Eynd. in red/white currants).
    Proportion of damaged buds (%) was estimated visually in spring,
    before bud burst and transformed into scores in the same scale as
    disease damage.

Resistance to unfavourable weather conditions:

  • Damage of spring frost was examined a few days after the frosts, estimating the proportion of damaged flower buds, flowers, and fruitlets (%);

  • Damage of winter frost was examined between bud burst and flowering, estimating the proportion of damaged buds and shoots (%). Data were transformed into scores according to the same methodology as used for disease and pest damage.

Data analysis

Descriptive statistics and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were performed for quantitative traits. It was assumed, that the trait is genetically determined, when the measurement of a particular genotype differs from the mean more than a standard deviation every year. In that case the genotype can be recommended for breeding as a potential donor of this trait. Correlation between observed traits was calculated according to Pearson (for quantitative traits) or Spearman (for qualitative traits) correlation analysis methods.

Analysis according to the standard deviation was supplemented or replaced by cluster analysis in the case when analysis according to standard deviation did not give information both about the dispersion of the trait values and usefulness of genotypes in breeding. Cluster analysis was used in order to group genotypes according to separate traits or trait groups (plant morphology, phenological traits, yield components, yield quality, berry biochemical composition, resistance to diseases and pests, and resistance to


unfavourable weather conditions). Groups of related (or similar) genotypes were obtained in this analysis, however, the cluster analysis does not always provide information for assumption that one group is better than another.

Multi-criteria analysis (Мартинов, 1987) was used to establish a complex value of genotypes. The analysis allows comparing the complex values of different genotypes, using various parameters in different measurement systems. Each trait group and individual trait has specific contribution coefficient or "weight" in the final evaluation. The best genotype will appear to be as close as possible to the desired (optimum) value in as much as possible parameters. The obtained multi-criteria evaluation coefficient (SD) describes deviation of the genotype from desired values; consequently, the best genotype will have the lowest SD value. Traits important for certain breeding objectives were included in the analysis, if there was a significant difference between cultivars.

Multi-criteria analysis of blackcurrants was performed to select the potential donors for breeding of cultivars for processing, fresh consumption, and functional food. The desired value for bush height was 130 cm and for quantity of basal shoots - 3 points. The desired values for plant habit, berry ripening time, berry size uniformity, astringent taste, and disease, pest and frost resistance were assumed to be the minimum observed values in the current year. The desired values for bud burst and flowering beginning times, yield components, berry separation from stalk, berry specific flavour, and biochemical composition were assumed to be the maximum observed values in the current year.

In order to find potential donors of separate trait groups, separate SD values for each trait group were calculated. Any trait or trait group did not dominate over others in this analysis.

In order to find potential donors for breeding blackcurrant cultivars for processing, the highest contribution coefficients were given to yield components, high anthocyanin content, and frost resistance. Phenological traits were not included, because they are not important for the production of berries for processing.

In order to find potential donors for breeding blackcurrant cultivars for fresh consumption, the highest contribution coefficients were given to berry weight, number of flowers per cluster, productivity, and early ripening.

In order to find potential donors for breeding blackcurrant cultivars for functional food, the highest contribution coefficients were given to high anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents, because these components have great importance in healthy food. Plant morphology was not included.

Multi-criteria analysis of red and white currants was performed to select potential donors for the breeding of cultivars for processing, fresh consumption, and fresh storage. The desired value for bush height was 130 cm and for quantity of basal shoots - 4 points. The desired values for plant habit and disease, pest and frost resistances were assumed to be the minimum observed values in the current year. The desired values for bud burst and flowering beginning times, yield components, berry separation from stalk, and biochemical composition were assumed to be the maximum observed values in the current year. It was presumed that early berry ripening is preferable for fresh consumption, but late ripening - for storage. It was also presumed that berry ripening time is not important for processing; therefore it was not included in the evaluation of red/white currants as potential donors for the breeding of cultivars for processing.

In order to find potential donors of separate trait groups, separate SD values for each trait group were calculated. Any trait or trait group did not dominate over others in this analysis.

In order to find potential donors for breeding red/white currant cultivars for processing, the highest contribution coefficients were given to yield components and high anthocyanin content (in red currants only).

In order to find potential donors for breeding red/white currant cultivars for fresh storage, the highest contribution coefficients were given to berry weight, number of flowers per cluster, late ripening, spring frost resistance, and high anthocyanin content. It was motivated by the fact that berries with excellent visual quality - large berries in long, full clusters, intense coloured (red currants) - is necessary for fresh storage.

Evaluation of red/white currant cultivars as potential donors for the breeding for fresh consumption was done similarly as for storage, only a higher contribution was given to productivity, and early ripening was assumed to be better than late ripening. High contribution coefficients were given also to disease and pest resistance, because berries from biological and integrated systems are preferred in fresh market.



RESULTS

Blackcurrant genetic resources

Characterisation of blackcurrant genotypes. Genotypes significantly differed (p<0.05) in the following 13 characteristics: bush height, number of basal shoots, bush habit, berry ripening time, berry weight, number of flowers per cluster, productivity, contents of ascorbic

acid, anthocyanins and soluble solids, and resistance to septoria leafspot, gall mite, and winter frost. Potential donors of the mentioned traits, except productivity and resistances to gall mite and winter frost, were found, as well as potential donors for the following qualitative traits: uniformity of berry ripening and size, good berry separation from stalk, and specific R. nigrum var. europaeum flavour.

No significant differences were found between genotypes' bud burst (p=1.00) and beginning of flowering (p=1.00) times, flowering duration (p=1.00), and resistance to mildew (p=0.616), leafspot (p=1.00), blister rust (infection was observed only in 2001, therefore ANOVA was not performed), and spring frost (p=0.096) of different blackcurrant genotypes.

Hybrid Ia58 had ten traits important in breeding altogether, which makes 62.5 % of all described traits (Table 1). Genotypes IIbl4, 'Joniniai', and No. 14 are important in breeding as potential donors of eight traits, though Ia58 and No. 14 have also relevant disadvantages (Table 5), which shall be removed in further breeding. In total, 15 genotypes contained seven important traits, but the largest number of genotypes contained six or five important traits together - 23 and 26 genotypes, respectively (Table 1).

Genotypes 'Iyunskaya', No. 17, 'Vologda', and 'Sevchanka' are potential donors of very early ripening, and 'Mailing Jet', Ila40, 'Vakariai', No. 24, No. 14, and R. americanum are potential donors of very late ripening

Cultivar 'Mailing Jet' from East Mailing (Great Britain) and nine inter-specific hybrids, originated in Latvia, had an extremely high number of flowers per cluster; donors for high number of flowers in these genotypes were R. petiolare (No. 2255, No. 3579, No. 3897, No. 6455, No. 17), R. bracteosum ('Mailing Jet', No. 14, No. 24, R. bracteosum x R. petiolare), R.fontaneum (No. 6751). Unfortunately, only 'Mailing Jet' has acceptable taste, the others are useful only for further breeding.

The following genotypes with high average berry weight (> 1 g) were selected: hybrids R. nigrum x R. grossularia 'Josta' and 'Kroma', as well as blackcurrant genotypes 'Yadrenaya', 'Lunnaya', BRi 8707-42, 'Joniniai', 'Chernii Kentavr', 'Almiai', BRi 8707-29, 'Mara', and 'Lentyai'. Berries of genotypes 'Belorusskaya Sladkaya', 'Ben Sarek', 'Black Dawn', 'Chernecha', IIa23, IIa46, IIa62, IIbl4, IIIa68, 'Katyusha', 'Mara', No. 100, No. 17, No. 77, 'Pilot A. Mamkin', Ribes americanum, and 'Sanyuta' separated from stalks without wounds, consequently, they can be stored for some time under certain conditions.

Most of examined genotypes had strong specific Ribes nigrum var. europaeum flavour. However, specific aroma was weak or absent in several genotypes, they are: No. 2255, No. 3579 and No. 6455 (R. nigrum x



R. petiolare), No. 14 (R. nigrum x R. bracteosum), No. 24 (R. bracteosum x R. nigrum), No. 17 (7?. petiolare x R. dikusha), No. 1297 (7?. nigrum x R. americanum), R. americanum, 'Josta' and 'Kroma' (7?. nigrum x ft. grossularia), 'Svita Kievskaya', 'Yadrenaya', 'Detskosel'skaya', 'Chernecha', 'Vologda', 'Katyusha' No. 67, No. 81, No. 100, and BRi 8707-29 (derivatives of R. nigrum var. sibiricum and ft. dikusha). Some R. petiolare and ft. bracteosum derivatives - No. 24, No. 3579, No. 17, No. 2255, No. 1297, and cultivar 'Chernecha' had astringent taste of berries.

There were selected potential donors for breeding of high value biochemical composition: Ia58 (very high anthocyanin and soluble solids, and high ascorbic acid contents), 'Detskosel'skaya' (very high ascorbic acid and soluble solids content), 'Vakariai', 'Belorusskaya Sladkaya', and IIbl4 (very high ascorbic acid content), and 'Joniniai' (high ascorbic acid content). All of these genotypes could be particularly important in breeding, and 'Detskosel'skaya', 'Joniniai', and 'Belorusskaya Sladkaya' also in berry production.

In total, 56 aroma compounds were found in the analysed purees from frozen berries of 12 blackcurrant genotypes. Esters comprised in average 54.81 % from the total amount of aroma compounds; the major esters were etil-butanoate (38.15 % from total aroma) and metyl-butanoate (12.84 %). Terpens and terpenols comprised in average 34.52 %; the major terpenoids were sabinene (8.09 %) and 3-carene (7.02 %). Aldehyds comprised in total 8.16 % of total aroma with hexanal being the major aldehyde (6.31 % from total aroma). Genotypes AA-98 (1462.726 ng 100 g-1), 'Selechenskaya' (1248.127 ng 100 g-1), and 'Zagadka' (1098.170 ng 100 g"1) had the highest total amount of aroma compounds, therefore we can assume that berries of these cultivars had the most intense aroma. Mara' (133.253 ng 100 g"'), 'Lentyai' (148.490 ng 100 g-1), and hybrid of R. nigrum x R. petiolare No. 3579 (148.962 ng 100 g-1) had the lowest total amount of aroma compounds. Esters dominated in the aroma of some genotypes, namely, 'Selechenskaya' (82.82 % esters of total aroma), 'Stor Klas' (74.21 %), and AA-98 (64.12 %), however, terpenoids dominated in the aroma of other genotypes - 'Joniniai' (80.55 %), No. 3579 (71.31 %), 'Chernii Zhemchug' (68.10 %), and 'Mara' (62.74 %). The content of aldehyds ranged from 3.34 % ('Selechenskaya') to 25.90 % ('Lentyai') (Fig. 1).

'Josta', 'Pilot A. Manikin', and R. americanum had resistance to septoria leafspot (Mycosphaerella ribis Lind.). Genotypes resistant to other diseases and pests were not selected during statistical data analysis, though there were some differences in resistance.

Significant correlation was found between the bud burst and berry

ripening times (r=0.64), and the beginning of flowering and berry ripening times (r=0.809). No significant correlation was found between phenological parameters and spring frost damage of blackcurrants. Therefore, genetically determined physiological hardiness shall be taken into greater account in breeding than the developing of late-flowering cultivars, which could escape late spring frosts. Correlation between precipitation during berry development and ripening time (1st May - 10th July) and average berry weight was not significant, however, a tendency was found that abundant moisture in the beginning of berry development can result in marked increase of berry weight.



Evaluation of genotypes according to their value for breeding. Considering a number of useful genotypes for the breeding to each trait, it was found that 90.7 % of genotypes have suitable bush height (85 - 161 cm) and 87.2 % have some resistance to septoria leafspot (damage 1 - 3 scores) (Fig. 2). Berries of the most genotypes had also no astringent taste (89.5 %), which is evident only in a few inter-specific hybrids, and had typical R. nigrum var. euopaeum flavour (72.1 %). Berries of 50 % of genotypes ripen at the same time, and 40.7 % genotypes have an optimal number of basal shoots (3-4 scores, which covers 3-6 shoots). Therefore we can conclude that it will be relatively easy in further breeding to develop cultivars with an optimal evaluation in these six parameters. However, four important traits were rarely found in blackcurrant genetic material in Latvia - upright bush habit (7 %), late (7 %) and early (5.8 %) berry ripening time, and very high soluble solid content (2.3 % of genotypes). Donors of these traits shall be added to the Latvian breeding collection.

It is considered that upright bush habit is essential for mechanical harvesting of blackcurrants. Though it is evident that some cultivars with bushy habit can also be successfully mechanically harvested, an upright bush habit remains an important breeding objective because of easier cultivation of the plantation and higher mechanically harvested berries' quality.

Extremely early and late berry ripening is essential in berry production for fresh market, because it extends the harvest period, however, it is not important in berry production for processing industry. Therefore there are few breeding programs aimed to the development of extremely early and late ripening cultivars.

In total, 36 blackcurrant genotypes of Latvian origin were included in the research, including 20 inter-specific hybrids. The best genotypes of Latvian origin, which were outstanding in evaluation of one or more trait and therefore can be considered as potential donors of the trait, are described in Table 5. It is recommended to include these 11 genotypes in

genetic resource collections.

Table 5


Characterization of the best blackcurrant genotypes of Latvian origin





Genotype

Advantages

Disadvantages

1.

AA-98

Strong specific flavour Good taste

High anthocyanin content High soluble solid content






2.

Ia58

Upright bush habit High ascorbic acid content High anthocyanin content High soluble solid content

Small berries

Bad berry separation from

stalk


3.

IIa40

Late flowering Late berry ripening




4.

IIbl0

Spring frost resistance

Too many basal shoots Low content of soluble solid

5.

IIbl4

High ascorbic acid content High anthocyanin content Good berry separation from stalk




6.

Mara

(NK 78)


Large berries

Good berry separation

from stalk


Susceptibility to septoria leafspot

7.

No. 14

Late berry ripening Many flowers per cluster Upright bush habit Late flowering Late bud burst

No specific flavour Non-typical taste Susceptibility to winter frost

8.

No. 2255

Many flowers per cluster High anthocyanin content

No specific flavour Astringent berry taste Low content of ascorbic acid Low content of soluble solids

9.

No. 24

Many flowers per cluster Late bud burst Late berry ripening

No specific flavour Astringent berry taste Low content of anthocyanins Susceptibility to spring frost

10.

No. 3579

Many flowers per cluster

No specific flavour Astringent berry taste

11.

R. bracteosum × R. petiolare

Many flowers per cluster Late bud burst

Susceptibility to spring frost Low winter hardiness

IIb 14 can be the most suitable genotype in breeding cultivars for processing, and Ia58, 'Black Dawn', 'Vakariai', No. 89, 'Triton', 'Ben Alder', 'Intercontinental', IIIa68, 'Mara', 'Vernisazh', and 'Zagadka' follows it with multi-criteria evaluation coefficients (SD) more than a standard deviation lower than average SD (Fig. 3). All of these genotypes can be considered as potential donors for improving yield components and the biochemical composition in new cultivars.

'Mara', 'Lentyai', and 'Yadrenaya' can be outstanding genotypes in breeding cultivars for fresh consumption, followed by No. 89, IIb 14, 'Black Dawn', 'Kroma', 'Chernii Kentavr', BRi 8707-42, No. 95, 'Lunnaya', and 'Joniniai' (Fig. 4). The visual quality of production - berry weight and flower (berry) number per cluster had the highest importance in this multi-criteria analysis. It shall be noted, however, that blackcurrant/gooseberry hybrid 'Kroma' is not suitable for fresh consumption, because of taste different from blackcurrants, and low productivity caused by low winter hardiness.

It was presumed that potential donors in the breeding of cultivars for functional food shall have high evaluation in biochemical composition, namely ascorbic acid and anthocyanin contents. Like in the genotype evaluation for suitability in breeding for processing, IIb 14 here was the best, but Ia58, 'Vakariai', 'Black Dawn', 'Detskosel'skaya', intercontinental', 'Triton', and 'Joniniai' also can be mentioned as the potentially best genotypes in breeding for functional food, because SD values of these cultivars were more than standard deviation lower than the average (Fig. 5). Most of the mentioned genotypes do not have high evaluation in berry weight or productivity, but they are outstanding in the biochemical composition of berries and satisfactory in most of the other parameters.

Red and white currant genetic resources

Characterisation of red/white currant genotypes. Genotypes significantly differed (p<0.05) in the following 10 characteristics: bush height, bush habit, berry ripening time, berry weight, number of flowers per cluster, productivity, contents of total anthocyanins and soluble solids, and resistance to gall mite (C. selachodori) and winter frost. Potential donors of the mentioned traits, except resistance to winter frost, were found, as well as potential donors for the qualitative trait - good berry separation from stalk (Table 3).

No significant differences were found among genotypes' number of basal shoots (p=0.431), bud burst (p=0.873) and beginning of flowering (p=1.00) times, flowering duration (p=1.00), berry content of ascorbic acid

(p=0.15), and resistances to mildew (p=0.999), septoria leafspot (p=0.999), leafspot (p=0.447), blister rust (infection was observed only in 2001, therefore ANOVA was not performed), and spring frost (p=0.591) of different red/white currant genotypes.

Red currant cultivar 'Rote Spatlese' is potentially an outstanding breeding material, because it is a potential donor of seven traits altogether (58.3 % of traits, described in Table 3). Red currants 'Red Dutch', 'Neimana Kirsu' and 'Varshevicha', and white currant 'Werdavia' are potentially useful in breeding for five traits (41.7 % of traits). These genotypes were the best genetic material of red/white currants in this study. The other genotypes are less important because they carry a lower number of traits, though some of them can be also useful as progenitors of specific traits (see Table 6).

Potential donors for late berry ripening are R. multiflorum derivatives 'Rote Spatlese' and 'Rovada'. Donors of early berry ripening were not found.

Number of flowers per cluster of 'Rote Spatlese' and 'Rovada' were also outstandingly high, which indicates that R. multiflorum may be a valuable donor of high number of flowers per cluster and can be recommended in future breeding.

Potential donors for valuable biochemical composition were red currants 'Neimana Kirsu' and 'Varshevicha' (very high total anthocyanin content) and white currant 'Juterborg White' (high soluble solid content). Potential donors for high yield quality (including berry weight, number of flowers per cluster, berry separation from stalks, and biochemical composition) were red currants 'Rote Spatlese' (very large number of flowers per cluster) and 'Rotet' (relatively high berry weight and many flowers per cluster), and white currant 'Cirvja Piets' (high content of ascorbic acid and berry weight).

Cultivars 'Belaya Kuzmina', 'Cirvja Piets', 'Red Dutch', 'White Dutch', 'Neimana Kirsu', 'Rote Spatlese', 'Varshevicha', and 'Werdavia' were resistant to gall mite Cecidophyopsis selachodon van Eynd. in a strong infection background, consequently, they can be recommended as potential donors for breeding cultivars resistant to gall mite. Cultivars 'Red Dutch', 'Vierlander', 'Rote Spatlese', 'Belaya Potapenko', and 'Viksnes Baltas' are potential donors of complex resistance to diseases and pests (gall mite).



Evaluation of genotypes according to their suitability for breeding. The highest number of genotypes useful for breeding, in common with the blackcurrant genetic material characterisation, was for optimal bush height (92 % of genotypes). Optimal number of basal shoots had 62 % of genotypes, and 56 % of genotypes had high productivity (>5.8 scores)

(Fig. 6). Only three (12 %) R. multiflorum derivatives - 'Rote Spatlese', 'Rotet', and 'Rovada' had a large number of flowers per cluster (20.0 -29.7). Berries of 'Rote Spatlese' and 'Rovada' (8 %) ripen very late. Very high content of total anthocyanins from the evaluated material had two purple-red cultivars 'Varshevicha' and 'Neimana Kirsu' (8 %). Only one cultivar - 'Cirvja Piets' had outstandingly high average berry weight (0.63 g). Genotypes with late berry ripening were not found. To conclude, there is a deficit of genotypes with early and late berry ripening time, high contents of ascorbic acid and anthocyanins, and high berry weight. Therefore it is necessary to improve the Latvian red/white currant breeding collection with donors of these „deficit" traits.

In total, three genotypes of Latvian origin were included in the research, but also local forms of introduced cultivars 'Red Dutch' and 'White Dutch' can be added to this number, because they have become excellently adapted during about 100-year-long cultivation in Latvia. Most likely they have formed also genetically different clones. Altogether, four genotypes from the evaluated collection can be recommended for maintenance in the Latvian genetic resources collections and for use in breeding programs, namely, 'Cirvja Piets', 'Neimana Kirsu', as well as local forms of 'Red Dutch' and 'White Dutch' (cultivar descriptions in Table 6).

Table 6


Description of red/white currant genetic resources of Latvian origin


No.

Genotype

Advantages

Disadvantages







Red currants




1.

Red Dutch*

High content of soluble solid Resistance to gall mite

Bushy plant habit

2.

Neimana

Purple-red berries

Small berry weight




Kirsu

High anthocyanin content Resistance to gall mite Resistance to spring frost

Bushy plant habit







White currants




3.

Cirvja Piets

Large berry weight

Susceptibility to spring frost







High ascorbic acid content

Too low bush







Resistance to gall mite

Too little number of basal

shoots


Broad bushy plant habit

4.

White

High ascorbic acid content

Susceptibility to leafspots




Dutch *

Resistance to gall mite




* - introduced, but well adapted cultivar

Red currant 'Viksnes Sarkanas', which was included in the examined collection only after the beginning of the research and therefore is not described here, is also necessary to maintain in collections. It has shown good results since, and have been acknowledged in literature as an important Latvian cultivar and, after several years of research in Russian research stations, included in the Russian State Register of cultivars (Исачкин и др., 2003).

The most useful red currant cultivars in breeding for the improvement of traits necessary in berry processing, can be 'Rote Spatlese' (large number of flowers per cluster, high winter hardiness and spring frost hardiness), as well as 'Neimana Kirsu' and 'Varshevicha' (both mainly because of high anthocyanin content). The most useful white currant cultivars in breeding for processing can be 'Zitavia' and 'Werdavia' (mainly because of high productivity and contents of ascorbic acid and soluble solids) (Fig. 7).

Considering evaluation of red/white currant cultivars as potential donors in breeding for fresh storage, the highest contribution was given to visual yield quality - berry weight and number of flowers (berries) per cluster, as well as late berry ripening time (because then they have to be stored for a shorter time). Though it is very important parameter, specific suitability to prolonged storage in controlled atmosphere (CA) was not researched in this study. The best cultivars in this analysis were red currant 'Rote SpStlese' (late ripening and many flowers per cluster) and white currant 'Zitavia' (many flowers per cluster and relatively high berry weight, but berries ripen medium early, not late). The other genotypes are considered to be less suitable in breeding of cultivars for fresh storage (Fig. 8).



The highest contribution in red/white currant genotype evaluation as breeding material for fresh consumption cultivars were given to berry weight, number of flowers per cluster, and early berry ripening time. Like in other similar studies, sensory evaluation of berry taste was not performed (it is not provided in UPOV, nor IPGRI descriptors), because it is technically impossible to do that analysis for a large number of samples. Sensory evaluation of taste should be done in the following research for best genotypes to be sure if they have dessert quality taste. Considering the measured parameters, the best red currant in this analysis was again 'Rote Spatlese', despite it's late berry ripening time, it's derivative 'Rotet', as well as 'Varshevicha'. The best white currant in breeding for fresh consumption may be 'Zitavia' (Fig. 9)

CONCLUSIONS


  1. Blackcurrant genetic material in Latvia is rich in potential donors for optimal bush height, typical berry taste and aroma, and resistance to septoria leafspot. There is deficiency in potential donors for upright bush habit, early and late berry ripening time, and high soluble solids content, therefore the breeding collection in Dobele HPBRS should be expanded with donors of these traits.

  2. Remarkable differences were found between aroma compounds of 12 examined blackcurrant genotypes, either in the total volume of aroma compounds, proportion of compounds in different chemical classes, or volumes of specific compounds.

  3. Blackcurrant genotypes IIbl4, Ia58, 'Black Dawn', 'Vakariai', No. 89, 'Triton', 'Ben Alder', 'Intercontinental',IIIa68, 'Mara', 'Vernisazh', and 'Zagadka', which had outstanding evaluations of yield components and biochemical composition, are the best potential donors in breeding for cultivars, suitable for processing.

  4. Blackcurrant genotypes 'Mara', 'Lentyai', 'Yadrenaya', No. 89, IIb 14, 'Black Dawn', 'Chernii Kentavr', BRi 8707-42, No. 95, 'Lunnaya', and 'Joniniai', which had large berry weight and number of flowers per cluster with still satisfactory evaluation in the other parameters, are the best potential donors in breeding cultivars for fresh consumption.

  5. Blackcurrant genotypes IIbl4, Ia58, 'Vakariai', 'Black Dawn'. 'Detskosel'skaya', 'Intercontinental', 'Triton', and 'Joniniai', which were distinguished with high contents of ascorbic acid and anthocyanins and still had satisfactory evaluation of the other parameters, are the best potential donors in breeding cultivars for functional food.

  6. In total, 24 blackcurrant genotypes can be rated as especially useful for breeding in Latvia's agro-climatic conditions; their future maintenance in the collection is essential. Blackcurrant genotypes Ia58, IIb 14, 'Joniniai', and No. 14 are the most remarkable because they have more than eight useful traits altogether.

  7. The following 11 of the total 36 evaluated blackcurrant genotypes originated in Latvia, are recommended for preservation in genetic resources collections and incorporation in breeding programs: AA-98, Ia58, IIa40, Ilbl0, IIbl4, 'Mara', No. 14, No. 2255, No. 24, No. 3579, and R. bracteosum x R. petiolare.

  8. Red currant genotypes 'Rote Spatlese', 'Neimana Kirsu', and 'Varshevicha', and white currant genotypes 'Zitavia' and 'Werdavia',

which had high evaluations of yield components and biochemical composition, are the best potential donors in breeding of cultivars for processing.

  1. Red currant 'Rote Spatlese' and white currant 'Zitavia', which had large average berry weight and number of flowers per cluster, and relatively late berry ripening time, are the best potential donors in breeding of cultivars, suitable for fresh storage.

  2. Red currants 'Rote Spatlese', 'Rotet', and 'Varshevicha', and white currant 'Zitavia', which were characterised by large berry weight and number of flowers per cluster, are the best potential donors in breeding cultivars for fresh consumption.

  3. More than 50 % of evaluated red/white currant genotypes had optimal bush height, number of basal shoots, and high productivity. Genotypes with many flowers per cluster, early and late berry ripening, high contents of ascorbic acid and anthocyanins, and large berry weight should be included in breeding collection, because there is a deficiency of potential donors for these traits.

  1. In total, six red currant cultivars - Red Dutch', 'Neimana Kirsu', Rote Spatlese', 'Rotet', 'Rovada'. and "Varshevicha', and five white currant cultivars - 'Belaya Kuzmina', 'Cirvja Piets', 'White Dutch', 'Werdavia', and 'Zitavia' were evaluated as the most important potential breeding material in Latvia. Cultivars 'Rote Spatlese', 'Red Dutch', 'Neimana Kirsu', 'Varshevicha', and 'Werdavia' are the most remarkable, because they have more than five important traits altogether.

  2. Red/white currant cultivars 'Cirvja Piets' and 'Neimana Kirsu', originated in Latvia, and local forms of 'Red Dutch' and 'White Dutch' are recommended for the preservation in genetic resources collections and incorporation in breeding programs.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

1 give thanks to my wife Solvita and children for support, patience, and practical help during experiments and the thesis completion time.

Thanks to my colleagues in the Horticulture Department of Latvia University of Agriculture for advice and liberation from different extra duties, which allowed working on my Ph.D research and thesis instead. Big thanks to prof. I, Belicka for altruistic help in data analysis and thesis completion.

I express gratitude to scientists of the Dobele HPBRS for the possibility to carry on research in their experimental fields and laboratories, and for their advice and support.



I give thanks for the opportunity to do a part of the research at the Aarslev Research station of Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, using Danish Government Scholarship and financing of Aarslev Research Station.
ZINĀTNISKO PUBLIKĀCIJU SARAKSTS / SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS

Publikācijas starptautiski citējamos un recenzējamos izdevumos / Internationally rewieved articles

  1. Strautina, S., Kampuss, K. (1998) Breeding of black currants for winterhardiness. Horticulture and Vegetable Growing, Scientific works of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture, 17(3), Babtai, p. 167 - 172.

  2. Kampuss, K., Strautina, S. (2002) Characterisation of Latvian Red and White Currant (Ribes rubrum L.) Genetic Resources. Plant Physiology: characteristics, breeding, and genetics, Science Publishers, Inc., Enfield (NH), USA, Plymouth, UK, p. 49 - 55.

  3. Kampuss, K., Strautina, S., (2002) Research of Latvian Ribes genetic resources. Proceedings of 8th Internationa! Symposium on Rubus and Ribes, Acta Horticulturae 585, p. 171 - 176.

  4. Kampuse, S., Kampuss, K., Pizika, L. (2002) Stability of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid in raspberry and blackcurrant cultivars during frozen storage. Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Rubus and Ribes, Acta Horticulturae 585, p. 507 - 510.

  5. Kampuss, K., Pedersen, H.L. (2003) A Review of Red and White Currants (Ribes rubrum L.): Research and Literature. Small Fruit Review, 2 (3), The Haworth Press, Inc., p. 23 - 46.

6. Kampuss, K., Pedersen, H.L. (2003) A Review of Red and White
Currant Cultivars. Small Fruit Review, 2 (3), The Haworth Press, Inc.,
p. 47-102.

  1. Kampuse, S., Kampuss, K. (2003) Quality of Raspberries and Blackcurrants after Frozen Storage. Proceedings of the International conference "Postharvest Unlimited", Acta Horticulturae 599, p. 711 -718.

  2. Kampuse, S., Skrupskis, I., Kampuss, K. (2003) Quality Evaluation of Different Frozen Berry Cultivars. Horticulture and Vegetable Growing, Scientific works of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture, 22 (4), p. 167- 177.

  3. Kampuss, K, Strautina, S. (2004) Evaluation of blackcurrant genetic resources for sustainable production. International workshop on Protection of Genetic resources of pomological plants and selection of genitors with traits valuable for sustainable fruit production, Skierniewice, Poland, August 22 - 25, 2004. - in print.


Zinātniskās publikācijas citos izdevumos / Other scientific publications

  1. Kampuss, K., Strautiņa, S. (1998) Slimībizturības iedzimtība dažādu upeņu šķirņu un hibrīdu krustojumos. LLU Raksti, 14 (291), 145. - 150. lpp.

  2. Kampuss, K. (1999) Latvijas Ribes ģenētisko resursu raksturojums. Zinātnes nākotne mūsu rokās: Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitātes doktorantu konferences referāti, Jelgava: LLU, 46. - 53. lpp.

  3. Kampuss, K. (2000) Upeņu šķirņu un hibrīdu ziemcietība un izturība pret pavasara salnām. Agronomijas Vēstis Nr. 2, Jelgava: LLU, 113. -117. lpp.

  4. Kampuss, K. (2000) Jāņogu (Ribes rubrum L.) genotipu novērtējums Dobeles DSIS 1999. gadā. Starptautiskās doktorantu zinātniskās konferences "Zinātne, Latvija, Eiropa" referāti, Jelgava, 2000. gada 22.- 24. maijā, 77. - 83. lpp.

5. Kampuss, K., Strautina, S. (2000) Preliminary evaluation of Latvian black currant (Ribes ssp.) genetic resources. Proceedings of the international conference "Fruit Production and Fruit Breeding", Polli Horticultural Institute of the Estonian Agricultural University, September 12 - 13, 2000, Tartu, Estonia, p. 168 - 172.

6. Strautina, S., Kampuss, K. (2000) Influence of moisture conditions on the production and growth of black currant. Proceedings of the international conference "Fruit Production and Fruit Breeding, Polli Horticultural Institute of the Estonian Agricultural University. September 12 - 13, 2000, Tartu, Estonia, p. 1 73- 176.


ZIŅOJUMI ZINĀTNISKĀS KONFERENCĒS / PRESENTATIONS IN SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCES

  1. Kampuss, K. (1998) Pazīmju korelācija upeņu hibrīdu agrīnā novērtēšanā. LLU zinātniskā konference, Jelgava, 1998. gada 4. un 5. februārī.

  2. Strautiņa, S., Kampuss, K. (1998) Ziemcietības selekcija upenēm. Selekcionāru V. Vārnas un A. Spolīša piemiņas starptautiskā zinātniskā konference, Dobeles DSIS, 1998. gada 4. septembrī

  3. Strautiņa, S., Kampuss, K. (1999) Ziemcietīgu upeņu šķirņu selekcija. LLU zinātniskā konference, Jelgava, 1999. gada 3.-4. februārī.

  4. Kampuss, K. (1999) Latvijas Ribes ģenētisko resursu raksturojums. LLU doktorantu konference „Zinātnes nākotne mūsu rokās", Jelgava, 1999. gada 26.-28. maijā

  5. Kampuss, K. (2000) Jāņogu (Ribes rubrum L) genotipu novērtējums Dobeles DSIS 1999. gadā. Starptautiskā LLU doktorantu konference, Jelgava, 2000. gada 22. - 24. maijā.




  1. Kampuss, K., Strautina, S. (2000) Preliminary evaluation of Latvian black currant (Ribes ssp.) genetic resources. Internationa] scientific conference "Fruit Production and Fruit Breeding" Polli, Estonia, 12 -13 September, 2000.

  2. Strautina, S., Kampuss, K. (2000) Influence of moisture conditions on the production and growth of black currant. International scientific conference "Fruit Production and Fruit Breeding" Polli, Estonia, 12 -13 September, 2000.

8. Kampuss, K. (2000) Latvijas Ribes ģints ģenētiska materiāla izvērtēšana un raksturošana. LLU zinātniskā konference. Jelgava. 2000. gada 10. un 11. februārī.

9. Strautiņa, S., Kampuss, K. (2000) Mitruma regulēšanas paņēmienu ietekme uz upeņu augšanu un ražību. LLU zinātniskā konference, Jelgava, 2000. gada 10. un 11. februārī.



  1. Strautina, S., Kampuss, K. (2001) Research of Latvian Ribes genetic resources. 8th International Symposium on Rubus and Ribes, Dundee, Scotland, 08.07.-11.07.2001.

  2. Kampuse, S., Kampuss, K., Pizika, L. (2001) Stability of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid in raspberry and blackcurrant cultivars during frozen storage. 8th International Symposium on Rubus and Ribes, Dundee, Scotland, 08.07.-11.07.2001.

12. Kampuss, K. (2002) Upeņu ģenētisko resursu izpēte Latvijā. LLU starptautiskā zinātniskā konference, Jelgavā, 2002. gadā 7. -8. februārī.

  1. Kampuse, S., Kampuss, K. (2002) Quality of Raspberries and Blackcurrants after Frozen Storage. International scientific conference "Postharvest Unlimited" Belgium, Leuven, 11.06.-16.06.2002.

  2. Kampuss, K., Strautina, S., Kampuse, S. (2002) Fruit quality and chemical composition of black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) cultivars. International scientific conference "Biological and technological factors controlling quality of fruits and berries" Lietuva, Babtai 10.-12.09.2002.

15. Kampuss, K. (2003) Upeņu šķirņu un hibrīdu ogu kvalitāte. Augstākās lauksaimniecības izglītības 140 gadu jubilejai veltīta konference "Lauksaimiecības zinātne praksei", LLU, Jelgava, 2003. gada 6. -7. februārī.

16. Kampuse, S., Skrupskis, I., Kampuss, K. (2003) Quality Evaluation of Different Frozen Berry Cultivars. International scientific conference "The quality and safety of fruits, vegetables and food in the context of the European Union" Lietuva, Kaunas, 11.-12.09.2003.



  1. Kampuse, S., Kampuss, K., Skrupskis, I. (2004) Quality evaluation of red and white currant cultivars. 5th International Postharvest Symposium, Verona, Italy, 6-11 June, 2004.

  2. Kampuss, K., Strautina, S. (2004) Evaluation of blackcurrant genetic resources for sustainable production. International workshop on Protection of Genetic resources of pomological plants and selection of genitors with traits valuable for sustainable fruit production, Skierniewice, Poland, August 22 - 25, 2004.


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