Latreille, [1802]




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SUBFAMILY PAPILIONINAE

Latreille, [1802]




TRIBE PAPILIONINI

Latreille, [1802]

Genus Papilio Linnaeus, 1758
Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 458 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Type-species: Papilio machaon Linnaeus, by subsequent designation (Latreille, 1810). Considerations générales sur l’ordre naturelle des animaux composant les classes des Crustacés, des Arachnides et des Insectes 350, 440 (444 pp.). Paris.) [extralimital].


A cosmopolitan genus of 192 species. Fifty-nine species occur in the Afrotropical Region, three of which extend extralimitally.

Swallowtails are large to very large insects and include the largest butterfly in the Subregion - the spectacular Emperor Swallowtail (?), with a wingspan of up to 120 mm. Although the common name of the group would lead one to expect that all Swallowtails have tails on their hindwings, tails are in fact absent in the White-banded (?), Citrus (?) and Green-banded (?) Swallowtails, as well as in females of the Mocker Swallowtail (?). All Swallowtails are showy butterflies, with predominantly black and yellow patterns on their wings. Generally the male and female of a particular species are similar in appearance, with the striking exception of the mimetic females of the Mocker Swallowtail (?) and the White-banded Swallowtail (?). The Swallowtails are closely related to the Swordtails (?), both groups belonging to the Swallowtail family (see above). Most species of Swallowtail are found in subtropical and temperate forests but the familiar Citrus Swallowtail (?) and, to a lesser extent, the Green-banded Swallowtail (?) are more widespread, particularly the former, which is even found in the Karoo. All Swallowtails are active and fairly strong fliers, prefer sunny warm weather, and spend a lot of time in search of flowers from which to feed. They appear to be especially fond of red and blue flowers. While feeding at flowers they characteristically flutter their wings as if in constant readiness to fly off at the first sign of danger. Also noticeable, when they are feeding, are their long, spindly legs, which create the impression that they are hovering in mid-air above the flower from which they are sipping nectar. The males of some species, particularly those of the Citrus and Green-banded Swallowtails, often congregate in small groups on damp sand or on mud, where they sit motionless for many minutes, sucking up the fluids (mud-puddling). Male Swallowtails are also very inquisitive and will momentarily interrupt their random flight to inspect a realistic decoy, or a dead specimen of the same species, placed on the ground. In Swallowtails mate locating behaviour is generally of the searching type - the outstanding exception is the male Citrus Swallowtail which shows strong territorial behaviour. Female Swallowtails are slower fliers and are less conspicuous than the males. They tend to keep to the forest understorey, where they fly about in search of flowers, or plants on which to lay their eggs. Trees and shrubs belonging to the Citrus family (Rutaceae) are the usual larval foodplants for Swallowtails. The early stages are described under the family heading, above.



Subgenus Papilio Linnaeus, 1758
Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 458 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Type-species: Papilio machaon Linnaeus, by subsequent designation (Latreille, 1810. Considerations générales sur l’ordre naturelle des animaux composant les classes des Crustacés, des Arachnides et des Insectes 350, 440 (444 pp.). Paris.) [extralimital].



Papilio (Papilio) machaon Linnaeus, 1758
Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 462 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Type locality: ? [Lectotype designated by Honey & Scoble, 2001: 344.]

Distribution: Largely extralimital, extending into Arabia.

Habitat:

Early stages:

Doring, 1955
Marini & Trentini, 1989
Larval food:
Papilio (Papilio) machaon muetingi Seyer, 1976
Papilio machaon muetingi Seyer, 1976. Mitteilungen der Entomologischen Gesellschaft Basel 26: 74 (65-145).

Type locality: Iran: “Elburs-Gebirge, Sporthotel Dizin 200 m”.

Distribution: Largely extralimital, extending into Oman, United Arab Emirates.
Papilio (Papilio) machaon syriacus Verity, 1908
Papilio machaon syriacus Verity, 1908 in Verity, 1905-11. Rhopalocera Palaeartica [1.] Papilionidae et Pieridae 13 (368 pp.). Firenze.

Type locality: “Syrie”.

Distribution: Largely extralimital, extending into Saudi Arabia (the area around Hofuf).

Papilio (Papilio) saharae Oberthür, 1879
Papilio machaon var. saharae Oberthür, 1879. Études d’Entomologie 4: 68 (1-117).

Type locality: Algeria: “Laghouat”.

Distribution: Extralimital (North Africa, Sinai), extending into Arabia.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Papilio (Papilio) saharae saharae Oberthür, 1879
Papilio machaon var. saharae Oberthür, 1879. Études d’Entomologie 4: 68 (1-117).

Type locality: Algeria: “Laghouat”.

Distribution: Largely extralimital, extending into Saudi Arabia (north-west).
Papilio (Papilio) saharae rathjensi Warnecke, 1932
Papilio saharae rathjensi Warnecke, 1932. Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 25: 473 (473-476).

Type locality: Yemen: “Bâb el Mendjjil; San ‘a”.

Distribution: Yemen, Saudi Arabia (south-west).

Subgenus Princeps Hübner, [1807]
In: Hübner, [1806-19]. Sammlung exotischer Schmetterlinge 1: pl. 116 ([vi] pp., 213 pls). Augsberg.

Type-species: Papilio demodocus Esper, by subsequent designation (Opinion 179, 1946. Opinions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 2: (557-568).).


= Orpheides Hübner, 1819 in Hübner, [1816-[1826]. Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge 86 (432 + 72 pp.). Augsburg. Type-species: Papilio demodocus Esper, by subsequent designation (Opinion 179, 1946. Opinions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 2: (557-568).).
= Druryia Aurivillius, 1881. Entomologisk Tidskrift 2: 44 (38-47). Type-species: Papilio antimachus Drury, by original designation.
= Eques Kirby, 1896. In: Allen’s Naturalist’s Library, A handbook to the order Lepidoptera. Part 1. Butterflies 2: 290 (332 pp.). London. Type-species: Papilio nireus Linnaeus, by original designation. [Invalid; junior homonym of Eques Bloch, 1793.]
= Icarus Röber, 1898. Entomologische Nachrichten. Dresden 24: 186 (185-187). Type-species: Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson, by monotypy.
= Melindopsis Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 461 (1-561). Type-species: Papilio rex Oberthür, by monotypy
= Iterus Donitz, 1899. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 44: (22) (21)-(24). [Replacement name for Icarus Röber.]
Synonyms based on extralimital type-species: Menelaides Hübner, Achillides Hübner, Nestorides Hübner, Iliades Hübner, Harimala Moore, Charus Moore, Sarbaria Moore, Sainia Moore, Araminta Moore, Pangeranopsis Wood-Mason & de Nicéville, Tamera Moore, Sadengia Moore, Mimbyasa Moore.
Species groups of Afrotropical Princeps (57 species)
Papilio antimachus group

P. antimachus
Papilio zalmoxis group

P. zalmoxis
Papilio nireus group

P. nireus

P. aristophontes

P. charopus

P. chrapkowskii

P. chrapkowskoides

P. desmondi

P. hornimani

P. interjectana

P. nerminae

P. sosia

P. thuraui

P. ufipa

P. wilsoni
Papilio cynorta group

P. cynorta

P. arnoldiana

P. plagiatus
Papilio dardanus group

P. dardanus

P. constantinus

P. delalandei

P. phorcas

P. rex
Papilio zenobia group

P. zenobia

P. cyproeofila

P. fernandus

P. filaprae

P. gallienus

P. mechowi

P. mechowianus

P. nobicea (=maesseni)
Papilio demodocus group

P. demodocus

P. demoleus

P. erithoniodes

P. grosesmithi

P. morondavana
Papilio echerioides group

P. echerioides

P. fuelleborni

P. jacksoni
Papilio oribazus group

P. oribazus

P. epiphorbas

P. nobilis
Papilio hesperus group

P. hesperus

P. euphranor

P. horribilis

P. pelodurus
Papilio menestheus group

P. menestheus

P. lormieri

P. ophidicephalus
Incertae sedis

P. andronicus

P. chitondensis

P. leucotaenia

P. mackinnoni

P. mangoura

P. manlius

P. microps

P. phorbanta

Papilio antimachus group

Papilio (Princeps) antimachus Drury, 1782
Papilio antimachus Drury, 1782. Illustrations of Natural History 3: index et 1 (76 pp.). London.

Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda.

Common name: Giant African swallowtail.

Habitat: Primary forest.

Habits: Much rarer in the west of its range (Guinea to Cameroon) than in the eastern parts of its range (Larsen, 2005a). Probably spends much of its time in the forest canopy but males come down to mud-puddle. Specimens sometimes mud-puddle together with those of P. zalmoxis, but usually avoid places where there are large numbers of other papilionids and pierids (Larsen, 2005a). St Leger (teste Larsen, 2005a) once noted a male inspecting the chrome bumper of his vehicle.

Flight period: October (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

On phylogenetic grounds Hancock (1988) posits that the larval foodplant belongs to the family Piperaceae.



Rothschild & Reichstein (Anon, 1994) isolated cardiac glycosides from the larva and, on the basis of this finding, speculated that the larval foodplant is an asclepiad vine, Asclepiadaceae (now Apocynaceae).
Papilio (Princeps) antimachus antimachus Drury, 1782
Papilio antimachus Drury, 1782. Illustrations of Natural History 3: index et 1 (76 pp.). London.

Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria (south), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (west), Sudan (south), Angola (north).

Specific localities:

Ghana – Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a); Amedzofe (Maessen teste Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Oni Creek, 100 km east of Lagos (Larsen, 2005a), Cross River Loop (Larsen, 2005a); Oban Hills (St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a).
gigantea Watkins, 1899 (as var. of Drurya [sic] antimachus). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 35: 109 (109). Gabon.
plagiata Stichel, 1903 (as ab. of Druryia antimachus). Insektenbörse 20: 165 (164-165). Cameroon: “Kamerun”.
parvus Reuss, 1922 (as f. of Papilio antimachus). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 87 (A.11.): 232 (230-241). Sierra Leone.
karschi Reuss, 1922 (as f. of Papilio antimachus). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 87 (A.11.): 233 (230-241). Togo: “Togo, etc.”.
rothschildiana Reuss, 1922 (as f. of Papilio antimachus). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 87 (A.11.): 234 (230-241). No locality given.
staudingeri Reuss, 1922 (as f. of Papilio antimachus). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 87 (A.11.): 234 (230-241). Gabon: “Gabun”.
centrispila Le Cerf, 1924 (as f. of Papilio antimachus). Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 1: 372 (369-399, 576, 578, 580, 582, 584). Cameroon: “French Cameroon, Bipindi”.
melanescens Le Cerf, 1924 (as f. of Papilio antimachus). Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 1: 372 (369-399, 576, 578, 580, 582, 584). “Congo”.
congolanus Dufrane, 1929 (as ssp. of Papilio antimachus). Lambillionea 29: 138 (138-139). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo Belge”. Larsen (2005a) staes that this may be a senior synonym of parva Jackson, 1956.
vreuricki Dufrane, 1929 (as ab. of Papilio antimachus congolanus). Lambillionea 29: 138 (138-139). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo Belge”.
pupillata Dufrane, 1929 (as ab. of Papilio antimachus congolanus). Lambillionea 29: 138 (138-139). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo Belge”.
obsoleta Dufrane, 1929 (as ab. of Papilio antimachus congolanus). Lambillionea 29: 138 (138-139). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo Belge”.
lagai Dufrane, 1929 (as ab. of Papilio antimachus congolanus). Lambillionea 29: 139 (138-139). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo Belge, Djamba”.
virgularia Dufrane, 1929 (as ab. of Papilio antimachus congolanus). Lambillionea 29: 139 (138-139). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo Belge”.
coffea Talbot, 1936 (as ssp. of Papilio antimachus). Entomologist 69: 113 (112-114). Ivory Coast: “Bingerville”.
burgeoni Dufrane, 1946 (as ab. of Papilio antimachus congolanus). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 82: 102 (101-122). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo Belge”.
Papilio (Princeps) antimachus parva Jackson, 1956
Papilio antimachus parva Jackson, 1956. Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society 23: 72 (63-102).

Synonym of Papilio antimachus Drury, 1782. Ackery et al., 1995: 139 syn. nov.



Papilio antimachus parva Jackson, 1956. D’Abrera, 1997: 8.

Type locality: Uganda: “Kigezi, Kayonza”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Uganda.

Specific localities:

Uganda – Kayonza (TL); Maramogambo Forest, Queen Elizabeth N.P. (Tumuhimbise et al., 2001).

Papilo zalmoxis group

Papilio (Princeps) zalmoxis Hewitson, 1864
Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson, 1864 in Hewitson, 1862-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: [2] (124 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Calabar”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, ?Togo, Nigeria (south), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan (south), Uganda.

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Tai National Park (Plowes family teste Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Bia National Park (Anthony Dan teste Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Calabar (TL); Oni Creek, 100 km east of Lagos (Larsen, 2005a); Cross River Loop (Larsen, 2005a); Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Giant blue swallowtail.

Habitat: Primary forest.

Habits: This is the second largest Afrotropical butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). It is rare west of the Dahomey Gap (Larsen, 2005a). Both sexes fly in the forest canopy but males are known to mud-puddle. Like the males of P. antimachus they do not join the large communal mud-puddling assemblages (Larsen, 2005a).

Flight period: December (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
sufferti Röber, 1898 (as f. of Icarus zalmoxis). Entomologische Nachrichten. Dresden 24: 186 (185-187). No locality given.
ripponi Röber, 1898 (as f. of Icarus zalmoxis). Entomologische Nachrichten. Dresden 24: 186 (185-187). Nigeria, etc.: “Calabar, Congo, etc.”.
cinereus Schultze, 1913 (as ab. of Papilio zalmoxis). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.7.): 4 (4-5). Cameroon: “Nordwestkamerun, Mundame am Mangofluss”.

Papilio nireus group

Papilio (Princeps) nireus Linnaeus, 1758
Papilio nireus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 464 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Papilio nireus nireus. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 94mm. Bangui, R. C. A. 80.08.12. R.P. Godart. (Curle Trust Collection - 5).

Papilio nireus nireus. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 107mm. Bangui, R. C. A. 81.02.11. R.P. Godard. (Curle Trust Collection - 6).
Type locality: [W. Africa]: “Indiis”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland.

Common name: Narrowly green-banded swallowtail.

Habitat: Forest and frost-free savanna. Kielland (1990) states that ssp. nireus occurs in Brachystegia woodlands and forest margins, sometimes penetrating forests along roads, but not actually inhabiting forests. Also found flying over open montane country. In Tanzania it is found at altitudes of 780 to 2 000 m. In Tanzania, subspecies lyaeus is found from sea-level to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: This is a common butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is fast and direct. Both sexes readily feed from flowers and males are avid mud-puddlers, often congregating in large numbers on damp patches. Males have also been recorded feeding from animal droppings. Males appear not to be territorial and fly randomly around the habitat, from a few to many metres above the ground. Females are most often encountered in and around denser bush and in the undergrowth of forests. On cool mornings specimens may be seen perched low down basking with opened wings. Tree-topping assemblages of up to half a dozen males were noted at Aburi Botanical Gardens by Larsen (2005a).

Flight period: All year in warmer climates and September to April in colder areas. Peak emergence is in mid-summer.

Early stages:
Barber, 1874: 519 (Trans, Ent. Soc. Lond.).
Trimen & Bowker, 1889: 240 [as Papilio Lyaeus Doubleday].

Larva. Deep yellowish-green. Widest portion of back, on third thoracic and first abdominal segments, occupied by a subovate patch or shield of pale bluish-green, crossed mesially by a thin whitish line, closely irrorated generally with white dots, and bearing near its posterior edge a transverse row of four small pinkish-lilac spots. Anteriorly a greenish-yellow, posteriorly a narrow ochreous-yellow, edging borders this patch, the anterior edging being marked with four double (concentric) very small, thin, blackish rings, and at each extremity by a small black yellow-pupilled ocellus, surrounded by a separate, thin, imperfect blackish ring. All the green of the back posterior to the patch is mottled irregularly with greenish-yellow. From second to last abdominal segment a lower-lateral white stripe; on each side of back more or less distinct traces of a thin yellowish stripe, which in some examples is crossed obliquely by a short whitish inferiorly dark-bordered streak. Projections on back of first thoracic segment yellow, shorter and blunter than in P. Demoleus [P. demodocus], but those on back of anal segment pale-yellow, longer, farther apart, and with a straight creamy-white connecting streak between their bases. Head and thoracic legs pale bluish-green; pro-legs very pale-greyish with a greenish tinge.



Described from larvae found on the Orange at Highlands, near Grahamstown. Mrs. Barber informed me that the native food-trees in that locality were Vepris lanceolata and Calodendron [Calodendrum] capense. The dorsal green (excepting the ovate patch of a blue tint) assimilates very closely to that of the upper surface of the leaves of the orange, upon which the caterpillar is always found resting; but Mrs. Barber (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 519) has pointed out that when the larva feeds on Vepris it is of a lighter green, so as to resemble in tint the leaves of that tree. (Plate II fi. 5, 5.).

Pupa. Length, 1 in. 3 lin. Somewhat attentuated anteriorly, cephalic processes short and directed laterally outward (not obliquely forward, as in Demoleus [demodocus], so that frontal line of head is widened and but slightly concave. Thoracic lateral angles moderately acute; dorsal prominence also elevated acutely, but not inclined forward. Sides of abdomen widely flattened, and so extended as to form a very marked angle on each side of third abdominal segment; whence the abdomen narrows very rapidly and greatly to the extremity. Infra-pectoral region, where wing-covers meet, very strongly convex. A marked constriction dorsally at junction of thorax and abdomen. In its natural position, attached vertically or nearly so, head uppermost, the anterior portion of this pupa is seen to be very much bent backward than it is in Demoleus [demodocus]. Usually pale bluish-green, inclining to yellowish on under surface of abdomen, but very variable in tint. Point of dorso-thoracic prominence, two spots below it (at abdominal base), and edge of abdominal lateral angles, creamy-reddish. A row of minute indistinct blackish spots on each side of back of abdomen. This chrysalis, though usually pale-green, is variable in colouring, specimens that I reared near Grahamstown pupating in the same wooden box (on the sides) within a day or two of each other, varying from that tint to a more or less ochreous-tinged, much duller hue. Mrs. Barber was so fortunate as to observe the extreme susceptibility of this pupa to colour influences, as pointed out in her paper above quoted. From these most interesting observations it appears that the colour of the object on which a larva pupated was very closely reproduced in the pupa. Pupae among orange twigs were of the ordinary green colour; others, among half-dried leaves of the “bottle-brush”, were pale yellowish-green; one attached to the wooden frame of the case was of the yellowish tint of the wood; and another, attached to a part of the frame where wood and purplish-brown brick joined each other, was coloured on the under surface like the wood and on the upper surface like the brick. The experiment of causing a larva to pupate on scarlet cloth had no effect except that the ordinary small red spots were brighter than usual; but this is not to be wondered at, considering that the environment of these insects could never, through endless generations in the past, have rendered the assumption of a scarlet colour of any advantage in concealment.

Colonel Bowker, in 1874, sent me from King William’s Town four pupae, three of the ordinary green colour, and the fourth (which had been purposely placed when changing on the mud-mortar of a wall) of a dull greenish-yellow, much clouded dorsally with dull creamy ferruginous-grey. These were winter pupae; two became perfect insects in July (1st and 24th), one on October 1st, and the last on December 21 st.”


Clark, in Van Son, 1949: 32 [as Papilio (Papilio) nireus lyaeus].

Egg. Spherical with flat base, 1.15 mm in diameter by 0.95 mm high, pale cream-coloured when laid, later with reddish-brown spots around the sides; surface plain, but slightly rough, giving the appearance of very fine pubescence. The eggs are laid singly. Egg-stage five days. Larva. There are five larval instars. First instar black and brown with two pairs of setose processes on each of first four segments, and single pair on each of the remaining segments; second and third instars are yellow with black, fourth instar green with black, white and salmon markings; the final instar is green, finely irrorated with white, with yellowish latero-dorsal streak and a white lateral line from second to last abdominal segments, and with a brown, black or white diagonal line cutting across the 7th, 8th and 9th segments (4th to 6th abdominal segments); there is a bluish-green, broad subovate patch on the last thoracic and first abdominal segments, irregularly irrorated with whitish lines and bordered anteriorly by a transverse row of six posteriorly incomplete narrow black rings, the two lateral ones enclosing white-pupilled black circular spots; posteriorly the dorsal patch is bordered with a narrow transverse purplish or reddish line; osmeterium reddish-purple, with the branches spreading horizontally; paired processes on first segment yellow, short and blunt, those on the 11th segment very light yellow, sharp and spreading horizontally. Head and sclerotized parts of the legs and prolegs light bluish-green or yellowish-green. The colour of the larva is variable in adaptation to the colour of the leaves of the food-plant. Pupa. A little over an inch in length, ventrally strongly convex, dorsally almost straight along the abdomen, but with a high dorso-thoracic prominence. Head with laterally spreading projections. Abdomen much widened up to the end of the wingcases where the margins are roundly excurved, thence attenuate to the posterior end. Colour rather variable, but usually light bluish-green, the ventral surface of the abdomen more yellowish; the dorso-thoracic prominence, two spots on anterior part of thorax, two similar spots on first abdominal segment and the expanded parts of the lateral margin are pale reddish; two rows of small black spots along the dorsal side of abdomen. The colour of the pupa varies in adaptation to the colour of the objects on which the larva pupates.”


Henning, S.F., 1984: 32.
Clark, in Pringle et al., 1994: p. 406; plate 34 [as Papilio nireus lyaeus].

“The eggs are laid singly on the leaves of the foodplant. They are a pale cream colour when first laid, developing reddish-brown spots around the sides, and are 0,95 mm high by 1,15 mm in diameter. The egg stage lasts about five days. There are five larval instars. The colour of the larva varies depending on the leaf colour of the foodplant. The pupa is attached by the cremastral hooks to a silken pad and is held upright by a silken girdle. The colour is variable in accordance with where the larva pupates.”

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